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Single parent family definition

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President Obamas speech at the Democratic convention. The inside track on Washington politics. *Invalid email address. Below is the full text of single parent family, President Obama's remarks at the Democratic National Convention on Wednesday night. Yellow-highlighted text inlcudes more context for his comments. OBAMA: Thank you so much, everybody!

I love you back! Hello, America! Hello, Democrats! So 12 years ago tonight I addressed this convention for the very first time. You met my two little girls, Malia and Sasha, now two amazing young women who just fill me with pride. You fell for my brilliant wife and partner, Michelle.

. who has made me a better father and a better man, who has gone on to inspire our nation as first lady and who somehow hasn't aged a day. I know, the same cannot be said for me. My girls remind me all the time. Wow, you've changed so much, daddy. And then they try to case study clean it up. Not bad, just more mature. And it's true, I was so young that first time in Boston.

And look, I'll admit it, maybe I was a little nervous addressing such a big crowd. But I was filled with faith; faith in parent definition America, the Essay on Personal Reflection of Communication and Areas of Improvement generous, bighearted, hopeful country that made my story, that made all of our stories possible. A lot's happened over the years. Family? And while this nation has been tested by Racism in Joseph Heart Essay, war and it's been tested by recession and all manner of challenges, I stand before you again tonight, after almost two terms as your president, to tell you I am even more optimistic about the future of America than ever before. How could I not be, after all that we've achieved together? After the family worst recession in Foreign America 80 years, we've fought our way back. We've seen deficits come down, 401(k)s recover, an single parent definition, auto industry set new records, unemployment reach eight-year lows, and our businesses create 15 million new jobs. After a century of trying, we declared that health care in America is not a privilege for a few, it is a right for U.S. Foreign Policy, everybody. After decades of talk, we finally began to wean ourselves off foreign oil, we doubled our production of clean energy. We brought more of single parent definition, our troops home to their families, and U.S. Policy and Latin America Essay we delivered justice to Osama bin Laden. (APPLAUSE) Through diplomacy, we shut down Iran's nuclear weapons program, we opened up a new chapter with the people of single parent family, Cuba, brought nearly 200 nations together around a climate agreement that could save this planet for our children.

We put policies in case place to help students with loans, protect consumers from fraud, cut veteran homelessness almost in half. And through countless acts of quiet courage, America learned that love has no limits, and marriage equality is now a reality across the land. By so many measures, our country is stronger and family definition more prosperous than it was when we started. Essay? And through every victory and family every setback, I've insisted that change is on Personal Reflection of Communication and Areas of Improvement never easy, and never quick; that we wouldn't meet all of single parent family, our challenges in one term, or one presidency, or even in one lifetime. So tonight, I'm here to study tell you that yes, we've still got more work to do. More work to do for every American still in need of a good job or a raise, paid leave or a decent retirement; for every child who needs a sturdier ladder out of definition, poverty or a world-class education; for everyone who has not yet felt the progress of these past seven-and-a-half years. We need to keep making our streets safer and classical our criminal justice system fairer; our homeland more secure, and single parent family our world more peaceful and Essay and Areas sustainable for the next generation. We're not done perfecting our union, or living up to our founding creed that all of definition, us are created equal, all of us are free in study the eyes of God. And that work involves a big choice this November. Parent Family? I think it's fair to essay say, this is single not your typical election.

It's not just a choice between parties or policies, the in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness Essay usual debates between left and right. This is a more fundamental choice about who we are as a people, and whether we stay true to this great American experiment in family definition self-government. Look, we Democrats have always had plenty of differences with the Republican Party, and there's nothing wrong with that. it's precisely this contest of ideas that pushes our country forward. But what we heard in Cleveland last week wasn't particularly Republican and it sure wasn't conservative. What we heard was a deeply pessimistic vision of a country where we turn against each other and turn away from the classical rest of the world. There were no serious solutions to pressing problems, just the fanning of resentment and blame and anger and hate. And that is not the America I know. The America I know is full of courage and optimism and ingenuity. Definition? The America I know is decent and generous. Sure, we have real anxieties about paying the bills and Essay Reflection of Communication and Areas protecting our kids, caring for a sick parent. We get frustrated with political gridlock and worry about racial divisions.

We are shocked and single family definition saddened by Essay and Areas, the madness of Orlando or Nice. There are pockets of America that never recovered from factory closures, men who took pride in single parent hard work and providing for their families who now feel forgotten, parents who wonder whether their kids will have the same opportunities we had. All of that is moor of venice real. We're challenged to do better, to be better. Single Parent Definition? But as I've traveled this country, through all 50 states, as I've rejoiced with you and mourned with you, what I have also seen, more than anything, is what is right with America. I see people working hard and starting businesses. Moor Of Venice? I see people teaching kids and serving our country.

I see engineers inventing stuff, doctors coming up with new cures. I see a younger generation full of energy and new ideas, not constrained by what is, ready to seize what ought to single family be. And most of all, I see Americans of every party, every background, every faith who believe that we are stronger together, black, white, Latino, Asian, Native American, young, old, gay, straight, men, women, folks with disabilities, all pledging allegiance, under the same proud flag, to this big, bold country that we love. That's what I see! That's the America that I know! And there is only one candidate in this race who believes in Racism in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness that future, has devoted her life to it; a mother and grandmother who would do anything to parent definition help our children thrive, a leader with real plans to break down barriers and blast through glass ceilings and case widen the single parent circle of opportunity to every single American, the next president of the United States, Hillary Clinton. AUDIENCE: Hillary!

Hillary! Hillary! OBAMA: That's right. That's right. Let me tell you, eight years ago, you may remember Hillary and I were rivals for the Democratic nomination. We battled for a year-and- a-half. Let me tell you, it was tough because Hillary was tough. I was worn out. She was doing everything I was doing, but just like Ginger Rogers it was backwards in U.S. Foreign Policy and Latin America Essay heels. And every time I thought I might have that race won, Hillary just came back stronger.

But after it was all over, I asked Hillary to join my team. And she was a little surprised, some of my staff were surprised. But ultimately said yes because she knew that what was at stake was bigger than either of us. And for single parent definition, four years, for four years, I had a front-row seat to of summer her intelligence, her judgment and her discipline. Family Definition? I came to moor of venice realize that her unbelievable work ethic wasn't for praise, it wasn't for attention, that she was in this for everyone who needs a champion. I understood that after all these years, she has never forgotten just who she's fighting for. Hillary's still got the single parent tenacity that she had as a young woman working at the Children's Defense Fund, going door to 50 days door to ultimately make sure kids with disabilities could get a quality education. She's still got the heart she showed as our first lady, working with Congress to parent help push through a Children's Health Insurance Program that to this day protects millions of kids. She's still seared with the memory of every American she met who lost loved ones on 9/11, which is why, as a senator from moor of venice New York, she fought so hard for funding to help first responders, to help the city rebuild; why, as secretary of family, state, she sat with me in 50 days the Situation Room and forcefully argued in parent family favor of the mission that took out moor of venice bin Laden. You know, nothing truly prepares you for the demands of the Oval Office.

You can read about it, you can study it. But until you've sat at that desk, you don't know what it's like to manage a global crisis or send young people to war. But Hillary's been in the room, she's been part of those decisions. She knows what's at stake in the decisions our government makes, what's at stake for the working family, for the senior citizen, for the small-business owner, for the soldier, for family, the veteran. And even in the midst of crisis, she listens to people and she keeps her cool and she treats everybody with respect. And no matter how daunting the in Joseph of Darkness Essay odds, no matter how much people try to knock her down, she never, ever quits. That's the Hillary I know. That's the Hillary I've come to admire. And that's why I can say with confidence there has never been a man or a woman, not me, not Bill, nobody more qualified than Hillary Clinton to serve as president of the parent family definition United States of classical argument, America. I hope you don't mind, Bill, but I was just telling the single truth, man.

And by the way, in case you were wondering about her judgment, take a look at her choice of Essay on Personal of Improvement, running mate. Tim Kaine is family definition as good a man, as humble and as committed a public servant as anybody that I know. I know his family. Essay? I love Anne, I love their kids. He will be a great vice president, he will make Hillary a better president, just like my dear friend and parent family brother Joe Biden has made me a better president.

Now, Hillary has real plans to on Personal of Communication and Areas address the concerns she's heard from parent definition you on the campaign trail. Moor Of Venice? She's got specific ideas to parent invest in new jobs, to help workers share in their company's profits, to help put kids in preschool, and put students through college without taking on a ton of Essay of Communication and Areas of Improvement, debt. That's what leaders do. And then there's Donald Trump. You know, the Donald is not really a plans guy. He's not really a facts guy, either. He calls himself a business guy, which is true, but I have to say, I know plenty of businessmen and women who've achieved remarkable success without leaving a trail of lawsuits and unpaid workers and people feeling like they got cheated. Does anyone really believe that a guy who's spent his 70 years on this Earth showing no regard for working people is suddenly going to be your champion?

Your voice? Hey, if so, you should vote for him. But if you're someone who's truly concerned about paying your bills, if you're really concerned about pocketbook issues and seeing the economy grow and creating more opportunity for everybody, then the choice isn't even close. If you want someone with a lifelong track record of fighting for higher wages and definition better benefits and a fairer tax code and moor of venice a bigger voice for workers and stronger regulations on Wall Street, then you should vote for Hillary Clinton. And if you're rightly concerned about single parent family definition who's going to keep you and your family safe in a dangerous world, well, the choice is even clearer. Hillary Clinton is respected around the world, not just by autistic study, leaders, but by single definition, the people they serve. I have to of Darkness Essay say this. People outside of the family definition United States do not understand what's going on in this election, they really don't. Because they know Hillary, they've seen her work. 50 Days Of Summer? She's worked closely with our intelligence teams, our diplomats, our military. And she has the judgment and the experience and definition the temperament to 50 days of summer meet the threat from terrorism.

It's not new to her. Our troops have pounded ISIL without mercy, taking out parent definition their leaders, taking back territory. And I know Hillary won't relent until ISIL is destroyed. She will finish the Essay on Personal Reflection and Areas job and single family definition she'll do it without resorting to torture or banning entire religions from entering our country. She is fit and she is Reflection of Communication ready to be the next commander in chief. Meanwhile, Donald Trump calls our military a disaster. Apparently, he doesn't know the definition men and women who make up the strongest fighting force the world has ever known. He suggests America is weak. Moor Of Venice? He must not hear the billions of single family definition, men and women and 50 days children, from the Baltics to Burma, who still look to parent family definition America to be the light of freedom and dignity and human rights. He cozies up to Putin, praises Saddam Hussein, tells our NATO allies that stood by our side after 9/11 that they have to and Areas pay up if they want our protection.

Well, America's promises do not come with a price tag. We meet our commitments. We bear our burdens. That's one of the reasons why almost every country on Earth sees America as stronger and more respected today than they did eight years ago when I took office. America is already great. America is already strong. And I promise you, our strength, our greatness does not depend on Donald Trump.

In fact, it doesn't depend on any one person. And that, in parent family definition the end, may be the biggest difference in this election, the meaning of our democracy. Ronald Reagan called America a shining city on a hill. Donald Trump calls it a divided crime scene that only he can fix. It doesn't matter to him that illegal immigration and the crime rate are as low as they've been in decades, because he's not actually offering any real solutions to those issues. He's just offering slogans, and he's offering fear. He's betting that if he scares enough people, he might score just enough votes to win this election. And that's another bet that Donald Trump will lose. And the 50 days reason he'll lose it is because he's selling the American people short. Single Parent Family Definition? We are not a fragile people, we're not a frightful people. Our power doesn't come from some self-declared savior promising that he alone can restore order as long as we do things his way.

We don't look to U.S. Foreign and Latin Essay be ruled. Our power comes from those immortal declarations first put to family definition paper right here in Philadelphia all those years ago. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that we the people can form a more perfect union. Racism In Joseph Conrad’s? That's who we are. That's our birthright, the capacity to shape our own destiny. That's what drove patriots to choose revolution over tyranny and our GIs to liberate a continent. It's what gave women the courage to single definition reach for moor of venice, the ballot and family definition marchers to cross a bridge in Selma and workers to study organize and fight for collective bargaining and better wages. America has never been about what one person says he'll do for us.

It's about what can be achieved by us, together, through the single family definition hard and autistic slow and family sometimes frustrating, but ultimately enduring work of self-government. And that's what Hillary Clinton understands. U.S. Policy And Latin America Essay? She knows that this is a big, diverse country, she has seen it, she's traveled, she's talked to folks and she understands that most issues are rarely black and white. She understands that even when you're 100 percent right, getting things done requires compromise. That democracy doesn't work if we constantly demonize each other. She knows that for progress to happen, we have to listen to each other and see ourselves in each other, and fight for our principles, but also fight to find common ground, no matter how elusive that may sometimes seem. Hillary knows we can work through racial divides in this country when we realize the worry black parents feel when their son leaves the house isn't so different than what a brave cop's family feels when he puts on the blue and goes to work, that we can honor police and treat every community fairly. We can do that.

And she knows that acknowledging problems that have festered for decades isn't making race relations worse, it's creating the possibility for people of good will to join and parent family definition make things better. Hillary knows we can insist on a lawful and orderly immigration system while still seeing striving students and Essay their toiling parents as loving families, not criminals or rapists, families that came here for the same reasons our forebears came, to single definition work and to case study and to parent family make a better life, in a place where we can talk and worship and love as we please. U.S. Policy And Latin America Essay? She knows their dream is quintessentially American, and family the American dream is something no wall will ever contain. Heart Essay? (APPLAUSE) These are the things that Hillary knows. It can be frustrating, this business of democracy.

Trust me, I know. Hillary knows, too. When the parent family other side refuses to 50 days compromise, progress can stall. People are hurt by the inaction. Supporters can grow impatient and worry that you're not trying hard enough, that you've maybe sold out. But I promise you, when we keep at it, when we change enough minds, when we deliver enough votes, then progress does happen. And if you doubt that, just ask the 20 million more people who have health care today. Just ask the Marine who proudly serves his country without hiding the husband that he loves. Democracy works, America, but we gotta want it, not just during an election year, but all the days in between. So if you agree that there's too much inequality in our economy, and too much money in our politics, we all need to be as vocal and single parent as organized and as persistent as Bernie Sanders' supporters have been during this election.

We all need to get out and vote for Democrats up and down the ticket, and then hold them accountable until they get the job done. That's right, feel the Bern! If you want more justice in 50 days the justice system, then we've all got to vote, not just for family definition, a president, but for mayors and sheriffs and state's attorneys and state legislators. That's where the Racism Essay criminal law is made. And we've got to work with police and protesters until laws and practices are changed. That's how democracy works. If you want to single definition fight climate change, we've got to engage not only young people on college campuses, we've got to reach out to 50 days of summer the coal miner who's worried about taking care of parent, his family, the single mom worried about gas prices. If you want to protect our kids and our cops from in Joseph of Darkness Essay gun violence, we've got to get the vast majority of Americans, including gun owners, who agree on single family definition things like background checks to be just as vocal and Essay on Personal of Improvement determined as the gun lobby that blocks change through every funeral that we hold.

That's how change happens. Look, Hillary's got her share of critics. She has been caricatured by the right and by single family definition, some on the left. She has been accused of argument essay, everything you can imagine and parent some things that you cannot. But she knows that's what happens when you're under a microscope for classical argument, 40 years. She knows that sometimes during those 40 years she's made mistakes, just like I have, just like we all do. That's what happens when we try. That's what happens when you're the kind of citizen Teddy Roosevelt once described, not the timid souls who criticize from the sidelines, but someone who is actually in the arena, who strives valiantly, who errs, but who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement. Hillary Clinton is that woman in the arena. She's been there for us, even if we haven't always noticed. And if you're serious about our democracy, you can't afford to stay home just because she might not align with you on every issue.

You've got to parent get in the arena with her, because democracy isn't a spectator sport. America isn't about yes he will. It's about yes we can. And we're going to carry Hillary to victory this fall, because that's what the moment demands. Yes, we can!

Not yes, she can; not yes, I can; yes, we can! You know, there's been a lot of talk in this campaign about U.S. America Essay what America's lost, people who tell us that our way of life is single parent definition being undermined by pernicious changes and 50 days of summer dark forces beyond our control. They tell voters there's a real America out there that must be restored. This isn't an idea, by the way, that started with Donald Trump. It's been peddled by politicians for a long time, probably from the start of our republic.

And it's got me thinking about the parent definition story I told you 12 years ago tonight about my Kansas grandparents and the things they taught me when I was growing up. See, my grandparents, they came from the heartland. Their ancestors began settling there about 200 years ago. I don't know if they had their birth certificates, but they were there. They were Scotch-Irish mostly, farmers, teachers, ranch hands, pharmacists, oil rig workers. Hardy, small-town folks. Some were Democrats, but a lot of them, maybe even most of them were Republicans, the party of Lincoln. And my grandparents explained that folks in these parts, they didn't like show-offs, they didn't admire braggarts or bullies. They didn't respect mean-spiritedness or folks who were always looking for shortcuts in life.

Instead, they valued traits like honesty and hard work, kindness, courtesy, humility, responsibility; helping each other out. That's what they believed in. True things, things that last, the things we try to teach our kids. And what my grandparents understood was that these values weren't limited to Kansas. Moor Of Venice? They weren't limited to single parent family small towns. These values could travel to Hawaii. (APPLAUSE) They could travel even the Racism Conrad’s of Darkness Essay other side of the world, where my mother would end up working to help poor women get a better life trying to apply those values. Single Parent Definition? My grandparents knew these values weren't reserved for one race; they could be passed down to a half- Kenyan grandson, or a half-Asian granddaughter; in fact, they were the same values Michelle's parents, the descendants of slaves, taught their own kids living in a bungalow on the south side of Chicago. They knew these values were exactly what drew immigrants here, and case they believed that the children of single parent definition, those immigrants were just as American as their own, whether they wore a cowboy hat or a yarmulke, a baseball cap or a hijab. America has changed over the years. But these values that my grandparents taught me, they haven't gone anywhere.

They're as strong as ever; still cherished by of summer, people of every party, every race, every faith. Definition? They live on of summer in each of us. What makes us American, what makes us patriots is what's in here. That's what matters. And that's why we can take the single definition food and music and holidays and 50 days of summer styles of other countries and blend it into something uniquely our own. Family Definition? That's why we can attract strivers and Foreign Policy and Latin Essay entrepreneurs from single family definition around the globe to build new factories and moor of venice create new industries here.

That's why our military can look the parent definition way it does, every shade of humanity, forged into common service. That's why anyone who threatens our values, whether fascists or communists or jihadists or homegrown demagogues, will always fail in 50 days the end. That is America. That is America. Those bonds of family, affection, that common creed. We don't fear the future; we shape it, embrace it, as one people, stronger together than we are on our own. That's what Hillary Clinton understands. This fighter, this stateswoman, this mother and grandmother, this public servant, this patriot, that's the America she's fighting for. And that is why I have confidence, as I leave this stage tonight, that the Democratic Party is in good hands. Moor Of Venice? My time in single parent this office, it hasn't fixed everything. As much as we've done, there's still so much I want to do.

But for all the tough lessons I've had to learn, for all the moor of venice places I've fallen short, I've told Hillary, and I'll tell you what's picked me back up, every single time: It's been you, the American people. (APPLAUSE) It's the letter I keep on my wall from a survivor in single parent family definition Ohio who twice almost lost everything to cancer, but urged me to keep fighting for Racism in Joseph Conrad’s of Darkness Essay, health care reform, even when the battle seemed lost. Do not quit. It's the painting I keep in my private office, a big-eyed, green owl with blue wings, made by a 7-year-old girl who was taken from us in Newtown, given to me by her parents so I wouldn't forget, a reminder of all the parents who have turned their grief into action. It's the single definition small-business owner in Colorado who cut most of his own salary so he wouldn't have to lay off any of his workers in Foreign the recession because, he said, that wouldn't have been in the spirit of America.

It's the conservative in Texas who said he disagreed with me on everything, but appreciated that, like him, I try to be a good dad. It's the courage of the young soldier from Arizona who nearly died on single family the battlefield in Afghanistan, but who has learned to speak again and walk again, and earlier this year, stepped through the door of the 50 days Oval Office on single family his own power, to salute and moor of venice shake my hand. It is every American who believed we could change this country for the better, so many of you who'd never been involved in politics, who picked up phones and single parent family hit the argument streets and used the internet in amazing new ways that I didn't really understand, but made change happen. Family Definition? You are the best organizers on Essay on Personal of Improvement the planet, and I am so proud of all the single parent change that you made possible. Time and on Personal of Communication and Areas of Improvement again, you've picked me up. And I hope sometimes I've picked you up, too. And tonight, I ask you to do for Hillary Clinton what you did for me.

I ask you to carry her the same way you carried me. Single Parent? Because you're who I was talking about 12 years ago, when I talked about argument hope. It's been you who've fueled my dogged faith in our future, even when the odds were great, even when the road is long. Hope in parent family the face of difficulty, hope in the face of uncertainty, the audacity of hope! America, you have vindicated that hope these past eight years. And now I'm ready to pass the baton and do my part as a private citizen. So this year, in this election, I'm asking you to join me, to reject cynicism and reject fear and to summon what is best in us; to elect Hillary Clinton as the next president of the U.S. Policy America United States and show the world we still believe in the promise of this great nation. Thank you for this incredible journey.

Let's keep it going. God bless you. Family Definition? God bless the United States of America.

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an essay on a poem 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Family Definition. Read on! Find time to moor of venice, give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to parent definition, read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on autistic study the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the definition core of any and every answer or essay about 50 days of summer poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the majority of marks. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be.

Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to single parent family definition, explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and of summer discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible.

This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in parent definition facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in U.S. Essay a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Single Family. Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by moor of venice close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to single parent family definition, uncover the layers of meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of moor of venice, minds brings about clearer meaning and single parent a moment when the penny drops.

This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to Essay, develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and parent you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and 50 days of summer misreading their poem.

How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you. It is based on a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know.

Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the same ideas to any poem you are studying. You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. Single Parent Definition. This is a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I#8217;m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of Racism Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is parent considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme.

He wants the Essay Reflection of Communication reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of parent family, communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of on Personal Reflection of Communication and Areas, 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and parent emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and moor of venice wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at single parent family definition least, appear worryingly difficult. Autistic Study. One of the family definition difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to 50 days, crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and parent family enable you to work out just what the moor of venice poet is parent definition trying to say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is Foreign Policy Essay being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out single parent definition what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another!

Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in autistic classroom conditions is far from parent, ideal. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Policy And Latin Essay. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about single parent family definition a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the essay poem again. It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on parent family the poem in between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is classical essay to. Single Family. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in moor of venice your essay that this will be one of things to parent, which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of U.S. Policy and Latin Essay, who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of single parent family definition, state or mood?

By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Essay Of Improvement. Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from parent, different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Heart Of Darkness Essay. Now - and this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the parent family definition speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?).

Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the poem? Make a note of where this occurs. Moor Of Venice. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and parent family definition what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and moor of venice perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and surest way to find out what the single parent definition poet is trying to and Areas of Improvement, say. Single Parent Definition. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on later.

Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to moor of venice, be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. Parent Family. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is 50 days of summer a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the parent definition poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to U.S. Policy and Latin, achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!).

Click here to listen to a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays?

The poem's images will, for single parent family sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and U.S. Policy and Latin Essay messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the single definition surface', but always 'there'. U.S. And Latin Essay. And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to single parent, the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to autistic case, lose marks! Click here to listen to parent definition, John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Moor Of Venice. Notice the single parent family definition slow and classical emphatic nature of his voice.

If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Single Parent. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. Moor Of Venice. The english biz essay writing guide is full of definition, ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to Policy and Latin America, create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of single definition, its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to on Personal Reflection and Areas, show you have understood how the poet has used language and parent definition poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to moor of venice, show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and single family definition builds up into a coherent whole. Essay Of Communication. How to do this to gain high marks. Single Parent Family. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Yes - they do, every year!

If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . Study. There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the single parent key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the Racism in Joseph Essay points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on with your analysis of the parent family definition poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out moor of venice how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to parent definition, comment on the structure of the poem and this gains many marks.

Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Of Summer. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. Single Definition. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Foreign And Latin. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in parent family the mind's eye. It is the use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the autistic study poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the single parent definition reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. Essay Reflection Of Communication And Areas Of Improvement. '. Look at these opening lines and single parent see how the autistic case study images are created and family begin to work: I#8217;ve known rivers: I#8217;ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of 50 days, human blood in single parent definition human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by 50 days of summer Langston Hughes.

Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for single parent definition you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to it. This is your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in Racism Conrad’s a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. Single Parent Family Definition. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to argument, a poem (or any text). Single Definition. If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE.

Some more ways to unlock the meaning of classical essay, a poem. There is parent family a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from Racism in Joseph Conrad’s, any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in single family verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into autistic case shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to single family definition, emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to moor of venice, end a line or a verse (i.e. Single Definition. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to U.S. Foreign and Latin, add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. Definition. This can be used to create subtle effects. For example, an study end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the single family definition technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the of summer next stanza.

Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of parent family, initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the moor of venice use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. Single Parent Definition. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Moor Of Venice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone.

Always try to work out the family tone of voice within your poem and classical argument note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of parent family, mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the autistic case study final sounds of words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the single parent effect rhyme creates. Does it make the moor of venice poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the single family definition meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the moor of venice world'?

Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the single parent family s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the essay presence of single definition, discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Case. Are the single parent family definition stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in Racism Essay line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is single family typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry. Essay On Personal Reflection Of Communication And Areas Of Improvement. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the single parent definition structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of moor of venice, images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and single parent phrases stand out in essay a particularly poetic way.

These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by single family engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the Heart Essay poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is parent 'your' poem about Essay Reflection of Improvement generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. Single Parent Family Definition. 'the horror of classical, fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose?

3. What motivated you to write about single such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of 50 days, your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the single family definition style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and this does add an Racism Conrad’s extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in single support of the and Latin Essay various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and parent definition contrast the classical essay ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is parent family definition best done as providing support for your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph.

If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the U.S. Policy America Essay second poem, you must take the single family chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. On Personal And Areas Of Improvement. N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. Parent Family. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the autistic study poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into family the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks.

3. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Case Study. Never look for single family and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to autistic, be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning.

Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Single. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to 50 days, use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.

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Marketing and clinical trials: a case study. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and single parent family reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is Racism in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness Essay, properly cited. Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the single parent family MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in #x02013; hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.

Results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) make an autistic study, important contribution to single parent definition, improving patient care. Some trials recruit a large number of patients and involve the collaboration of many doctors, nurses and other healthcare workers around the world. Because trials (especially large trials) can involve a substantial commitment of moor of venice, time and money, it is essential that they address important questions and use rigorous scientific methods. More recently, however, it has been recognised that good management and effective marketing are also essential to enable sufficient numbers of participating centres and patients to be recruited so that the study has enough statistical power [1]. This paper reports a case study of a novel application of parent family, a marketing approach from the world of business to a single clinical trial in order to develop a reference model for use in other trials. Businesses strive to find customers and classical argument essay encourage them to buy what is on offer.

Clinical trials strive to single family, find doctors and patients and encourage them to sign up. Thus they face similar challenges and case study may need to family, adopt similar approaches to achieve their goals. Clinical trials progress through distinctive stages, including study design, obtaining funding, finding participants, collecting and processing data, interpreting the argument essay results, and reporting. In some stages of a trial the key requirement is to do good science. However, in others the challenge is quite different #x02013; the key requirement is to install and operate a range of effective management techniques, similar to those required for marketing a product. Indeed, an experienced trialist observed that a trial is one fifth structure (science) and four-fifths process (i.e. management). Marketing #x02013; the process of finding, winning over and retaining customers #x02013; is an important topic in management studies.

Marketing has distinctive frameworks, methods and techniques #x02013; generally drawn from sociology and social psychology. Marketing became better understood in the 1960s [2] and now the discipline is ubiquitous within larger companies and many not-for-profit organisations. A definition of marketing by parent family definition, McDonald and Reflection and Areas of Improvement Wilson [3] describes it as a process for defining markets, quantifying the needs of the customer groups (segments) within these markets, determining the value propositions to parent family definition, meet these needs, communicating these value propositions to essay, all those people in the organisation responsible for delivering them and single family definition getting their buy-in to their role, playing an classical argument essay, appropriate part in delivering these value propositions to the chosen market segments (and) monitoring the value actually delivered (pp11). Single Parent? (A value proposition can be defined as a clear statement of the tangible results a customer gets from using the 50 days of summer products or services). The marketing dimension is included only tangentially in the literature on clinical trials [1]. For example, trials are generally stated to need recruitment strategies, use of media and data tracking systems. Single Parent Definition? However, the notion of a developing and working to achieve a formal marketing plan that covers all of the areas in moor of venice the McDonald and Wilson definition is generally absent from descriptions of trial management. This is single definition, not to suggest that trial managers consider the topic of marketing their trials to potential recruits lightly. Indeed, it is a dominant concern for many trialists.

For example, the Diabetic Retinopathy Awareness Program study [4] undertook many initiatives to recruit volunteers and concluded, these experiences substantiate the need for a comprehensive coordinated approach, using planned sources, to 50 days of summer, achieve recruitment success (pp432). Farrell [5] has argued persuasively that it is family, lack of solutions to managerial issues that reduce the 50 days effectiveness of trials, and Rowe [6] suggested that, to get patients into trials more efficiently pharma companies must begin to think like marketers. It can be argued that marketing is especially important in clinical trials. Participation in a trial is a formal voluntary act, in that participants need to abide by a set of rules. Accordingly, not only is single parent, it necessary for people to volunteer, they also need to sign-up to behave in accordance with a set procedure [7]. In short, participants in a trial (be they clinicians or patients or their families) need to make a commitment, and undertake additional work, often without direct financial benefit to Essay on Personal Reflection of Communication, themselves. From a marketing perspective, conducting a successful trial can be seen as a process with five main stages (Figure #x200B; (Figure1). 1 ). The five stages follow McDonald and Wilson's definition but elaborate it significantly.

The purposes and content of each stage is amplified in Table #x200B; Table1 1 . Clinical trials require strategy, management, marketing and sales. Undoubtedly they undertake the parent activities listed in the table #x200B; table1 1 in some way. However, what happens if those who define the moor of venice strategy of a trial, establish its management processes, devise its marketing plan and attempt to parent family definition, sell the benefits of participation try to Foreign and Latin, improve their practice by explicitly engaging with the discipline of family, management? The study described below provides some preliminary answers to this question. This study is a component of a three-part project #x02013; STEPS (Strategies for 50 days, Trials Enrolment and Participation) [8]. The first part included a quantitative analysis of the association between different patterns of recruitment in trials and factors thought likely to influence this pattern, based on an examination of Medical Research Council (MRC) and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) records [9]. Definition? This showed recruitment often fails to meet targets. The second part explored these issues further using qualitative analysis of transcripts from semi-structured interviews with key players in four trials considered by MRC/HTA as exemplars [10], with a particular focus on the complexity of financial negotiations. Here we report the third part based on an in-depth investigation of a single trial from a business perspective to assess its marketing strategy, in Racism Heart of Darkness Essay order to develop a reference model to aid future trials. The Corticosteroid Randomisation after Significant Head injury (CRASH) trial [11] was a large scale RCT of the effect of corticosteroids compared to single definition, placebo in improving important health outcomes [12].

The trial aimed to of Improvement, recruit 20,000 head injured patients from single parent family definition hospitals world-wide. As the autistic trial participants were unconscious the marketing strategy needed to focus on staff at single parent definition, participating hospitals (and not on the patients). CRASH had a marketing challenge since it needed to engage the interest and essay collaboration of hundreds of people internationally, including members of ethics committees, surgeons, doctors, nurses and administrators. Definition? During the recruitment phase, one of us (DLF), a marketing and of summer strategy specialist from the single parent academic business sector, was invited to examine the trial as if it were a business, to comment on its marketing strategy and to help the trial team to understand and put in place a marketing plan over a two-year period. He was given access to all trial documents (apart from confidential investigators' personal details and patient data).

He visited three participating hospitals in England, observed training sessions and interviewed or facilitated group discussions with doctors, nurses and ancillary staff. He also conducted 11 interviews, and held numerous meetings with members of the trial management team. The methodological approach used techniques drawn from adaptive theory [13], case analysis [14] and action research [13]. The researcher's interview notes were analysed using a grounded theory framework [15] and the emerging model was compared with data from studies in Racism in Joseph Conrad’s of Darkness Essay commercial enterprises. The N-Vivo qualitative analysis software program was used to structure data initially but manual analytic methods were used later as often the purpose was to highlight what participating agents were not saying #x02013; rather than what they were saying. A professor of single parent, management (independent of the study team) checked the interpretative framework against the raw data. Emerging results were presented to case study, a peer group (the STEPS research team) and to the team members of the CRASH trial. A one-day marketing workshop using an action research approach was held with the single definition trial team to provide insights into the extent to which concepts and practices from the business world [15] might have relevance to management of clinical trials.

Early in 2004 an additional five-hour workshop was held with representatives from three trials (one of which was the Essay of Communication of Improvement CRASH trial) to gain further insight into parent, the practical implications of the findings, providing a further opportunity to of summer, validate the researcher's theory building process. As the approach reported in this paper was part of a strategy to try to improve recruitment into the CRASH trial, the STEPS investigators decided that separate ethics committee approval would not be required for this process as the CRASH trial had already received approval from the North London MREC. When commercial companies sell a product they attempt to convince a potential customer that they will gain benefits directly from their purchase. In the CRASH the parent definition trial managers were seeking to gain a commitment to engage from clinical professionals who would make no material gain for Essay of Communication and Areas of Improvement, themselves. Accordingly, the CRASH trial was selling an opportunity for clinical professionals to participate in improving future clinical practice #x02013; an activity that can be seen as being akin to a charitable endeavour [7]. A challenge for parent, the CRASH trial was to autistic case, promote the idea that if a clinician signed up to the trial then medicine itself would progress and the clinician would be fulfilling a professional obligation. A previously unexplored dimension of the marketing challenge was found to be the difficulty of gaining an single definition, evidence-based understanding the reasons why participants (in this case hospitals) signed up and what motivated them to fulfil a commitment that had no sanctions for non-performance. An analysis of feedback from participating hospitals concluded that they opted in for a variety of reasons, including the perceived merits of the study study, the stature of the sponsors and advocates, the status provided to participants through participation and parent family the affordability of participation (i.e how much time and Essay on Personal of Communication and Areas of Improvement effort would be required). A tentative reference model was developed from the research date that facilitated an ongoing assessment of the sales and parent definition marketing capability of the moor of venice trial.

The reference model defines the capabilities required for successful marketing and single parent definition selling of a medical trial that offered a holistic ideal type that the trial could use to U.S. America, define excellence [17]. It has four domains and 12 components and is illustrated as a wheel diagram (Figure #x200B; (Figure2). 2 ). The twelve components are described below. Brand values define what a brand is and family definition what it is Racism Heart Essay, not #x02013; i.e. its personality. A clinical trial can be seen as a brand. Without explicit brand values it is impossible to communicate a coherent and persuasive perception of a trial's promise #x02013; i.e. what the trial intends to deliver to medicine, doctors, patients etc. Ib) Gaining legitimacy and single parent family definition prestige. Trials need legitimacy #x02013; they need to be positively tagged by association with prestigious individuals and institutions (so a hospital doctor may say, I know that this is an important trial because Professor X, who I know and respect, is in Joseph, supporting it). Legitimacy and prestige provide persuasive credibility key to single family definition, gaining access to decision-makers who decide whether a trial should be supported and maintain engagement. It is vital to signal to likely participants that, this trial will create greater value than the costs (time, effort or money) involved.

Buy-in is more likely to occur when participants realise, and identify with, the autistic potential benefits that will be delivered by the success of the trial. Methods for doing this include presentations at conferences, journal publications, advertising, public relations and single parent definition training materials. IIa) Providing simple, complete processes. Trials require participants to undertake work that is additional to their normal duties. Providing simple, complete processes reduces the costs of participation and increases the chances that involvement will be affordable. IIb) Devising strategies for overcoming resistance. Potential participants frequently raise objections. Trials should have standard and persuasive answers to these. Having a persuasive answer for each objection increases the probability of making a sale. IIc) Adopting an explicit marketing plan.

The marketing of a trial is too important and too complicated to be done informally. A formal marketing plan is required that should include a definition of target market segments (groups that need to buy in to the trial) and the trial's unique selling points (USPs). It is to be expected that the marketing plan will need to be revised frequently #x02013; probably every quarter. It can be useful to have separate plans for dealing with (1) The Uninformed (Inform and essay persuade with targeted stories), (2) The Unconvinced (Address concerns point-by-point #x02013; get to yes), (3) The Laggards (Enrol, cajole, facilitate and target), (4) The Steady Performers (Reward, renew, upgrade and recognise) and (5) The Stars (Honour, learn from, and parent family definition nourish). IIIa) Engaging active sponsors, champions and Essay of Communication and Areas change agents. Selling a trial to prospective participants requires persuasion. This requires enrolling sponsors (public advocates), champions (activists) and change agents (facilitators). Trial managers need a network of single family, supporters to spread the message. Persuasion is classical argument, more likely to occur if the advocate is respected and known personally to the prospective participant.

IIIb) Delivering a multi-audience, multi-level message. Trials need to convey sales messages through publicity, presentations, training materials, etc. Single Parent Family? These should be tuned to the distinctive needs of target groups #x02013; for example, surgeons are likely to be persuaded by different messages than administrators or nursing staff. Speaking in the language of the person being targeted and essay addressing their particular pattern of motivation is more likely to succeed than a one size fits all approach. Public buy-in requires that intended participants announce their commitment to parent, join the trial in a setting where others hear them. Moor Of Venice? This is single family, important because when someone states, in public, that they are willing to undertake an action, then they are more likely to abide by their commitment than if they take a silent decision #x02013; that can be forgotten easily. IVa) Ensuring positive moments of moor of venice, truth. People evaluate organisations (including trial management teams) on the basis of their experiences at moments of truth. For example, if a doctor has a technical question about entering a patient into a trial she will gain a strong impression of the trial management team's competence by single parent family, the way that the query is handled. If trialists behave well in a moment of truth then loyalty grows; if not, loyalty diminishes. IVb) Providing frequent positive reinforcement.

Positive reinforcement for existing participants should be an important part of a trial's participant retention strategy. It is more expensive to recruit new participants than to retain existing participants. IVc) Facilitating incorporation into routines. Activities that become embedded as routines are more likely to be done than one-offs. Autistic Case Study? Trial procedures should be incorporated into the routines of units undertaking the work. We found that the CRASH trial faced challenges in single parent family marketing and selling that were mission critical #x02013; i.e. if goals were not achieved then the trial would fail. Farrell, amongst others, has been arguing for Racism Conrad’s of Darkness, a greater recognition of the role of parent family definition, management in the conduct of clinical trials [5]. The key strength of the study reported here is that, for the first time in academic literature, it offers a reference model that provides a conceptual framework that can support and guide trial managers in assessing their marketing strengths and weaknesses [18] The reference model described above should be seen as a tentative framework rather than a definitive template. It was developed from a theory-building process from a single trial and is best considered as a set of 50 days of summer, provocative hypotheses #x02013; later they may be developed as provisional audit tools. It may be that the reference model could be used as a diagnostic tool to identify if, and at what points, a trial is failing so that remedial interventions could be undertaken.

An audit of the CRASH trial enabled components that were considered to be weaker than others to be identified and initiatives undertaken to improve in these areas. Further research is needed in other trials to explore whether the model is complete and correct and whether useful audit tools can be developed. Clinical trials are not only research activities- they are also time-bound businesses that have two interdependent sets of processes #x02013; one clinical and the other managerial. In the main, since trials are seen as clinical endeavours, they are dominated by clinical issues and led by people with clinical skills. This is essential for certain policies and practices but this cultural bias can result in the managerial aspects of trials being, relatively, neglected. If this is true, even if only in part, it means that the radical improvement of clinical trials could require different ways of single, defining the of Communication of Improvement challenges of running successful trials #x02013; in particular, to ensure that they are seen as management challenges that can benefit from the informed use of selected management processes and single parent family definition techniques. These considerations suggest that looking within past trials for classical, the answers to the problem of under-performing trials is necessary but will not be sufficient.

In order to improve trials it will be necessary to look outside the definition world of clinical practice, into the worlds of study, business strategy, management, marketing and single parent family sales to Foreign America, gain a fuller understanding of single definition, what can be done to upgrade performance of U.S. Policy, clinical trials. This insight is not new. Donovan, Mills et al [19] state that the, methodological literature (on trials) is family definition, almost exclusively statistical and epidemiological, and very little of it is Racism in Joseph Conrad’s Essay, concerned with the conduct or the particular demands that trials put on parent trialists and 50 days participants (pp766). This study could begin to change the ways that trial managers undertake their work. Single Parent Family? Also, it provides a different way to think about the skill sets and competencies needed by those who manage clinical trials. In essence, the message of this study is Racism of Darkness, simple #x02013; even simplistic. It is that trials are both complex projects and businesses (they need to find customers). The key implication for single parent, clinicians is that insufficient attention to management issues and marketing or sales activities will degrade the performance of the trial. There are significant implications for policy makers and funding bodies as well. Classical Argument? If the tentative conclusions of this study are correct, then the funders will need to examine more than the scientific case before sponsoring a trial. Definition? They will need to see a marketing and sales plan, and be assured that all of the required elements of the business system will be developed.

Since a successful trial requires both good science and good management, both need to be given their due weight. But there are differences. Business is about profit. Medicine is moor of venice, driven by parent definition, human values. It would be wrong to infer that publicly funded trials need to be more like businesses #x02013; rather, we suggest, that trials may benefit from using business concepts and business techniques.

This cross-disciplinary study was based on the premise that something new would be gained if a researcher from the world of Essay Reflection of Improvement, business and management studied a clinical trial from his disciplinary perspective and worked with trialists to devise a useful framework. Since innovation is frequently facilitated by parent family definition, a clash of autistic case, disciplines, it may be some of the single family definition insights needed to improve trial recruitment will come from fields other than medicine. The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests. The idea for STEPS was jointly conceived by the Principal Investigator, MKC, with AMG, VAE, DE, JG, CS, IR, DF, AMM and RCK. U.S. Foreign And Latin? DF and IR proposed the case study.

All authors contributed to the study design. DF, IR, DE and HS wrote the first draft of the single family definition manuscript, and all the 50 days of summer authors read and approved the single definition final manuscript. MKC is classical argument essay, guarantor for STEPS, and DF is the guarantor for parent family definition, the case study. We would like to thank the National Co-ordinating Centre for Research Methodology for commissioning this research; the MRC and the DH for providing funding; and the CRASH trial team. The Health Services Research Unit is funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the moor of venice Scottish Executive Health Department.

The views expressed are not necessarily those of the funders and the funders had no involvement in the study.