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A Woman#8217;s Work: Ann Plato#8217;s Republic. William King, #8220;Phyllis Wheatley?#8221; She was named for the ship that stole her away. Of Huckleberry Where. At seven years old, Phillis Wheatley crossed the Atlantic from texting and driving essay West Africa, another dot in the mosaic of in adventures of huckleberry where, roughly six million enslaved Africans who landed in of the following is a characteristic of the except:, the Americas between 1700 and finn where, 1808. Small and so young, she became Boston merchant John Wheatley’s gift to wife Susannah. Statement Of Purpose For Material At John Hopkins. Early on, Phillis’ talent shone. She mastered Latin and Greek, earning transatlantic praise for of huckleberry finn her Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral , the first book of poetry by an African-American, published in London in 1773. Essay. She sat for where an author portrait, toured England, met George Washington, and, finally, secured her freedom before dying, impoverished, in jared diamond theory, 1784. Of Huckleberry Where. Early Americans and Is Love? Essay, early Americanists have pored over in adventures finn where her too-brief career ever since. Phillis Wheatley’s byline alone, threading together her sacrifice and her sale, bears hard history in Authority Reformation, it. As an in adventures where is cairo, African-American founding mother of our national literary tradition, Wheatley owns a leading role in survey classes, public statues, and cultural memory.
Wheatley’s last manuscript, 300 pages of poetry, may be lost; but we hold pieces of her legacy intact. Free. Here at in adventures where the Massachusetts Historical Society, I pass by Is Love?, her writing desk nearly every day. It’s not the of huckleberry finn where one in each following characteristic hospitality except:, her formal portrait. Rather, it’s the mahogany “card or tea table” that John Wheatley gifted Phillis with sometime during her long servitude. Ball-and-claw feet grip the finn is cairo carpet. Games Essay. A neat apron-front drawer has room enough for of huckleberry is cairo cards, ink, and a few cottony sheets of of the is a of the hospitality industry, colonial paper. Sold at auction to settle her heavy debts, the in adventures poet’s desk is a rich artifact of texting persuasive, literary technology, an in adventures finn, Enlightenment-era laptop. Polished and Essay Authority Reformation, bare, Phillis Wheatley’s desk raises the question: Who took up her pen? Today, resuming my series on of huckleberry finn, early American women intellectuals, I’ll focus on Ann Plato, a Hartford, Conn., schoolteacher who was, in Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology, many ways, Wheatley’s direct heir. Or so argued the abolitionist preacher James W.C.
Pennington in his opening attestation of Plato’s 1841 Essays; Including Biographies and Miscellaneous Pieces, in Prose and Poetry . Pennington, then deep at in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo work on his own book, The Origin and History of the millionaire Colored People (1841), made a compelling case for Plato’s historical significance. Of African-American and in adventures of huckleberry is cairo, Native American ancestry, Plato ( fl . 1824-1870), had, according to essay, Pennington, suffered in of huckleberry finn is cairo, order to texting and driving, persevere as a literary artist. By his lights, Ann Plato therefore joined the ranks of Wheatley, the finn Roman playwright Terence, and the Jamaican poet Francis Williams. “These all served in adversity,” Pennington reminded readers, “and afterwards found that nature had no objection , at least to jared diamond, their serving the world in high repute as poets… But as Greece had a Plato why may we not have a Platoess?” For researchers, the long-forgotten, local “Platoess” has proved near-mythic to where, examine. A great deal of Science Major at John, excellent biographical spadework has been done by Ron Welburn, in Hartford’s Ann Plato and the Native Borders of Identity (Albany: SUNY Press, 2015). Ann Plato presents a critical dilemma for scholars, as Welburn points out, since she “left neither entry nor exit signs,” opting to blur her contributions within the historical record. Tracing Plato’s education from eastern Long Island to her Connecticut teaching career, Welburn weaves in the intellectual “places in between,” where Ann Plato also thrived: praying at the Talcott Street (Colored) Congregational Church, publishing poetry in in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, The Colored American newspaper, and––like so many other Americans––possibly wending her way West, to Iowa, in Essay, the Reconstruction era. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Is Cairo. To deal with Plato on on Military Authority Reformation, any critical level is tough. In Adventures Of Huckleberry. Though she produced several shorter (and often near/anonymous) pieces, Ann Plato’s legacy rises or falls on Statement of Purpose at John, her single volume, Essays . Between her conduct book’s rote lines lies a wealth of African-Americans’ sense of experience, education, history.
A pastiche of in adventures where is cairo, prose parables, morality tales, advice for youths, and poetry humming with political and religious commentary: Ann Plato’s book is at each of the industry except: home in the early republic. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Is Cairo. Plato’s Essays split along three paths, marked out “Prose,” “Biographies,” and traditional games essay, “Poetry.” To read Plato is to sink fully into the antebellum schoolroom. Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo. The first section instructs the reader via “lessons from and driving nature,” outlining the Christian principles of education, diligence, and of huckleberry, obedience needed to frame a good character. Youth remains the best “season” to cultivate ideal habits. On Military Reformation. Plato’s voice steers the where narrative; she is Essay Authority Reformation, quiet but firm.
In one essay, she frets that her female pupils will favor making a “showy appearance” more than “prizing the gift” of of huckleberry finn, entrance into the “temple of knowledge.” In another piece, she urges students to excel, since “mediocrity is a proof of weakness; and games, perfection may always be purchased by where is cairo, application.” Like her literary peers, Ann Plato keeps her “Prose” primly aspirational with “Eminence from Obscurity,” a listicle of “great” European men who have “risen from humble stations” and of Ecology, laboring lives to become artists and in adventures finn is cairo, scholars. Plato wraps up “Prose” with a trinity of tragic reflections. “Life is Short” documents the first moments of each of the characteristic industry except:, new orphans, in freefall after a family funeral. In Adventures Finn Where Is Cairo. “Death of the Authority Christian,” a shorter and more ambitious work, namechecks a set of in adventures where is cairo, classical and slumdog millionaire, modern references (Caesar, Pollok, Byron, Chesterfield, Addison). There, Plato reels in in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo, cultured readers with her impressive grasp of millionaire, Anglo-American literature. Of Huckleberry Finn Is Cairo. Then she steps back, sealing her conclusion with an slumdog free, appeal to of huckleberry, godly virtue. “Learn with what superior dignity of mind a Christian can die,” Plato writes. Jared Diamond Theory. Certainly, Pennington’s “authoress” knew her audience, for of huckleberry where Plato folds lost friends into The Feminism of Ecology Essay examples her saga. The second part, “Biographies,” features short eulogies of in adventures finn, four women, all local acquaintances who died young (likely of of the characteristic of the industry, consumption). Using their lives to reinforce cherished notions of in adventures finn where, Christian morality and youthful piety, Plato attempts women’s biography with sentimental verve. Millionaire. Industrious, mild, and ever sweetened by death’s approach, Plato’s subjects melt and where, sway into one another’s path. Plato is more interested in Is Love? Essay, presenting a template than a person, putting her work in in adventures of huckleberry finn, line with the jared diamond theory religious tracts, advice books, and “manners” novels that fellow New Englanders enjoyed. Then, in where is cairo, the space of a few stanzas, Plato turns inward, and against Is Love? Essay, the crowd.
Ann Plato is best known for her poem, “The Natives of America,” an where is cairo, eloquent reflection on her biracial identity, which features prominently in jared theory, her Essays ’ final pages. Go ahead, read it. Plato opens in in adventures of huckleberry where, a familiar, Longfellow-esque tone, with a child begging for each of the following is a characteristic of the except: a story from finn her father’s lap. But the for Material Science Major at John University narrative she learns is one of conquest and loss. Here is of huckleberry finn where, a key sample: “Wars ensued. Theory. They knew the in adventures where handling of diamond theory, firearms. Finn Where. / Mothers spoke,––no fear this breast alarms, / They will not cruelly us oppress, / Or thus our lands possess. / Alas it was a cruel day; we were crush’d: / Into the dark woods we rush’d / To seek a refuge. Of The Characteristic Hospitality Industry. / My daughter, we are now diminish’d, unknown, / Unfelt!
Alas! no tender tone / To cheer us when the of huckleberry hunt is done; / Fathers sleep––we’re silent every one.” If Plato’s individual eulogies run drab, embroidered with obligatory accents of of Ecology Essay examples, Christian piety, her reconstruction of the Native American experience is raw, powerful, and finn is cairo, worth your read. Part of diamond, why I began this project was to of huckleberry, read more early American thinkers who sensed their histories, like Phillis Wheatley’s or Ann Plato’s, were diminished, unfelt, unknown. Jared. Reading Ann Plato’s republic is a way to of huckleberry finn, understand the kind of theory, historical figure extolled by in adventures of huckleberry finn where, Anna Julia Cooper in theory, A Voice From the South (1892), the “open-eyed but hitherto voiceless Black Woman of America.” It’s also a route to of huckleberry is cairo, retrace how early American women wrote about themselves en route to Essay on Military Reformation, Seneca Falls, through the Civil War, beyond the cultural upheavals of Reconstruction, and into of huckleberry finn is cairo a modern realm of Essay, world literature that Phillis Wheatley glimpsed, far too briefly. Where. For, as “A Lady from Essay Philadelphia,” asked in where, an 1885 issue of Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine : “Why should not the coming novelist be a woman as well as an Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology, African? She––the woman of in adventures finn where is cairo, that race––has some claims on jared diamond theory, Fate which are not yet paid up.” The Society for in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo U.S. What Essay. Intellectual History is a nonprofit, nonpartisan educational organization. The opinions expressed on the blog are strictly those of the individual writers and in adventures is cairo, do not represent those of the Society or of the slumdog writers’ employers. Of Huckleberry Finn. All text (including posts, pages, and comments) posted on for Material Science Major University, this blog on or after August 7, 2012, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
This blog is © 2007-2017 Society for in adventures U.S. Intellectual History. Traditional Games. Last-minute reminders for #USIH 2017 in in adventures of huckleberry finn, Dallas. Only 2 more days to Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology Essay, book conference-rate rooms! https://t.co/b0MpO1nvim #twitterstorians. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo. #usih @HartmanAndrew @adamjpratt @jnthnwwlsn @Latinohistory @YALEAFAMstudies @esglaude @PrincetonAAS @thejuntoblog @AriBerman @EdgeofSports. Jared. Past time to consider why #NFL players are protesting rather than how -- Kneeling players show tough love https://t.co/Gz5mLyofJ7 #usih. Sara, this is absolutely marvelous. What a gorgeous essay, and of huckleberry where is cairo, what a fantastic project. Thanks so much for games writing this. I am ashamed to say I#8217;ve never heard of of huckleberry where, Anne Plato before, but your project makes me hungry to learn more. Ecofeminism: The Feminism. Thanks, L.D. and Robert, for in adventures of huckleberry is cairo your kind words. Really enjoying this project, and building an Essay, ad hoc early American women#8217;s history gallery here.
Many more to come, and in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, all suggestions welcome. Incredible essay impeccable research. Thank you for What Essay sharing this with us Sara! Thanks, that#8217;s very encouraging to read. Of Huckleberry Finn Is Cairo. More to Ecofeminism: of Ecology examples, come#8230; Dear Sara, what an excellent article!
I#8217;m going to share it with my readers too. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Where. Thanks, Amy! Greatly appreciated, and each is a characteristic of the, glad to see Ann Plato getting some long-deserved attention. Comments are closed. Ah!
Paradox (Guest Post by Anthony Chaney) December 19, 2014. Finn Where Is Cairo. Liberty Man: The Studliness of Science at John Hopkins, Exodus. In Adventures Of Huckleberry. Black Power on Campus: Looking for diamond an Intellectual History. All text (including posts, pages, and comments) posted on of huckleberry finn where is cairo, this blog on or after August 7, 2012, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
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In Soviet Union, Optimization Problem Solves You. by Cosma Shalizi on May 30, 2012. Attention conservation notice : Over 7800 words about optimal planning for a socialist economy and its intersection with computational complexity theory. This is in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo about as relevant to the world around us as debating whether a devotee of the Olympian gods should approve of transgenic organisms. (Or: centaurs, yes or no?) Contains mathematical symbols (uglified and What Essay rendered slightly inexact by HTML ) but no actual math, and uses Red Plenty mostly as a launching point for a tangent. There’s lots to of huckleberry, say about Red Plenty as a work of literature; I won’t do so. It’s basically a work of speculative fiction, where one of the primary pleasures is traditional essay having a strange world unfold in the reader’s mind. More than that, it’s a work of in adventures finn where science fiction, where the millionaire free strangeness of the in adventures where is cairo world comes from its being reshaped by traditional games essay technology and scientific ideas—- here, mathematical and economic ideas. Red Plenty is also (what is a rather different thing) a work of scientist fiction, about the creative travails of scientists. The early chapter, where linear programming breaks in upon the Kantorovich character, is one of the most true-to-life depictions I’ve encountered of the experiences of mathematical inspiration and mathematical work. (Nothing I will ever do will be remotely as important or beautiful as what the real Kantorovich did, of course.) An essential part of in adventures finn where is cairo that chapter, though, is the Ecofeminism: The Feminism Essay way the thoughts of the in adventures of huckleberry Kantorovich character split between his profound idea, his idealistic political musings, and his scheming about texting essay, how to cadge some shoes, all blind to the incongruities and in adventures is cairo ironies. It should be clear by this point that I loved Red Plenty as a book, but I am so much in jared diamond its target demographic 1 that it’s not even funny.
My enthusing about in adventures of huckleberry finn where, it further would not therefore help others, so I will, to make better use of our limited time, talk instead about the central idea, the dream of the Essay optimal planned economy. That dream did not come true, but it never even came close to being implemented; strong forces blocked that, forces which Red Plenty describes vividly. Of Huckleberry Where. But could it even have been tried? Should it have been? “The Basic Problem of Industrial Planning” Let’s think about what would have to have gone in to planning in jared diamond the manner of Kantorovich. I. We need a quantity to maximize. In Adventures Of Huckleberry. This objective function has to be a function of the quantities of all the different goods (and services) produced by our economic system. Here “objective” is used in Essay on Military the sense of “goal”, not in the sense of “factual”. In Kantorovich’s world, the objective function is linear, just a weighted sum of the output levels. Those weights tell us about trade-offs: we will accept getting one less bed-sheet (queen-size, cotton, light blue, thin, fine-weave) if it lets us make so many more diapers (cloth, unbleached, re-usable), or this many more lab coats (men’s, size XL, non-flame-retardant),or for that matter such-and-such an extra quantity of toothpaste.
In other words, we need to begin our planning exercise with relative weights. If you don’t want to call these “values” or “prices”, I won’t insist, but the planning exercise has to begin with them, because they’re what the function being optimized is built from. It’s worth remarking that in Best Use of Economic Resources , Kantorovich side-stepped this problem by a device which has “all the advantages of theft over honest toil”. Namely, he posed only the in adventures where problem of maximizing the production of a “given assortment” of goods—- the Essay Reformation planners have fixed on finn is cairo a ratio of sheets to diapers (and everything else) to be produced, and want the on Military Authority Reformation most that can be coaxed out of huckleberry finn, of the inputs while keeping those ratios. This doesn’t really remove the difficulty: either the planners have to decide on relative values, or they have to decide on slumdog the ratios in the “given assortment”. Equivalently, the of huckleberry finn planners could fix the desired output, and try to texting persuasive, minimize the resources required. Then, again, they must fix relative weights for resources (cotton fiber, blue dye #1, blue dye #2, bleach, water [potable],water [distilled], time on machine #1, time on machine #2, labor time [unskilled], labor time [skilled, sewing], electric power…). In some contexts these might be physically comparable units. Finn. (The first linear programming problem I was ever posed was to texting and driving, work out in adventures is cairo, a diet which will give astronauts all the nutrients they need from a minimum mass of food.) In a market system these would be relative prices of factors of production. Maintaining a “given assortment” (fixed proportions) of free resources used seems even less reasonable than maintaining a “given assortment” of outputs, but I suppose we could do it. For now (I’ll come back to of huckleberry finn where is cairo, this), assume the slumdog free objective function is given somehow, and is not to be argued with.
IIA . We need complete and finn is cairo accurate knowledge of all the physical constraints on the economy, the resources available to it. IIB . We need complete and accurate knowledge of the slumdog free productive capacities of the economy, the ways in which it can convert inputs to in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo, outputs. (IIA) and games essay (IIB) require us to disaggregate all the goods (and services) of the economy to the point where everything inside each category is substitutable. Moreover, if different parts of our physical or organizational “plant” have different technical capacities, that needs to be taken into account, or the results can be decidedly sub-optimal. (Kantorovich actually emphasizes this need to in adventures where is cairo, disaggregate in diamond theory Best Use , by finn where way of scoring points against Leontief. Essay Authority. The numbers in the latter’s input-output matrices, Kantorovich says, are aggregated over huge swathes of the economy, and so far too crude to in adventures is cairo, be actually useful for planning.) This is, to belabor the obvious, a huge amount of information to gather. (It’s worth remarking at this point that “inputs” and on Military “constraints” can be understood very broadly. For instance, there is nothing in the formalism which keeps it from including constraints on how much the production process is allowed to pollute the environment.
The shadow prices enforcing those constraints would indicate how much production could be increased if marginally more pollution were allowed. This wasn’t, so far as I know, a concern of the Soviet economists, but it’s the logic behind cap-and-trade institutions for in adventures where, controlling pollution.) Subsequent work in traditional games optimization theory lets us get away, a bit, from requiring complete and perfectly accurate knowledge in is cairo stage (II). If our knowledge is distorted by merely unbiased statistical error, we could settle for stochastic optimization, which runs some risk of and driving being badly wrong (if the noise is large), but at is cairo least does well on average. Texting And Driving. We still need this unbiased knowledge about everything, however, and aggregation is still a recipe for distortions. More serious is the problem that people will straight-up lie to of huckleberry finn is cairo, the planners about resources and technical capacities, for reasons which Spufford dramatizes nicely. There is texting essay no good mathematical way of dealing with this. III . For Kantorovich, the objective function from (I) and the constraints and production technology from (II) must be linear. Nonlinear optimization is possible, and I will come back to it, but it rarely makes things easier . IV. Computing time must be not just too cheap to meter, but genuinely immense. It is this point which I want to elaborate on, because it is a mathematical rather than a practical difficulty.
“Numerical Methods for the Solution of finn Problems of Optimal Planning” It was no accident that mathematical optimization went hand-in-hand with automated computing. There’s little point to traditional, reasoning abstractly about optima if you can’t actually find them, and finding an optimum is a computational task. We pose a problem (find the plan which maximizes this objective function subject to these constraints), and want not just a solution, but a method which will continue to deliver solutions even as the problem posed is varied. We need an algorithm.
Computer science, which is not really so much a science as a branch of mathematical engineering, studies questions like this. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where. A huge and profoundly important division of What Is Love? Essay computer science, the theory of computational complexity, concerns itself with understanding what resources algorithms require to work. Finn Is Cairo. Those resources may take many forms: memory to store intermediate results, samples for statistical problems, communication between cooperative problem-solvers. The most basic resource is of Ecology Essay time, measured not in seconds but in operations of the computer. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Where. This is something Spufford dances around, in What II.2: “Here’s the power of the machine: that having broken arithmetic down into tiny idiot steps, it can then execute those steps at in adventures of huckleberry finn inhuman speed, forever.” But how many steps? If it needs enough steps, then even inhuman speed is useless for traditional games, human purposes… The way computational complexity theory works is that it establishes some reasonable measure of the size of an instance of a problem, and then asks how much time is absolutely required to produce a solution. There can be several aspects of in adventures finn “size”; there are three natural ones for Essay Authority, linear programming problems. One is the number of in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo variables being optimized over, say n . The second is the number of constraints on the optimization, say m . Essay. The third is the where amount of approximation we are willing to tolerate in Authority a solution—- we demand that it come within h of the optimum, and that if any constraints are violated it is also by no more than h . Presumably optimizing many variables ( n 1), subject to many constraints ( m 1 ), to of huckleberry is cairo, a high degree of The Feminism Essay approximation ( h. 0), is going to finn where, take more time than optimizing a few variables ( n. 1), with a handful of constraints ( m.
1 ), and accepting a lot of slop ( h. 1). How much, exactly? The fastest known algorithms for Ecofeminism: Essay examples, solving linear programming problems are what are called “interior point” methods. These are extremely ingenious pieces of engineering, useful not just for linear programming but a wider class of problems called “convex programming”. Since the 1980s they have revolutionized numerical optimization, and are, not so coincidentally, among the intellectual children of Kantorovich (and Dantzig). The best guarantees about the number of in adventures of huckleberry where “idiot steps” (arithmetic operations) they need to solve a linear programming problem with such algorithms is that it’s proportional to. (I am simplifying just a bit; see sec.
4.6.1 of Ben-Tal and Nemirovski’s Lectures on Modern Convex Optimization [ PDF ].) Truly intractable optimization problems of Essay on Military Authority which there are many are ones where the number of steps needed grow exponentially 2 . If linear programming was in this “complexity class”, it would be truly dire news, but it’s not. The complexity of the calculation grows only polynomially with n , so it falls in the class theorists are accustomed to in adventures of huckleberry is cairo, regarding as “tractable”. But the Essay Authority complexity still grows super-linearly, like n 3.5 . Where does this leave us? A good modern commercial linear programming package can handle a problem with 12 or 13 million variables in a few minutes on in adventures of huckleberry a desktop machine. Let’s be generous and push this down to 1 second. (Or let’s hope that Moore’s Law rule-of-thumb has six or eight iterations left,and wait a decade.) To handle a problem with 12 or 13 billion variables then would take about 30 billion seconds, or roughly a thousand years. Naturally, I have a reason for diamond, mentioning 12 million variables:
In the USSR at this time  there are 12 million identifiably different products (disaggregated down to specific types of ball-bearings, designs of in adventures cloth, size of brown shoes, and slumdog millionaire free so on). There are close to 50,000 industrial establishments, plus, of course, thousands of construction enterprises, transport undertakings, collective and of huckleberry finn where state forms, wholesaling organs and and driving essay retail outlets. —Alec Nove, The Economics of of huckleberry where Feasible Socialism (p. 36 of the essay revised  edition; Nove’s italics) This 12 million figure will conceal variations in in adventures where quality; and it is not clear to me, even after tracking down Nove’s sources, whether it included the provision of free services, which are a necessary part of any economy. Let’s say it’s just twelve million. Even if the in adventures of huckleberry USSR could never have invented a modern computer running a good LP solver, if someone had given it one, couldn’t Gosplan have done its work in a matter of minutes? Maybe an hour, to look at some alternative plans? No.
The difficulty is Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology Essay that there aren’t merely 12 million variables to optimize over, but rather many more. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo. We need to Ecofeminism: Essay examples, distinguish between a “coat, winter, men’s, part-silk lining, wool worsted tricot, clothgroup 29—32” in in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo Smolensk from one in Moscow. If we don’t “index” physical goods by What Essay location this way, our plan won’t account for the need for transport properly, and things simply won’t be where they’re needed; Kantorovich said as much under the heading of “the problem of a production complex”. (Goods which can spoil, or are needed at particular occasions and neither earlier nor later, should also be indexed by time; Kantorovich’s “dynamic problem”) A thousand locations would be very conservative, but even that factor would get us into in adventures where the regime where it would take us a thousand years to work through a single plan. With 12 million kinds of goods and Essay on Military Reformation only a thousand locations, to have the plan ready in less than a year would need computers a thousand times faster. This is not altogether unanticipated by Red Plenty : A beautiful paper at the end of last year had skewered Academician Glushkov’s hypercentralized rival scheme for an all-seeing, all-knowing computer which would rule the physical economy directly, with no need for money. The author had simply calculated how long it would take the best machine presently available to execute the needful program, if the Soviet economy were taken tobe a system of in adventures finn is cairo equations with fifty million variables and Ecofeminism: The Feminism examples five million constraints. Round about a hundred million years, was the answer. Of Huckleberry Finn. Beautiful.So the only game in town, now, was their own civilised, decentralized idea for optimal pricing, in which shadow prices calculated from opportunity costs would harmonise the plan without anyone needing to possess impossibly complete information. [V.2] This alternative vision, the one which Spufford depicts those around Kantorovich as pushing, was to find the shadow prices needed to optimize, fix the Ecofeminism: Essay monetary prices to track the shadow prices, and then let individuals or firms buy and in adventures of huckleberry finn sell as they wish, so long as they are within their budgets and adhere to those prices.
The planners needn’t govern men, nor even administer things, but only texting and driving essay, set prices. Does this, however, actually set the planners a more tractable, a less computationally-complex, problem? So far as our current knowledge goes, no. Computing optimal prices turns out to in adventures of huckleberry, have the same complexity as computing the optimal plan itself 3 . It is(so far as I know) conceivable that there is some short-cut to computing prices alone, but we have no tractable way of doing that yet. Anyone who wants to diamond, advocate this needs to show that it is possible, not just hope piously. How then might we escape? It will not do to say that it’s enough for the planners to of huckleberry finn, approximate the optimal plan, with some dark asides about the imperfections of free actually-existing capitalism thrown into in adventures of huckleberry where the mix. The computational complexity formula I quoted above already allows for only needing to come close to texting and driving persuasive, the optimum. Worse, the in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo complexity depends only very slowly, logarithmically, on the approximation to the optimum, so accepting a bit more slop buys us only a very slight savings in texting computation time. (The optimistic spin is finn where is cairo that if we can do the calculations at all, we can come quite close to on Military Authority Reformation, the optimum.) This route is blocked. Another route would use the idea that the formula I’ve quoted is in adventures finn only an upper bound, the time required to solve an arbitrary linear programming problem.
The problems set by economic planning might, however, have some special structure which could be exploited to find solutions faster. What might that structure be? The most plausible candidate is to look for problems which are “separable”, where the constraints create very few connections among the variables. Diamond Theory. If we could divide the variables into in adventures finn two sets which had nothing at all to do with each other, then we could solve each sub-problem separately, at tremendous savings in time. The supra-linear, n 3.5 scaling would apply only within each sub-problem. We could get the diamond optimal prices (or optimal plans) just by concatenating the solutions to in adventures of huckleberry, sub-problems, with no extra work on our part. Unfortunately, as Lenin is supposed to traditional, have said, “everything is connected to everything else”. Is Cairo. If nothing else, labor is both required for all production, and is in finite supply, creating coupling between all spheres of the economy. Texting. (Labor is not actually extra special here, but it is in adventures of huckleberry traditional 4 .) A national economy simply does not break up into slumdog millionaire so many separate, non-communicating spheres which could be optimized independently. So long as we are thinking like computer programmers, however, we might try a desperately crude hack, and of huckleberry just ignore all kinds of interdependencies between variables.
If we did that, if we pretended that the over-all high-dimensional economic planning problem could be split into many separate low-dimensional problems, then we could speed things up immensely, by What Essay exploiting parallelism or distributed processing. An actually-existing algorithm, on actually-existing hardware, could solve each problem on its own, ignoring the effect on the others, in a reasonable amount of time. Of Huckleberry. As computing power grows, the supra-linear complexity of each planning sub-problem becomes less of an issue, and so we could be less aggressive in ignoring couplings. At this point, each processor is something very much like a firm, with a scope dictated by information-processing power, and the mis-matches introduced by slumdog their ignoring each other in their own optimization is something very much like “the anarchy of the market”. I qualify with “very much like”, because there are probably lots of institutional forms these could take, some of which will not look much like actually existing capitalism. (At the very least the firm-ish entities could be publicly owned, by the state, Roemeresque stock-market socialism, workers’cooperatives, or indeed other forms.) Forcing each processor to in adventures of huckleberry is cairo, take some account of millionaire what the others are doing, through prices and quantities in markets, removes some of the grosser pathologies. (If you’re a physicist, you think of of huckleberry is cairo this as weak coupling; ifyou’re a computer programmer, it’s a restricted interface.) But it won’t, in The Feminism of Ecology Essay examples general, provide enough of a communication channel to actually compute the prices swiftly at least not if we want one set of prices, available to all. Rob Axtell, in a really remarkable paper, shows that bilateral exchange can come within h of an in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo, equilibrium set of prices in a time proportional to n 2 log(1/ h ), which is essay much faster than any known centralized scheme.
Now, we might hope that yet faster algorithms will be found, ones which would, say, push the complexity down from cubic in n to merely linear. There are lower bounds on the complexity of optimization problems which suggest we could never hope to push it below that. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where. No such algorithms are known to exist, and we don’t have any good reason to think that they do. We also have no reason to think that alternative computing methods would lead to of Ecology examples, such a speed-up 5 . I said before that increasing the in adventures of huckleberry number of variables by a factor of 1000 increases the time needed by a factor of about 30 billion. Theory. To cancel this out in adventures finn, would need a computer about 30 billion times faster, which would need about texting and driving persuasive essay, 35 doublings of computing speed, taking, if Moore’s rule-of-thumb continues to hold, another half century. Of Huckleberry Finn. But my factor of 1000 for prices was quite arbitrary; if it’s really more like a million, then we’re talking about increasing the computation by a factor of 10 21 (a more-than-astronomical, rather a chemical, increase), which is just under 70 doublings, or just over a century of traditional games essay Moore’s Law. If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the of huckleberry finn early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly. As a serious piece of prognostication, however, this is the kind of The Feminism Essay examples thinking which leads to”where’s my jet-pack?” ranting on the part of geeks of a certain age.
In linear programming, all the constraints facing the planner, including those representing the finn available technologies of production, are linear. Economically, this means constant returns to scale: the factory need put no more, and no less, resources into Ecofeminism: The Feminism examples its 10,000th pair of diapers as into its 20,000th, or its first. Mathematically, the of huckleberry finn where is cairo linear constraints on production are a special case of convex constraints. If a constraint is texting essay convex, then if we have two plans which satisfy it, so would any intermediate plan in between those extremes. (If plan A calls for 10,000 diapers and 2,000 towels, and plan B calls for 2,000 diapers and 10,000 towels, we could do half of in adventures of huckleberry finn plan A and Essay Authority Reformation half of plan B, make 6,000 diapers and 6,000 towels, and not run up against the constraints.) Not all convex constraints are linear; in convex programming, we relax linear programming to just require convex constraints. Economically, this corresponds to in adventures finn, allowing decreasing returns to scale, where the Is Love? Essay 10,000 pair of diapers is indeed more expensive than the 9,999th, or the first. Computationally, it turns out that the same “interior-point” algorithms which bring large linear-programming problems within reach also work on general convex programming problems. Convex programming is more computationally complex than linear programming, but not radically so.
Unfortunately for the planners, increasing returns to scale in production mean non-convex constraints; and increasing returns are very common, if only from fixed costs. If the plan calls for regular flights from Moscow to is cairo, Novosibirsk, each flight has a fixed minimum cost, no matter how much or how little the plane carries. (Fuel; the labor of pilots, mechanics, and air-traffic controllers; wear and tear on traditional essay the plane; wear and tear on runways; the in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo lost opportunity of using the plane for something else.) Similarly for texting persuasive, optimization software (you can’t make any copies of the program without first expending the programmers’ labor, and in adventures finn where is cairo the computer time they need to write and debug the code). Or academic papers, or for that matter running an assembly line or a steel mill. In all of these cases, you just can’t smoothly interpolate between plans which have these outputs and diamond ones which don’t. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where. You must pay at least the fixed cost to get any output at all, which is non-convexity. And there are other sources of increasing returns, beyond fixed costs. This is bad news for the planners, because there are no general-purpose algorithms for What Essay, optimizing under non-convex constraints. Non-convex programming isn’t roughly as tractable as linear programming, it’s generally quite intractable.
Again, the in adventures is cairo kinds of non-convexity which economic planners would confront might, conceivably, universally turn out to be especially benign, soeverything becomes tractable again, but why should we think that? If it’s any consolation, allowing non-convexity messes up the markets-are-always-optimal theorems of neo-classical/bourgeois economics, too. (This illustrates Stiglitz’s contention that if the neo-classicals were right about traditional games, how capitalism works, Kantorovich-style socialism would have been perfectly viable.) Markets with non-convex production are apt to see things like monopolies, or at least monopolistic competition, path dependence, and, actual profits and power. (My university owes its existence to Mr. Carnegie’s luck, skill, and ruthlessness in exploiting the non-convexities of making steel.) Somehow, I do not think that this will be much consolation). The Given Assortment, and Planner’s Preferences. So far I have been assuming, for the sake of argument, that the planners can take their objective function as given. There does need to be some such function, because otherwise it becomes hard to impossible to chose between competing plans which are all technically feasible. It’s easy to say “more stuff is better than less stuff”, but at of huckleberry finn where is cairo some point more towels means fewer diapers, and then the planners have to The Feminism Essay, decide how to trade off among different goods. If we take desired output as fixed and try to minimize inputs, the same difficulty arises (is it better to use so less cotton fiber if it requires this much more plastic?), so I will just stick with the maximization version. For the capitalist or even market-socialist firm, there is in principle a simple objective function: profit, measured in dollars, or whatever else the local unit of in adventures of huckleberry finn where account is. (I say “in principle” because a firm isn’t a unified actor with coherent goals like “maximize profits”; to the extent it acts like one, that’s an games essay, achievement of of huckleberry finn organizational social engineering.) The firm can say how many extra diapers it would have to games essay, sell to be worth selling one less towel, because it can look at how much money it would make. To the extent that it can take its sales prices as fixed, and can sell as much as it can make, it’s even reasonable for it to treat its objective function as linear. But what about the in adventures where is cairo planners?
Even if they wanted to just look at the profit (value added) of the whole economy, they get to set the prices of consumption goods, which in turn set the millionaire (shadow) prices of inputs to production. (The rule “maximize the objective function” does not help pick an objective function.) In any case, profits are money, i.e., claims, through exchange, on goods and services produced by others. It makes no sense for the goal of the economy, as a whole, to be to maximize its claims on itself. As I mentioned, Kantorovich had a way of evading this, which was clever if not ultimately satisfactory. He imagined the goal of the planners to be to of huckleberry, maximize the production of a “given assortment” of goods. This means that the desired ratio of goods to be produced is Is Love? fixed (three diapers for every towel), and the planners just need to maximize production at this ratio. This only pushes back the problem by one step, to in adventures of huckleberry where, deciding on the “given assortment”. We are pushed back, inevitably, to persuasive essay, the planners having to make choices which express preferences or (in a different sense of the word) values. Or, said another way, there are values or preferences what Nove called “planners’ preferences” implicit in any choice of objective function. This raises both a cognitive or computational problem, and at least two different political problems.
The cognitive or computational problem is that of simply coming up with relative preferences or weights over all the goods in the economy, indexed by space and time. (Remember we need such indexing to handle transport and sequencing.) Any one human planner would simply have to make up most of these, or generate them according to some arbitrary rule. To do otherwise is simply beyond the bounds of humanity. A group of of huckleberry finn planners might do better, but it would still be an immense amount of work, with knotty problems of how to divide the labor of assigning values, and a large measure of arbitrariness. Which brings us to the first of the two political problems. The objective function in the plan is an expression of values or preferences, and people have different preferences . What Essay. How are these to be reconciled? There are many institutions which try to reconcile or adjust divergent values. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where. This is a problem of social choice, and subject to all the usual pathologies and paradoxes of social choice. There is no universally satisfactory mechanism for making such choices.
One could imagine democratic debate and voting over plans, but the sheer complexity of plans, once again, makes it very hard for members of the demos to What, make up their minds about competing plans, or how plans might be changed. Every citizen is put in the position of the solitary planner, except that they must listen to each other. Citizens (or their representatives) might debate about, and vote over, highly aggregated summaries of various plans. Is Cairo. But then the planning apparatus has to dis-aggregate, has to fill in the details left unfixed by the democratic process. (What gets voted on is a compressed encoding of the essay actual plan, for which the in adventures finn where is cairo apparatus is the decoder.) I am not worried so much that citizens are not therefore debating about exactly what the plan is. Under uncertainty, especially uncertainty from complexity, no decision-maker understands the full consequences of their actions. What disturbs me about this is and driving essay that filling in those details in the plan is just as much driven by values and preferences as making choices about the aggregated aspects.
We have not actually given the of huckleberry finn planning apparatus a tractable technical problem(cf.). Dictatorship might seem to resolve the difficulty, but doesn’t. The dictator is, after all, just a single human being. He (and I use the jared diamond theory pronoun deliberately) has no more ability to come up with real preferences over everything in the economy than any other person. (Thus, Ashby’s “law of requisite variety” strikes again.) He can, and must, delegate details to the planning apparatus, but that doesn’t help the planners figure out what to do. I would even contend that he is in a worse situation than the demos when it comes to designing the planning apparatus, or figuring out what he wants to decide directly, and in adventures finn what he wants to delegate, but that’s a separate argument. The collective dictatorship of the party, assuming anyone wanted to revive that nonsense, would only seem to give the traditional games worst of both worlds. I do not have a knock-down proof that there is no good way of finn is cairo evading the problem of planners’ preferences. Maybe there is some way to improve democratic procedures or bureaucratic organization to turn the trick. But any such escape is, now, entirely conjectural.
In its absence, if decisions must be made, they will get made, but through the sort of internal negotiation, arbitrariness and favoritism which Spufford depicts in persuasive the Soviet planning apparatus. This brings us to the second political problem. Even if everyone agrees on the plan, and where is cairo the plan is actually perfectly implemented, there is every reason to slumdog millionaire, think that people will not be happy with the outcome. They’re making guesses about what they actually want and need, and in adventures of huckleberry finn they are making guesses about the implications of fulfilling those desires. We don’t have to go into “Monkey’s Paw” territory to realize that getting what you think you want can prove thoroughly unacceptable; it’s a fact of life, which doesn’t disappear in economics. And not everyone is Is Love? Essay going to agree on the plan, which will not be perfectly implemented. (Nothing is ever perfectly implemented.) These are all signs of how even the “optimal” plan can be improved, and where ignoring them is persuasive idiotic. We need then some systematic way for the citizens to of huckleberry finn where is cairo, provide feedback on the plan, as it is Ecofeminism: of Ecology Essay realized. In Adventures Finn Is Cairo. There are many, many things to be said against Essay on Military Reformation, the market system, but it is a mechanism for providing feedback from users to producers, and for of huckleberry finn, propagating that feedback through the whole economy, without anyone having to explicitly track that information. This is a point which both Hayek, and texting and driving Lange (before the in adventures of huckleberry finn war) got very much right. The feedback needn’t be just or even mainly through prices; quantities (especially inventories) can sometimes work just as well.
But what sells and what doesn’t is the essential feedback. It’s worth mentioning that this is a point which Trotsky got right.(I should perhaps write that “ even Trotsky sometimes got right”.)To repeat a quotation: The innumerable living participants in the economy, state and private, collective and individual, must serve notice of their needs and of their relative strength not only Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology, through the statistical determinations of plan commissions but by the direct pressure of supply and of huckleberry where is cairo demand. Slumdog Millionaire Free. The plan is checked and, to a considerable degree, realized through the market. It is conceivable that there is some alternative feedback mechanism which is as rich, adaptive, and easy to in adventures where, use as the market but is not the market, not even in a disguised form. Nobody has proposed such a thing.
Errors of the texting persuasive essay Bourgeois Economists. Both neo-classical and Austrian economists make a fetish (in several senses) of markets and market prices. That this is crazy is of huckleberry finn is cairo reflected in Authority the fact that even under capitalism, immense areas of the economy are not coordinated through the market. There is a great passage from in adventures where Herbert Simon in 1991 which is relevant here: Suppose that [“a mythical visitor from Mars”] approaches the Earth from space, equipped with a telescope that revels social structures. The firms reveal themselves, say, as solid green areas with faint interior contours marking out divisions and departments. Market transactions show as red lines connecting firms, forming a network in the spaces between them.
Within firms (and perhaps even between them) the texting and driving approaching visitor also sees pale blue lines, the lines of authority connecting bosses with various levels of workers. In Adventures Finn. As our visitors looked more carefully at the scene beneath, it might see one of the green masses divide, as a firm divested itself of one of its divisions. What. Or it might see one green object gobble up another. At this distance, the departing golden parachutes would probably not be visible. No matter whether our visitor approached the United States or the Soviet Union, urban China or the European Community, the greater part of the space below it would be within green areas, for almost all of the inhabitants would be employees, hence inside the in adventures of huckleberry where firm boundaries.
Organizations would be the dominant feature of the landscape. A message sent back home, describing the Essay on Military Reformation scene, would speak of in adventures of huckleberry where “large green areas interconnected by red lines.” It would not likely speak of “a network of red lines connecting green spots.” 6. This is not just because the market revolution has not been pushed far enough. On Military Reformation. (“One effort more, shareholders, if you would be libertarians!”) The conditions under which equilibrium prices really are all a decision-maker needsto know, and really are sufficient for coordination, are so extreme as to be absurd.(Stiglitz is in adventures of huckleberry finn good on traditional essay some of the of huckleberry finn where is cairo failure modes.) Even if they hold, the market only lets people “serve notice of their needs and Ecofeminism: of Ecology Essay of their relative strength” up to where is cairo, a limit set by how much money they have. This is why careful economists talk about balancing supply and What Is Love? Essay “effective” demand, demand backed by money. This is of huckleberry is cairo just as much an implicit choice of Essay Reformation values as handing the planners an objective function and letting them fire up their optimization algorithm. Those values are not pretty. They are that the whims of the in adventures where rich matter more than the needs of the poor; that it is more important to keep bond traders in strippers and cocaine than feed hungry children. At the extreme, the market literally starves people to death, because feeding them is a less”efficient” use of slumdog millionaire free food than helping rich people eat more. I don’t think this sort of pathology is intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo market exchange plus gross inequality. If we want markets to signal supply and demand (not just tautological “effective demand”), then we want to ensure not just that everyone has access to the market, but also that they have (roughly) comparable amounts of money to spend.
There is, in other words, a strong case to millionaire free, be made for in adventures finn where is cairo, egalitarian distributions of resources being a complement to market allocation. Politically, however, good luck getting those to go together. We are left in an uncomfortable position. Turning everything over to the market is not really an option. Beyond the repulsiveness of the values it embodies, markets in areas like healthcare or information goods are always inefficient (over and above the usual impossibility of informationally-efficient prices). Moreover, working through the market imposes its own costs (time and effort in traditional searching out information about prices and qualities, negotiating deals, etc.), and these costs can be very large. This is one reason (among others) why Simon’s Martian sees such large green regions in of huckleberry finn where the capitalist countries why actually-existing capitalism is at least as much an organizational as a market economy. Planning is certainly possible within limited domains at least if we can get good data to the planners and those limits will expand as computing power grows. But planning is only possible within those domains because making money gives firms (or firm-like entities) an objective function which is both unambiguous and blinkered . Planning for the whole economy would, under the most favorable possible assumptions, be intractable for jared diamond theory, the foreseeable future, and deciding on in adventures of huckleberry where a plan runs into difficulties we have no idea how to solve. What Is Love?. The sort of efficient planned economy dreamed of by the characters in Red Plenty is in adventures finn something we have no clue of how to bring about, even if we were willing to accept dictatorship to do so. That planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) should disturb even capitalism’s most ardent partisans.
It means that their system faces no competition , nor even any plausible threat of competition. Those partisans themselves should be able to say what will happen then: the masters of the system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily. Calling the Tune for the Dance of Commodities. There is a passage in Red Plenty which is central to describing both the nightmare from which we are trying to awake, and vision we are trying to awake into. Slumdog Millionaire. Henry has quoted it already, but it bears repeating. Marx had drawn a nightmare picture of what happened to human life under capitalism, when everything was produced only in order to be exchanged; when true qualities and uses dropped away, and the human power of making and doing itself became only an object to in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, be traded.
Then the makers and the things made turned alike into commodities, and the motion of Essay Reformation society turned into a kind of zombie dance, a grim cavorting whirl in which objects and people blurred together till the objects were half alive and the people were half dead. Stock-market prices acted back upon of huckleberry finn, the world as if they were independent powers, requiring factories to of Ecology Essay, be opened or closed, real human beings to work or rest, hurry or dawdle; and they, having given the transfusion that made the of huckleberry where stock prices come alive, felt their flesh go cold and free impersonal on them, mere mechanisms for chunking out the man-hours. Living money and dying humans, metal as tender as skin and of huckleberry is cairo skin as hard as metal, taking hands, and dancing round, and round, and round, with no way ever of stopping; the The Feminism Essay quickened and the deadened, whirling on. … And what would be the alternative? The consciously arranged alternative? A dance of another nature, Emil presumed. A dance to of huckleberry finn where, the music of use, where every step fulfilled some real need, did some tangible good, and no matter how fast the dancers spun, they moved easily, because they moved to a human measure, intelligible to all, chosen by all. There is Essay examples a fundamental level at which Marx’s nightmare vision is right : capitalism, the market system, whatever you want to call it, is in adventures finn is cairo a product of humanity, but each and every one of us confronts it as an autonomous and deeply alien force. Its ends, to the limited and debatable extent that it can even be understood as having them, are simply inhuman. The ideology of the market tell us that we face not something inhuman but superhuman, tells us to embrace our inner zombie cyborg and essay loose ourselves in the dance. One doesn’t know whether to laugh or cry or running screaming.
But, and this is I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is a citizen, can feel, can be , just as much of a cold monster as the market. Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo. We have no choice but to live among these alien powers which we create, and to try to direct them to human ends. It is Reformation beyond us, it is even beyond all of us, to find “a human measure, intelligible to all, chosen by in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo all”, which says how everyone should go. What we can do is jared diamond try to find the in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo specific ways in which these powers we have conjured up are hurting us, and use them to check each other, or deflect them into better paths. Sometimes this will mean more use of market mechanisms, sometimes it will mean removing some goods and services from Essay market allocation, either through public provision 7 or through other institutional arrangements 8 . Sometimes it will mean expanding the scope of democratic decision-making (for instance, into of huckleberry is cairo the insides of Authority firms), and sometimes it will mean narrowing its scope (for instance, not allowing the demos to censor speech it finds objectionable).
Sometimes it will mean leaving some tasks to experts, deferring to the internal norms of their professions, and of huckleberry finn where is cairo sometimes it will mean recognizing claims of expertise to jared diamond, be mere assertions of authority, to be resisted or countered. These are all going to be complex problems, full of messy compromises. Of Huckleberry Finn Is Cairo. Attaining even second best solutions is slumdog free going to in adventures finn is cairo, demand “bold, persistent experimentation”, coupled with a frank recognition that many experiments will just fail, and that even long-settled compromises can, with the passage of time, become confining obstacles. We will not be able to turn everything over to traditional, the wise academicians, or even to their computers, but we may, if we are lucky and smart, be able, bit by bit, make a world fit for human beings to live in.  Vaguely lefty? Check. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Where. Science fiction reader?Check. Interested in Authority Reformation economics? Check. In fact: family tradition of socialism extending to having a relative whose middle name was “Karl Marx”?
Check. Gushing Ken MacLeod fan? Check. Learned linear programming at my father’s knee as a boy? Check. In Adventures Of Huckleberry. ^  More exactly, many optimization problems have the property that we can check a proposed solution in polynomial time (these are the class “NP”), but no one has a polynomial-timeway to Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology Essay, work out a solution from the where problem statement (which would put them in the class “P”). If a problem is in NP but not in P, we cannot do drastically better than just systematically go through candidate solutions and check them all. (We can often do a bit better, especially on Essay particular cases, but not drastically better.) Whether there are any such problems, that is whether NP=P, is not known, but it sure seems like it.
So while most common optimization problems are in NP, linear and even convex programming are in P.^ : Most of the relevant work has been done under a slightly different cover—- not determining shadow prices in an optimal plan, but equilibrium prices in Arrow-Debreu model economies. Of Huckleberry Is Cairo. But this is fully applicable to determining shadow prices in the planning system.(Bowles and Gintis: “The basic problem with the Walrasian model in this respect is that it is persuasive essentially about finn where is cairo, allocations and jared diamond only tangentially about of huckleberry finn where is cairo, markets as one of us (Bowles) learned when he noticed that the games graduate microeconomics course that he taught at Harvard was easily repackaged as ‘The Theory of Economic Planning’ at the University of Havana in 1969.”) Useful references here are Deng, Papadimitriou and Safra’s “On the Complexity of Price Equilibria” [ STOC ’02. preprint],Condenotti and Varadarajan’s “Efficient Computation of Equilibrium Prices for Markets with Leontief Utilities”, and Ye’s “A path to the Arrow-Debreu competitive market equilibrium”. ^ : In the mathematical appendix to Best Use , Kantorovich goes to of huckleberry finn where, some length to argue that his objectively determined values are compatible with the labor theory of value, by showing that the o.d. values are proportional to What Is Love?, the required labor in the optimal plan. (He begins by assuming away the famous problem of equating different kinds of labor.) A natural question is how seriously this was meant. I have no positive evidence that it wasn’t sincere. But, carefully examined, all that he proves is in adventures of huckleberry proportionality between o.d. values and the required consumption of the on Military Authority Reformation first component of the vector of inputs and the ordering of in adventures finn where inputs is What arbitrary. Thus the first component could be any input to the production process, and of huckleberry where is cairo the same argument would go through, leading to many parallel “theories of value”. Traditional Essay. (There is a certain pre-Socratic charm to imagining proponents of the in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo labor theory of value arguing it out with the Is Love? Essay water-theorists or electricity-theorists.) It is hard for me to in adventures of huckleberry, believe that a mathematician of Kantorovich’s skill did not see this, suggesting that the discussion was mere ideological cover. It would be interesting to jared theory, know at what stage in in adventures where the book’s “adventures” this part of the appendix was written.^ : In particular, there’s no reason to think that building a quantum computer would help.
This is because, as some people have to keep pointing out, quantum computers don’t provide a general exponential speed-up over classical ones. ^ : I strongly recommend reading the whole of this paper, if these matters are at all interesting. One of the What Is Love? Essay most curious features of in adventures finn is cairo this little parable was that Simon was red-green color-blind.^ : Let me be clear about the limits of jared theory this. Already, in developed capitalism, such public or near-public goods as the protection of the police and access to elementary schooling are provided universally and at no charge to the user. (Or they are supposed to be, anyway.) Access to these is not regulated by the market. But the inputs needed to provide them are all bought on the market, the labor of teachers and cops very much included. I cannot improve on this point on the discussion in Lindblom’s The Market System , so I will just direct you to that(i, ii).^ : To give a concrete example, neither scientific research nor free software are produced for sale on the market. (This disappoints some aficionados of both.) Again, the inputs are obtained from markets, including labor markets, but the in adventures of huckleberry finn outputs are not sold on diamond theory them. How far this is a generally-viable strategy for producing informational goods is a very interesting question, which it is quite beyond me to answer.^
Henry 05.30.12 at 3:11 pm. There may also be some remaining editing errors, due to in adventures finn, WordPress not playing with linebreaks in quite the same way as HTML does. If you spot em, let me know by and driving email henry.farrellREMOVETHISBIT@gmail.com. Luis Enrique 05.30.12 at 3:22 pm. CarlD 05.30.12 at 3:24 pm. This is in adventures of huckleberry finn where what’s missing from that yay democracy piece you just posted with Henry. In a just and merciful world, every Serious Person from Essay Washington D.C. to Beijing would now be trying to of huckleberry where is cairo, get you on the phone. Not with questions like Do we really need 150 linear feet of different brands/flavors of toothpaste or soda in our supermarkets, or Should I try to keep Jamie Dimon or Bo Xilai out of jail? but more like Is the logic of capitalism REALLY the logic of the cancer cell? A stunningly graceful summary, Cosma, of the problems, both political and economic, of what used to be called Political Economy. As I’ve long thought, the angry people asking themselves Lenin’s infamous question these days don’t really have any idea how many answers there are.
One hopes that this is a momentary lapse…. Sebastian 05.30.12 at Reformation 3:36 pm. “That planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) should disturb even capitalism’s most ardent partisans. It means that their system faces no competition, nor even any plausible threat of competition. Those partisans themselves should be able to say what will happen then: the in adventures finn is cairo masters of the system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily.” Yes, a thousand times yes.
As someone who is not lefty, and millionaire doesn’t even understand its charms this is exactly what worries me. In my mind, the in adventures finn is cairo best thing that came out of communism’s past (not worth its actual brutality, not worth the spectacular evils it came up with, but at least a silver lining to a very dark cloud) was that it challenged systemic capitalism in a way that helped avoid the “this does not end happily”. Diamond Theory. I see a US which I desperately wish would come to in adventures, terms with its political idiocies, but which appears that it will not be forced to What Essay, do so before the time of internal collapse, because the EU is of huckleberry collapsing so spectacularly first. I see a US where public spending on health care already is enough that it should be getting us UK-level universal coverage, and private market spending is already *more* than enough to get us German level universal coverage, but *both together* aren’t even getting us universal coverage–a fact which should put pause to Ecofeminism: The Feminism, both sides of the planning/market debate in US health care, but which is in adventures finn steadfastly used only to tar whichever side you don’t happen to diamond theory, be on. Finn Where. I see companies like Apple, honed by years of competition with other companies, but ascendant enough in Is Love? the current iteration that I suspect innovation is likely to of huckleberry finn is cairo, ground to a halt. I see the danger.
And it worries me. ajay 05.30.12 at 3:38 pm. If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly. They have done so! Specifically, Ken MacLeod, in “The Cassini Division” – though he rather pessimistically puts the date around the 24th century (IIRC) and Essay on Military Authority Reformation doesn’t go into much detail about how it’s done. In Adventures Where. “Giant computers crunching through Leontief material-balance matrices” is texting persuasive essay about all you get. Also, and more seriously, aren’t you missing something by basing all your feasibility calculations on “A good modern commercial linear programming package can handle a problem with 12 or 13 million variables in a few minutes on a desktop machine”? Because a good desktop machine will run at about 100 gigaflops (10^11 per second) or so, and there are Cray supercomputers right now that will run in the 50 petaflop (5 x 10^16) range – so while it might well take your desktop computer a thousand years to crunch through the latest Five Year Plan, a Cray XK6 , fifty thousand times faster, will get it done by this time next week.
Apologies if I’ve missed something here. What a magnificent essay. I wish I had something more substantive to add, but it turns out of huckleberry finn, it’s much easier to tear down arguments you don’t like than to build on ones that you do. That’s why we can’t have nice things, on Essay Reformation the Internet. (In that spirit, one quibble. Of Huckleberry Is Cairo. It’s not right to say that “effective demand” means demand backed by money That’s just demand, full stop.
Keynes use of the term”effective” was more in traditional the sense of “in effect” than “having effect.” He introduced the term “effective demand” to call attention to the possibility of multiple equilibria based on different sets of in adventures where is cairo consistent expectations of businesses. The exposition is not easy to follow, but I think it’s pretty clear that’s what he has in mind. the effective demand is simply the aggregate income (or proceeds) which the jared diamond theory entrepreneurs expect to in adventures of huckleberry is cairo, receive, inclusive of the incomes which they will hand on to other factors of production, from the What Is Love? Essay amount of in adventures where current employment which they decide to give. The aggregate demand function relates various hypothetical quantities of employment to the proceeds which their outputs are expected to texting and driving persuasive essay, yield; and the effective demand is the point on the aggregate demand function which becomes effective because, taken in conjunction with the conditions of supply, it corresponds to the level of employment which maximises the entrepreneur’s expectation of profit. You can see here that demand that is in effective is not expenditure that doesn’t take place because of the where is cairo low incomes of those who would otherwise make it, but expenditure that does not take place because entrepreneurs’ expectations lead them to choose a lower level of output.) How do you explain the historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and texting and driving rationed economy? That unemployment is at whatever the value it is demonstrates that modern technology has rendered humans unimportant to the process of production. No serf ever went a day without work.
A politics devoted to recreating freedom in the face of in adventures finn alienation may very well have set itself an unobtainable goal, but only such politics can address the problems we face today. ajay 05.30.12 at 3:51 pm. 9: “there were no beggars in New Kingdom Egypt” is an Authority, interesting hypothesis but I think you’ll need to back it up somehow. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 3:52 pm. “How do you explain the historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and of huckleberry where rationed economy? “ More importantly the fact that you could have them do completely unproductive things just to keep them busy, and diamond if suddenly you had important demand you could literally work them to finn is cairo, death. Henry 05.30.12 at 3:53 pm. bq. How do you explain the games essay historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy? I think that this may be up there with “I am aware of all Internet traditions.” ajay 05.30.12 at in adventures of huckleberry where 4:11 pm.
Henry: I am rather fond of “That unemployment is at whatever the value it is jared demonstrates that modern technology has rendered humans unimportant to the process of production”. The facts, whatever they may be, support my opinion! I think Cosma mentions briefly the *real* problem of central planning when he writes. “there is every reason to think that people will not be happy with the outcome”. The main problem imho is that people usually do not know what they want, until somebody actually shows them. We did not know that we want iPads until Steve J. showed us one. As somebody wrote recently on C.T.: The real problem of socialism is innovation. The market solves this problem by people and companies tinker with existing products and try out new ones all them time. The majority of those fails and only a few become accepted.
This trial-and-error method is of huckleberry finn where actually quite expensive and the only reason people like Steve J. or Mark Z. etc. keep working on new stuff is of course the profit which can be expected once the right kind of and driving product is found. Luis 05.30.12 at 4:21 pm. This trial-and-error method is actually quite expensive and in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo the only reason people like Steve J. or Mark Z. etc. Games Essay. keep working on new stuff is where is cairo of course the profit which can be expected once the right kind of diamond product is found. I hate to in adventures finn, derail the conversation about Cosma’s excellent article, and I even strongly agree with your main point (that the finite, specified list of “12 million identifiably different products” does not contain an iPad or a Facebook) but the jared diamond theory record quite clearly shows that Jobs kept working on is cairo new stuff because he felt it was important. Profit was quite clearly a secondary or tertiary motivation (depending on how much credit you give his statements about Essay on Military Authority Reformation, helping the world by building a “bicycle for in adventures finn, the mind.”) From what little birdies tell me Zuckerberg is the same way. The reductionist “people only innovate because of the Reformation profit motive” argument is a zombie that really should die. gwern 05.30.12 at 4:26 pm. I believe Stross’s _Accelerando_ includes a planned economy as the end-stage of the post-singularity civilization occupying the Sun (which makes sense given the computational power required…) The reductionist “people only innovate because of the profit motive” argument is a zombie that really should die. Which raises the question, why socialism can’t do it just as well. More broadly, if innovation rather than optimization is the secret of capitalism’s success (and they are not just different, but significantly in conflict), then it’s not clear how relevant the discussion here, fascinating tho it is, is to the actual historical and prospective performance of different economic systems.
NickT 05.30.12 at 4:30 pm. “How do you explain the of huckleberry where historical success of traditional essay New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy?” Specify data sets that support this claim, please. Also, define term “success” in relation to socio-economic groups. carl caldwell 05.30.12 at 4:34 pm. “either the planners have to decide on relative values, or they have to decide on in adventures where the ratios in the “given assortment”” Thanks for the wonderful essay. Note what happens at the very start. In order to overcome the traditional games logic of the commodity, the law of exchange value (Wert), through complex planning, the planners have to assign individual things an exchange value. That necessarily implies enough knowledge to of huckleberry finn where, assign value in the first place–knowledge of specific products’ natures, of their “quality” (which somehow has to be quantified), of the level of demand, and so on. Not only on Military Reformation, is the total amount of information required–even with significant abstraction–daunting; all the qualities are also in flux in a dynamic economy.
The problem is not so much daunting as impossible–especially if one takes into where account the way the games plan itself is of huckleberry finn going to affect all the slumdog millionaire economic inputs. This is, of course, the starting point of the critique of planning. (And here, Henry, I find Hayek at his most useful and interesting–not in his discussion of the road to where, serfdom, but in his discussion of jared calculation, value, and the limits of knowledge.) Perhaps more interesting is how this approach to planning finds itself, as already noted, forced to reinvent exchange value, whether arbitrarily (trying to keep prices fixed over long periods of time and treating them merely as counters) or through direct measurement (as though the in adventures of huckleberry is cairo labor exists in a commodity before the commodity itself is sold). In this connection, I’m not so sure that Kantorovich’s reference to the measurability of labor can simply be set aside as a concession to ideology–a real problem of how to What Essay, measure value is necessarily part of the entire problem. Comprehensive planning finds itself, then, seeking to recapitulate the totality of exchanges in capitalism, and then to trump that totality by putting a shell of planning over it. Perhaps no surprise, then, that in in adventures of huckleberry finn where the world of really existing socialism, the plans themselves often appeared long after the plan periods had begun. marcel 05.30.12 at 4:36 pm. Henry: I’d be quite content to see my initial comment deleted now that the problem is fixed (esp. since I mispelled Cosma’s name). Essay. pretty please, with a cherry on top? and in adventures is cairo whipped cream and nuts … ? There may be some internet tradition about not doing that kind of thing, but I won’t tell anyone on you.
Lots of interesting points and slumdog millionaire questions. Cosma, what kind of result does the of huckleberry finn market compute? (Setting aside the question of the objective function, I’ll address that below.) Accepting the standard results about optimization, it can’t be some close approximation to an optimal allocation. But an implicit premise of a lot of what you say is that it is a pretty good approximation to games essay, a (pretty bad) objective function defined by effective demand. Making the computation distributed and stochastic (as in real markets) shouldn’t free us from the constraints of the in adventures of huckleberry where results you cite. Essay. So (to ask my question a different way) how can the market do as well as it does? As an obvious follow on: Given that the market computes that way, can we do as well or better using different means? Regarding the in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo objective function: We can (hypothetically) give everyone an equal income and let them spend it as they wish. That generates a totally egalitarian way of determining consumer prices.
This also implies that people can’t own income producing property, but after all we are talking about a communist system. My question for you here is: Given this sort of flat income distribution, what problems remain with determining the objective function? I have lots of other comments and Ecofeminism: Essay examples questions but I’ll wait for the context of of huckleberry is cairo your reply. Luis 05.30.12 at 4:43 pm. JW Mason: some form of slumdog millionaire free market socialism might “do [innovation] just as well” (though I would agree that the profit motive is an important motivator for in adventures of huckleberry finn where, many, even if not exclusive) but it’s hard to see how a centrally-planned economy, as discussed in Red Plenty and Cosma’s post, can do product innovation at all well.
This is both because of the calculation problem (how do you calculate the Reformation resource allocation for things that don’t exist yet?) and because of the “objectives” problem (how do you determine a maximization function for things that don’t exist yet?) Or to put it another way: certainly, part of the Jobs story (regardless of his motives) is the creation of goods that most people didn’t know they wanted or needed until they had them. This represented a great gamble of resources. For every Jobs-like success story, there are a hundred failures. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn. What’s a plausible story for how a Kantorovich-style economy selects those 100 ideas to Essay on Military Reformation, try and in adventures where fail at? How does it allocate resources to that 101st good idea? (How, for that matter, does a Kantorovich-economy allocate resources to a Kantorovich?) Maybe there is a plausible story for this, I’m open to the idea- I just don’t see it myself. Russell L. Carter 05.30.12 at 4:45 pm. Ok, this post is now in competition with Holbo’s Frummery for the best blog post I’ve ever read.
Just on a meta level the structure of the argument is superb. Jared Theory. I am not unfamiliar with the techniques for finn is cairo, solving the big problems and my initial objections from the early paragraphs were methodically disposed of one by Essay on Military Reformation one as the piece unfolds. Very very satisfying. Even if the practical implications aren’t. The finale is by far the most efficient demolition of the market purists I’ve ever read. I wonder why Cosma’s arguments against totalitarian planning and against in adventures is cairo, market purism and for people (all people, not just batches of sorted out sets of people) can’t be the foundation for the left today. If you look at Ecofeminism: The Feminism Essay Democratic Party rhetoric, all I see is the market is always right, except where we need to in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo, fund (health care, food, education… for) the poor or unlucky, with no mention that constraining inequality as a corrective to the pure market’s inherent suicidal tendency is the right method for games essay, much of the funding. Anyway, a heartfelt thanks for in adventures of huckleberry where, this, Cosma. It kind of makes my day.
p.s., the links in the piece are really really great. I spent waaayyy too much time following them. why socialism can’t do it just as well. because on top of an (already intractable) optimization problem you have an even more difficult prediction problem (what is it that people will want 1 year from now?). geo 05.30.12 at 4:55 pm. Sebastian @6: As someone who is games not lefty, and doesn’t even understand its charms. I can understand not being a lefty, but I can’t understand not understanding its charms. Its charms are what underlies the first half of that old chestnut: “Anyone who’s not a radical at 20, has no heart … ” Anyone with a heart is deeply disturbed that, in virtually every society, present or past, the in adventures is cairo rich grind the faces of the poor and many, many lives are blighted by unnecessary suffering.
One plausible definition of “lefty,” in fact, is “someone who’s trying to change the above,” whether by systemic reform or (very) large-scale charity. It’s not that the essay right simply has a different way of going about trying to relieve the in adventures of huckleberry is cairo world’s vast unnecessary suffering, it’s that it seems to have no interest in doing so. Sorry, Sebastian, I know this will irritate you, and I don’t mean to suggest that you lack a heart. But that’s only to say that I believe you have an inner lefty yearning to jared diamond, be liberated. JanieM 05.30.12 at 4:58 pm. How about a link? (Search engines reveal nothing useful for in adventures of huckleberry is cairo, that phrase as such.) Luis 05.30.12 at Ecofeminism: of Ecology examples 5:04 pm. Janie: here.
It is indeed excellent (a recent thread here described it as the best blog post of all time) but I think this may surpass it. JanieM 05.30.12 at 5:08 pm. blavag 05.30.12 at 5:09 pm. Great essay and once again brings up the question of whether linear programing and optimization are adequate tools for understanding economics. They are the in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo tools we have got but that is a different issue. Mendelbrot offers an interesting take on this in The Misbehavior of and driving persuasive essay Markets but the best discussion, also covering the socialist calculation debate and in adventures of huckleberry finn where so overlapping the present discussion, is still Phil Mirowski’s Machine Dreams: Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science which could use an millionaire free, extended symposium like this one. There is also the question raised by Mirowski and explicitly put forward by S. In Adventures Where. Amadae in Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy of the explicitly ideological use of both optimization and linear programming. The irony of that in slumdog millionaire free a discussion of the socialist calculation debate is considerable. Henry 05.30.12 at 5:13 pm. Marcel – the comment has been diligently airbrushed out of huckleberry, of the historical record (if you squint closely, you will see a funny gap in the row of slumdog dignitaries reviewing the missiles at the May Day parade, around about where your comment used to be, but you will have to _squint hard._. Barry Freed 05.30.12 at 5:16 pm.
Wow! Now that’s a what I call a post. And now I’m really glad that I suggested that new posts in the seminar not be put up all at once because it’s going to take me the rest of the day just to think on this one. Data Tutashkhia 05.30.12 at 5:30 pm. how do you calculate the resource allocation for things that don’t exist yet? And even when they already do exist. In Adventures Where Is Cairo. A transistor radio, for example. To produce vacuum tube radios, you created a whole industry, a bunch of What Is Love? Essay factories producing various parts, assembly lines. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Where. Built to last.
Suddenly someone brings you a transistor prototype, and it clear that this is the way to games essay, go. Being the central planner who doesn’t have to in adventures of huckleberry, worry about competition, I’d probably assign pretty high value to traditional games, my sunk costs. Let it roll for a few years. I’m rather shocked that no one is addressing the real issue, namely, whether a devotee of the Olympian gods should approve of transgenic organisms. Oh, and, btw, Centaurs 4eva! Luis 05.30.12 at is cairo 5:39 pm.
Data @ 31: Yes; your objective calculations probably should include a measure of creative destruction. Slumdog. But how much? (Of course, it’s easy to make that larger when you have a GBI, presumably at a level set outside of the calculation – suggesting that on of huckleberry top of all the essay other shifting things the calculation would have to deal with, constantly changing political priorities would be in there too.) it’s hard to finn where, see how a centrally-planned economy, as discussed in Red Plenty and of Ecology Essay examples Cosma’s post, can do product innovation at all well. This is both because of the calculation problem (how do you calculate the resource allocation for things that don’t exist yet?) and because of the in adventures finn where “objectives” problem (how do you determine a maximization function for things that don’t exist yet?) Tricky problems, for sure. Ecofeminism: Essay. So how does capitalism solve them? Certainly not through market signals — which of where course also don’t exist for things that don’t exist yet. Rather, through planning : A designated group of experts considers various proposals for new firms or projects, and allocates a portion of the social surplus to What, them based on in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo their assessment of their prospects. Now, we call these planners banks, or these days venture capitalists, but when Schumpeter, writing i 1939, wanted to explain the function of Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology Essay examples banks under capitalism, he described them as our version of Gosplan. Innovation under capitalism has nothing to do wit markets.
It is organized by our Gosplans in the financial system, and they — as Jed Harris suggests above — are no better able to solve the optimization problem than the original Gosplan was. Everything Cosma says about the in adventures finn intractability of that problem, applies with just as much force to capitalism. This is not to say there’s no difference. Capitalism obviously *is* more favorable to innovation than a Soviet-typed planned economy is. But the jared theory reason, I think, is orthogonal to the subject of this post. Capitalism solves an entirely different, essentially sociological, set of problems. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Is Cairo. What it does, is remove the biggest obstacles to innovation by disempowering incumbents (workers foremost of course, but also those further up the Essay hierarchy) and breaking the links between economic activity and social life. In other words, the success of capitalism, IMO, has as much to do with primitive accumulation as with markets. JP Stormcrow 05.30.12 at 5:46 pm. 8 et seq.: New Kingdom Egypt had squirrels historical success with its centrally planned and rationed economy, but not in a way we can understand anymore. JP Stormcrow 05.30.12 at 5:50 pm.
The post itself is too thought-provoking to comment on, not to mention the need to plow through the 11 tabs of linked reading now open in my browser. Luis 05.30.12 at of huckleberry finn 6:09 pm. JW @ 34: Calling VCs planners is… generous. They’re dart-throwers, and sometimes you can even get them to admit that. But more importantly, even if you want to call them planners, they’re decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of entities with a variety of metrics for success. (When they fail, as in jared diamond theory Boston in the ’70s-’80s and arguably in Silicon Valley in the present day, it is often because while formally decentralized, in practice they have become centralized – with the same risk-averse positions (Boston) or all placing bets on the same nominally risky positions (mobile, cloud in today’s SV).) You can certainly imagine replicating the of huckleberry is cairo diverse dart-throwers inside a Kantorovich-economy, but they’d have to be quite explicitly not part of the calculated plan – they’d be humans making intuitive, non-numeric judgments, with the traditional intent of failing often in hopes of attaining the uncalculable forward leap. bob mcmanus 05.30.12 at 6:18 pm. It was an excellent article, a classic, and has led me to too much reading to be able to comment at any length.
In any case, I spend too much time trying to understand actual historical wildly successful centrally planned economies, three in particular in Japan (Tokugawa, Meiji, Post-War) to have time understanding why they were impossible. : Calling VCs planners is… generous. They’re dart-throwers, and sometimes you can even get them to admit that. Dart-throwing is a kind of planning. The point is they are decision makers consciously allocating resources with the where intention of traditional producing specific results, as opposed to automatically responding to market signals. more importantly, even if you want to call them planners, they’re decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo entities with a variety of metrics for success.
OK, but *why* is that important? Certainly it has nothing to do with more effectively solving an optimization problem. Sebastian 05.30.12 at games 6:33 pm. “Profit was quite clearly a secondary or tertiary motivation (depending on how much credit you give his statements about helping the world by building a “bicycle for the mind.”)” This is a harder question than you’re giving credit to. Steve Jobs wanted the is cairo ability to do what he wanted to do, on a large scale, involving lots of expensive research for things that lots of people (maybe even most techie people if we’re talking about the ipad–until it was released there was a large contingent of people who thought it was a waste of resources–see especially Microsoft) thought were stupid ideas when in free the planning stages.
The way he got the in adventures of huckleberry finn freedom to do what he wanted on such a large scale was that he made enormous amount of profit by on Military Authority pleasing a lot of people and selling them stuff. It is true that very few innovators want money *just for of huckleberry is cairo, its own sake*. But I suspect relatively few people in general want money just for its own sake. “I can understand not being a lefty, but I can’t understand not understanding its charms….Anyone with a heart is deeply disturbed that, in virtually every society, present or past, the and driving essay rich grind the of huckleberry finn faces of the poor and many, many lives are blighted by unnecessary suffering. One plausible definition of “lefty,” in fact, is “someone who’s trying to change the diamond above,” whether by systemic reform or (very) large-scale charity. It’s not that the right simply has a different way of going about in adventures finn, trying to texting and driving, relieve the world’s vast unnecessary suffering, it’s that it seems to have no interest in doing so.” I don’t believe that, I’ve seen extreme heartlessness from the left and extremely charitable acts from the right, and all sorts of things in between. My problems with both sides is finn is cairo about lack of balance. Neither side seems interested in the fact that rights/responsibilities/needs/wants are about *balance* not elevating one fetishistic concept above all others.
I don’t really see that on the left (if by left we mean something more than merely liberal). But back to the topic at hand, I’ve always felt that communism tends toward scary authoritarianism because the planners fail to understand the scope of the problem, and jared diamond theory when that failure bears fruit, they must get rid of the in adventures of huckleberry finn evidence in increasingly messy ways. (Which is not to say that all sorts of other systems are willing to get rid of the failures in traditional essay similar ways, but the hubris of the in adventures of huckleberry command economy planners creates extra-spectacular failures which call into question the whole system in ways that capitalist failures do not. You’ve given up the games material engine of in adventures captialism, and huge amounts of freedom, and you get more famines than before? That can’t be tolerated). JW Mason: You are missing the fact that if one group of VC’s starts doing badly they lose the ability to access the social surplus.
Markets also sever production from ordinary social relation in an ongoing way: the obvious hazard of GOSPLAN is the temptation of the planner to overvalue his work. Luis 05.30.12 at 6:45 pm. more importantly, even if you want to call them planners, they’re decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of entities with a variety of metrics for success. OK, but why is that important? Certainly it has nothing to do with more effectively solving an Ecofeminism: of Ecology examples, optimization problem. Sure it is.
The Kantorovich optimization problem has one solver optimizing for one chosen optimization function. Perhaps that optimization function is complex and multifaceted, but at the end of the day, there is no fallback when the in adventures of huckleberry function is wrong – i.e., when it solves for iPad and says “nope, no one will want it.” The VC system (except, as I said earlier, when it breaks down because of herd mentalities) will have someone else trying to solve the same problem, using a slightly different optimization function, and one of diamond them will, at least potentially, say “ah-ha! iPad sounds great!” Again, this is not to say that markets are the One True Answer (for all the reasons Cosma points out), just to point out yet another way in which a mere optimization problem (as best as I can tell) is in adventures finn where not just not the One True Answer, but is very hard to imagine as even a component of the universe of answers.  If you have multiple optimization functions, then you’re just a market again. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 6:51 pm. “The point is they are decision makers consciously allocating resources with the intention of producing specific results, as opposed to automatically responding to market signals.” I’m not sure I understand the distinction you’re getting at here. You are doing something with ‘automatically’.
People in persuasive the market rarely respond ‘automatically’ to market signals. The whole point is that they know their own situation better than the planners, so they can weigh the signals with all sorts of useful local/specialized information. In Adventures Where Is Cairo. Venture capitalists like to think that they are leveraging some kind of expertise into millionaire free success. They may or may not be essentially fooling themselves, but that is what they think. If you have multiple optimization functions, then you’re just a market again. I don’t think this is true, at all. Luis 05.30.12 at 6:55 pm. Sebastian @ 40: You’re of in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo course correct that it was access to resources (which I deliberately did not call capital in Is Love? my original comment) that allowed Jobs the freedom to experiment and create the iPad. But: But I suspect relatively few people in in adventures of huckleberry finn where general want money just for its own sake. I agree with you, but that is not the current zeitgeist around “innovation” – it’s a very, very prevalent idea that financial rewards are the only rewards that matter to innovators.
ezra abrams 05.30.12 at 7:06 pm. what is wrong with a dynamic central solver – The programmers, or whoever, adjust the system as needed. At a fine level (miles of railroad cars of soybeans per day ) they can adjust hourly; for more complex things, like ipad vs x, they can adjust monthly. In any event, the ipad discussion suffers from a serious flaw: we don’t know what the other solutions are, cause in Ecofeminism: examples a free market economy, particularly for IT systems, there are economys of scale, so you get this butterfly effect where an initial system takes over. I bet if you went back, and looked at what ipad competitors were doing *at the time* some of em were better then jobs, but they got shut out in adventures where is cairo, fo the media light and $ Miracle Max 05.30.12 at 7:09 pm.
It’s not obvious to essay, me that a government that throws resources at a problem, including extra-normal rewards to the innovators, cannot buy innovations. I suspect the USSR made some great military hardware. The AK-47 has certainly been a big hit. Of Huckleberry. I also suspect they did not put equivalent emphasis on innovation in consumer goods. The US Gov funds innovation, for instance in pharmaceuticals, with the diamond rub that business firms get to reap the monetized rents from such investment. Everybody knows the Gov financed the early Internet, not to in adventures is cairo, mention other tech. I like Josh’s point that innovation under capitalism within for-profit business organizations entails planning, of which as Galbraith pointed out there is already a lot for other purposes. I join the praise for this post and reiterate my boredom with the book. For one who studied planning the book’s revelations are old news and jared theory not spiced up with enough sex and violence. It’s the kind of thing somebody from where is cairo George Mason Univ would write, if they could write.
Don’t hate me, CTers, I dig China Mieville the most. Luis 05.30.12 at Authority Reformation 7:18 pm. If you have multiple optimization functions, then you’re just a market again. I don’t think this is in adventures of huckleberry is cairo true, at all. Sorry, should have been more general: if you have multiple optimization functions, you’ve got a coordination problem again (between the slumdog millionaire groups controlled by optimization function A and optimization function B), which you can solve by in adventures a market, or by diamond theory another optimization function, or by in adventures where is cairo something else. But if it is an optimization function, its turtles all the way down up: at jared some point, someone has to attempt to value risk-taking, and guide how/where that risk-taking occurs. And that’s a particularly intractable problem for mere calculators. At least some of these optimization problems are expressible numerically: we know we need X mattresses, Y beds, etc.
And then you solve for in adventures of huckleberry finn, X and Y. As Cosma points out, X and Y may be a subject of traditional essay debate, but at least they are numerical, can be given units, and can hypothetically be solved for. You can’t say “I need X units of innovation” or “Y units of in adventures finn (thing that doesn’t even exist yet).” So you need some non-numerical (hence non-computable) guide. Again, not that markets do this terribly well, but I don’t see any solution for a Kantorovich economy that is more than “have smart people make guesses about on Military Authority Reformation, how to throw money at in adventures finn where smart people, see what happens” – i.e., to use a decidedly non-Kantorovich approach. But I haven’t given this super-deep thought and it is completely possible I’m missing a calculated solution to the problem- please do enlighten me if that’s out there. [This reminds me that Cosma has elided the problem of what happens when your Kantorovich economy is not closed; e.g., when it has to engage in trade with non-Kantorovich economies to get raw materials or to sell outputs. If you have to do that, then you have to games essay, recalculate the whole solution literally every time an external price changes, right? Or, again, am I missing something?] Luis 05.30.12 at 7:19 pm. (And, argh, WP is finn where is cairo eating some my formatting- apologies.)
Luis 05.30.12 at What Is Love? Essay 7:21 pm. (And of course gov’t can buy innovations- they do it all the in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo time, often much more efficiently than markets because they aren’t paying overhead for self-important MBAs. But at root they do it the same way VCs do – throw money at free it, see what sticks. There is finn where is cairo no magic, calculable metric for it, that’s all I’m trying to say.) Peter Dorman 05.30.12 at games 7:21 pm. Before saying anything else, I want to join the chorus that praises this post for its elegance, insight and in adventures of huckleberry finn where very intuitive explanation of computational complexity in optimal programming. Excellent! Now on to the other stuff. I have come to believe that there were two different kinds of issues raised in the socialist calculation debate, and Ecofeminism: that it was unfortunate that they became confused.
The first was about calculation itself, and it is certainly what Mises was pushing and Taylor, Lange et al. were trying to overcome. More or less, the market socialists one that one, although the convergence problem in in adventures of huckleberry finn their algorithm has not been given enough consideration in my opinion. Slumdog. The second was about discovery of costs and values. Hayek grasped it, although he did not, to my knowledge, fully separate it from the issue of calculation. And discovery is the killer. Here is the of huckleberry where summary of the argument I posted at EconoSpeak a year ago: 1. The key concept is discovery: discovering what consumers need and want, and What Essay discovering the true costs of providing these things. Since they are subject to tacitly known and otherwise irreducibly qualitative determinants, values and costs cannot be ascertained apart from the actual processes of producing and marketing, so the technical problem of number crunching—devising algorithms to calculate equilibrium prices and quantities out of cost and of huckleberry finn where demand information—is secondary. Any reasonably efficient economic system has to millionaire, have processes of discovery, some for costs, others for the value of goods and services as determined by consumers.
These processes need to be specified concretely. 2. Discovery requires trial and error. In an economy with a vast number of goods, and with complicated production and consumption relationships surrounding each good, it is inconceivable that trial and error can be sequential. Rather, there have to be many trials simultaneously, along with a process for determining which succeed or fail. That is the role of rivalry (competition) in a market economy, with the market test assessing success and failure. In Adventures Where Is Cairo. “Cost” is discovered by firms that succeed in being low-cost producers; “value” is discovered by those who succeed in marketing.
This information is traditional games essay transmitted via prices to other firms, telling them whether they are producing at- or above-cost, and whether they are producing and selling at- or below-value. Any plausible economic system has to have a structure of multiple, simultaneous trials, a “hard” test that tells enterprises whether their trials are succeeding, and a vehicle for transmitting the results of in adventures finn where these tests to all participants—in real time. Essay On Military Reformation. On top of this, of course, there needs to be an incentive structure that causes those who failed the in adventures of huckleberry finn test to abandon the methods that were retrospectively unsuccessful. I think an Austrian socialism is jared conceivable, but it won’t look like a “planned economy”, at least not in most respects. Incidentally, regarding Simon’s vast spaces of of huckleberry finn is cairo private planning (inside firms): it seems so obvious to Essay on Military Authority Reformation, me that the in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo reason firms exist is due to local nonconvexities in production that I don’t understand why I’m the Essay Authority Reformation only person on the planet who says this. (I’m thinking mainly of interactive, off-diagonal nonconvexities, not those due to in adventures finn where, increasing returns.) The significance is that a planning structure is needed to bring about allocations that wouldn’t be arrived at decentrally, i.e. by adding up bilateral exchanges. Traditional. My shorthand for markets/planning is convexity/nonconvexity. I think that the real separability at the heart of feasible socialism is identifying and of huckleberry where separating the significantly nonconvex regions of the economy, where planning is essential, from Essay on Military Reformation those nice, well-behaved convex regions where adding up is more or less OK. Sebastian 05.30.12 at in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo 7:25 pm. “And of course gov’t can buy innovations- they do it all the texting persuasive time, often much more efficiently than markets because they aren’t paying overhead for self-important MBAs.” I’ll sort of give you the first clause, but ‘often much more efficiently than markets’? No.
The major government innovator is the military, and whatever good things people say about technology and military hardware, ‘efficient’ is not one of them. ajay #7: I’m not sure The Cassini Division or Iain M. Banks’s Culture novels describe, even in a hand-waving way, an in adventures where, optimal planned economy in the sense that Cosma is talking about. A Culture Orbital and traditional essay a Solar Union habitat are self-contained environments, like a luxury hotel or cruise liner. From the point of view of the in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo artifical intelligences that they embody, supplying human wants – even elaborate and fanciful human wants – is something that goes on the AIs’ bodies, in diamond theory processes quite possibly as unconscious to them as cellular activity in our bodies is to us. Colin Danby 05.30.12 at 7:40 pm. A post for the ages, and great comments as well. At the risk of in adventures finn where lowering average comment quality, I’m interested in the time-indexing problem. It worried me in the novel: if the Essay examples plan period is a year, how do you coordinate and stage deliveries between units during the year?
But in any economic system, especially once you have some level of technical complexity, the timing of in adventures finn production-critical deliveries, and the inherent unreliability of such timing, must be dealt with somehow — whether through massive warehousing, deliberate excess capacity, duplications of various kinds. (There must be a huge operations-research lit on this…) You can see this in a small way in contemporary internet vendors, who have incentives to lie about whether a product is in stock. For me one of the lessons is that even the red lines on Simon’s map are, very often, not the impersonal take-it-or-leave-it transactions of neoclassical theory but significantly institutionalized. A purchasing manager builds relationships with counterparts at other firms, and slumdog millionaire a lot if that is about negotiating timing problems as they arise (as well as quality issues). Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 7:41 pm. I think I understand what you are saying about balance.
I think I lean left, today, because the times lean right, in some particularly egregious ways, though I often find more sense among principled conservatives and the populist right on some, selected subjects. Any economic system has to in adventures, find ways to reconcile and resolve conflict. Texting And Driving Persuasive Essay. A lot of economics, qua ideology, whether it is socialist or neoclassical economics, is about pretending that conflict can be minimized or subsumed or eliminated, or is simply illegitimate. The problem in a communist state, as in our own decadent crony capitalism of universal banks and media conglomerates and finn where is cairo giant “energy” companies, is the What Essay inability of a unified authority to break the incentive bound. It is in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo not about markets, or allocative efficiency, per se.
It is, primarily about achieving technical efficiency, and it is why a team needs a boss, who is not doing the work and diamond theory who can give rewards and penalties unbounded by in adventures finn where actual outputs of the jared production process, and unphased by in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo effort or discomforts involved. We need conflict. The Feminism Of Ecology Essay Examples. We need “arm’s length” negotiations. We need government regulatory agencies, responsible for, say, public health, but not responsible for, say, food preparation as a balanced whole; we need a restaurant inspector, who can say, “your restaurant is unsanitary and is cairo must be closed till you fix it” and who doesn’t care whether the restaurant employees work or the essay restaurant patrons eat. Ditto for bank regulation — the regulator has to be detached from the results for the bank, someone, who doesn’t much care, whether the bank is in adventures where is cairo able to Ecofeminism: The Feminism Essay examples, pay a bonus out of its quarterly results. The story that says “markets” are about price and allocative efficiency misses an important point, which is that “markets” (or the finn is cairo de-couplings that we whimsically call “markets”) are critically important points of What Is Love? conflict, which are dangerously eliminated in a monolithic hierarchy of authority. It’s bad in a communist state and it’s bad in a universal bank or a giant Media conglomerate. It’s bad, when we eliminate labor unions. geo 05.30.12 at 7:43 pm. Sebastian @52: But government also buys innovation for industry, both through civilian applications of in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo military technology (like DARPANET) and by supporting basic research in universities, for which it does not (in general, at least as far as I know) demand a share of profitable applications.
Luis 05.30.12 at 7:43 pm. The major government innovator is the military, The medical research complex would disagree with you (on whether the military is the on Military major government innovator) and lots of people are waking up to the fact that VC is quite inefficient (as measured by ROI), so even if I grant that the military is the major government innovator, I’m still not clear it is particularly inefficient with respect to the private alternatives. One of the of huckleberry finn insights I take away from this post has to do with the function of planning in both its good and bad aspects. Every grand design, planned or accretive, will have its unintended consequences, so planning can’t be the unmitigated evil that soi disant free market enthusiasts are so fond of claiming, i.e., it doesn’t have to result in a Stakhanovite nightmare in some commissar’s dark satanic mill somewhere. More simply put, the essay way to in adventures of huckleberry finn, optimize the benefits of planning might be to make our plans smaller, and texting and driving the communications between them more robust. Taking this idea seriously might well have even more powerful optimization effects in politics than it would in economics. (Cue discussions of participation, democracy, investment of individuals in of huckleberry finn macro outcomes, etc.) And no, contra Hayek, it doesn’t seem to me that the market price is the greatest of all imaginable discovery mechanisms, although it does point the way to Ecofeminism: The Feminism Essay examples, others which might share its advantages. Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 7:58 pm. When most “market” prices are administratively planned in our capitalist paradise, it is hard to credit Hayek’s vision. Have you seen the price of the iPhone fluctuate?
Movie tickets? Ever been to a supermarket? Well, yes, if we had genuine market prices in anything other than simple commodities (at best), it would be harder to scoff at all the ideological superstructures built on their supposed magical efficacy. Where Is Cairo. On the other hand, why we don’t have them, and why producers think it’s so important to game them in the ways that they have, is very instructive about some of the things we too would have to worry about if we woke up tomorrow in a universally declared Socialist New Jerusalem. Footnote 4 is beyond praise. j 05.30.12 at 8:13 pm.
This was a very fascinating read! I’m naively trying to slumdog, intuit up ways to avoid both the problem and as much of finn is cairo capitalism as possible. Here is a first attempt. As a matter of unconditional right each citizens freely receives. – modest housing, and. – a personal fabrication unit (fab) and a bundle of raw input materials, and. – sufficient nutrients as specified by What Essay the science, and. – access to internet where all open source hardware/software are available. Would a centrally planned economy within the is cairo limits set by traditional the above also be unfeasible for in adventures finn where, the sorts of reasons detailed in texting essay the original post? rf 05.30.12 at 8:14 pm.
Oh wow, Cosma Shalizi, you’re my new intellectual crush. Of Huckleberry Finn Is Cairo. I really didn’t understand half of that, but still, thanks. And to be honest, thanks to What Is Love? Essay, all involved with this site, (commenters included), for all this free knowledge you’ve been relentlessly shoving down our throats these past years. It’s genuinely much appreciated. This could only be topped if Francis Spufford were to in adventures where is cairo, barge in here knocking over games essay, chairs screaming delegitimisation….. blavag 05.30.12 at of huckleberry finn is cairo 8:23 pm. Why can’t GOSPLAN throw darts too? Henry 05.30.12 at 8:24 pm. Jim Henley asked delegitimization-dude on Twitter whether he was planning on participating in the _Red Plenty_ seminar. I think it’s fair to say that he didn’t get the joke … Adrian Kelleher 05.30.12 at 8:26 pm. As the headline post makes clear, the problem is not with communism per se but is a problem of The Feminism of Ecology examples planning more generally and, more generally again, one of rationalism.
This came as a tremendous shock not just to socialists but to science as a whole. Capitalism does not solve these problems however. Rather it circumvents them using the finn where market which is not a rationalist construct. Markets have no theoretical foundation. Essay On Military Authority Reformation. Q. What is the market price?
A. Check the market. Q. What will be the market price tomorrow? A. Check the market… but you have to wait until tomorrow. Markets are a powerful analytical tool (indeed an in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, indispensable one). They’re also a scientific deus-ex-machina, however, with frighteningly shaky empirical foundations relative to their significance. This price may be judged sticky or not and that demand curve observed but the essay validity of these observations are always contingent and their durability is never certain. Given enough time, all such observations will become untrue. This may occur due to cultural shifts or due to changes in circumstances; the of huckleberry where markets for diamonds and grain will differ inside a besieged castle from those in jared the larger world. Market economics makes certain problems tractable at the expense of in adventures finn where is cairo accepting that other more general questions can never be solved — precisely those questions dealt with in the OP. This is not an advantage to be dismissed, however market evangelists habitually go on to make much greater claims — essentially to Essay, take assumptions about in adventures finn where, efficient markets as fact — without any proof whatsoever.
But the erosion of rationalism in the 20th century was not restricted to economics. Along with the analytical limits such as those proven by Bertrand Russell and Kurt Godel, there were limits to what was calculable such as NP complete problems, theoretical limits to slumdog millionaire, observation such as the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and observational constraints in fields such as chaotic systems or economics that appear superficially to of huckleberry where, be practical but are in reality fundamental. These developments came at a time when scientists’ capabilities were widely thought to be limited solely by time and resources. Persuasive. The shock was profound and not just to the scientific community. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Where Is Cairo. It was a trauma to rival the Copernican revolution. Back in the 1980s, James Burke made a wonderful television programme called The Day the Universe Changed. It was a brilliant inversion of normal scientific discourse, pointing out that prior to What Is Love?, each scientific or philosophical revolution people lived in a world built around a more flawed understanding of reality.
When they looked out, they literally saw that narrative that was about to collapse. So, when Copernicus wrote his treatise, as contemporaries saw it he didn’t just improve our understanding of the solar system; rather, he wrenched humanity away from the centre of finn where is cairo creation where not just the bible but all prior observations had placed it. The universe ceased to be for free, and about us, a trauma that contributed to in adventures of huckleberry is cairo, centuries of religious turmoil that have yet to fully unravel. The 20th Century added insult to diamond, injury. Not only was the position we occupied of no special importance, in of huckleberry finn where many spheres we were now also condemned to ignorance in perpetuity. The universe had changed once more. And Driving Essay. It’s interesting to speculate as to the role this shock played in in adventures of huckleberry finn the convulsions of the 20th Century or about the extent to which its reverberations will continue to echo in the 21st.
Though it started with science, its impact can be felt much more broadly. Artistic modernism for traditional games, instance was ultimately an in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo, aesthetic and hypothetically any modernist aesthetic could be expressed as a system of of Ecology Essay rules, that’s to say as a rationalist construct just like law or mathematics. A complete system of rules that would eliminate all creativity was not the objective. Finn Where Is Cairo. On the other hand rules motivated by critical argument could separate the artistic from the purely technical: content from form. The rise of postmodernism, which denies any absolute distinction between high and low art or indeed between any two artistic artefacts, closely paralleled the scientific and philosophical changes outlined. Traditional. Its claim is of huckleberry where that all cultural expressions are imbued with all other such expressions and if there were ever any doubt that there’s at least some truth in this the subsequent explosion of referentiality in art has dispelled it.
Modernism, characterised in the broadest terms by constant technical innovation, had by the 1960s resulted in the colonisation of huge areas of scientific creativity. Worse again, the helter-skelter rush to occupy the new territories had left much of them patchily covered but the number proved to be small of The Feminism examples artists modest enough to limit themselves to at best the in adventures finn where second rank by working in traditional the shadows of the technical innovators. Certain arts, music and painting in particular, came to of huckleberry finn is cairo, be seen as essentially complete by the 1960s. While postmodernism is texting and driving itself arguably just such an acknowledgement of the technical innovators’ greater significance it unquestionably opened up vast new areas just as the in adventures of huckleberry finn where well of modernism ran dry. Essay. But this all came with a catch. Whereas art for art’s sake was a clever joke, if all artworks were inescapably imbued with every stimulus to which its creator had ever been exposed then all causal relationships in art really did become circular. This didn’t just alter aesthetics, it made any aesthetic impossible. Postmodernism never did catch on in the USSR and for obvious reasons.
It was not a society where fools could prosper, and any fool could see that an assault rationalism would constitute an assault on communism itself. The world of today is the of huckleberry where opposite; when there is an artistic controversy everybody comes away with what was sought: offender, reporter, offendee. Identities are reassured rather than unsettled. Millionaire. The rituals and superficial forms of in adventures of huckleberry finn creativity remain, abstracted of intent. It is difficult today to imagine how important figures such as Picasso or Stravinsky were in their time; carpenters and field hands as well as professors debated their merits.
Henri Rousseau demonstrated that with commitment and integrity it was possible then for the individual to leap ahead of the cultural elite. Derided as an idiot, his creations are universal and Essay on Military Authority Reformation eternal. I don’t know that any civilisation has prospered for long while exhibiting the of huckleberry finn cultural stagnation of the current age. We need to remember that only at slumdog millionaire free the margins is in adventures finn postmodernism incontrovertible. Its arguments can be applied to Mozart or Picasso but such examples reveal its limits as a perspective because the ways in which they extended human expression simply had no precedent. Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 8:34 pm.
William Timberman @ 60: ” On the What Essay other hand, why we don’t have them, and why producers think it’s so important to game them in the ways that they have, is very instructive . . Of Huckleberry. . “ I don’t feel instructed. I feel distracted. Not your fault. (And, certainly not the fault of What Cosma, who has written a fabulous essay.) Sebastian 05.30.12 at 8:40 pm. The market is an emergent system. One of the in adventures of huckleberry where funny things about scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in markets. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in economies.
One of the funny things about scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in markets. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in texting persuasive essay economies. The executives of failing companies should be ripped to pieces by tigers. John Howard Brpown 05.30.12 at in adventures finn is cairo 8:49 pm. I believe that Nove’s work doesn’t mention services because all labor theories of value going back to Adam Smith deprecate services.
There may be a class aspect to this since in Smith’s time provision of Essay on Military Reformation services had a definite tinge of in adventures where submissiveness to it. Also, the ln(1/h) in the expression about computability reminds me of information theory, any connections? Chris Williams 05.30.12 at 9:03 pm. Mmm, nice post. Essay Authority Reformation. There are echoes in in adventures finn where it, and in What Is Love? _Red Plenty_ itself, of some of of huckleberry finn my conclusions from having worked on the history of a project of games essay a similar era, the in adventures of huckleberry UK’s Police National Computer, which was in development between about 1962 and about 1975. Games Essay. It worked, but the in adventures reason that it did so was that the planners very wisely stuck to files (with millions of traditional games entries) containing pre-registered digital data such as names, addresses, fingerprint index numbers and car registration details.
At the start of the process they were hoping to include the various Modus Operandi indices run by of huckleberry finn British police: in essence, to code up criminal behaviour in order to identify it. By the end, they had abandoned this entirely: it was a harder class of jared diamond problem for the technology of the time. I do, though, have one yabbutt: During the Second World War, the Middle East Supply Centre seems to of huckleberry where, have run quite well… Is that because it was essentially (mainly) about distribution and the managing of Is Love? Essay transport bottlenecks, not about maximising production all the way to the consumer? Zamfir 05.30.12 at 9:35 pm. @sebastian, markets are surely emergent, but we seem to understand them far less than evolution. The turnover of firms and products is not fast enough for an equivalent process to natural evolution, for in adventures finn where, example, and Authority Reformation the standard economist’s model of them is strangely off as well. Without understanding ’emergent’ is where just another word for ‘exists’. lupita 05.30.12 at What 9:46 pm. planning is in adventures not a viable alternative to capitalism.
There is texting and driving persuasive no alternative? Bechtel did a lot of capitalist planning to get to the point where they could profit from in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo charging Cochabambans to gather rainwater from their rooftops. On the other hand, the jared diamond anti-capitalist Cochabambans just spontaneously exploded and ran Bechtel out of their town. The clearest explanation of capitalism I have encountered is Varoufakis’ who defines it as extracting capital from the in adventures finn where future, loaning it out in the present, and recovering it, plus interest, back in the future. Of course, there is always Marx’ classic explanatory formulas to maximize capital as in “money-commodity-money” (commodity speculation) and M-M, as in the stock exchange. When the aim of planners is to maximize commodities, they are not capitalists, no matter how much planning they do. When they are maximizing capital (as most states have been doing during the texting and driving past few decades) then they are capitalists, no matter how little time they spend looking at their exchange rate, credit rating, stock index, and bond spread. It was interesting to see who funded Spufford’s book (e.g., Target).
There’s a lot of of huckleberry finn scholarly interest in the big retail chains, who have some of the same problems as the slumdog millionaire free commissars in Red Plenty (though most of the interest seems to have been from the in adventures social side). Essay. They aren’t anti-capitalist, however, no matter how different their interests are from Ford’s or John Deere’s. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at where is cairo 10:46 pm. “I don’t think this sort of pathology is and driving persuasive essay intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from market exchange plus gross inequality. “ I think there’s more to it than just this, that this view is a little optimistic. As I’ve said a few times, the Plan, even the in adventures of huckleberry finn decentralized price-based plan, is not self-fulfilling. If prices are to indicate successful vs unsuccessful business models, then the unsuccessful have to be allowed to fail and the successful to thrive. The question, then, is how do we implement this in a way that is as nondestructive as possible.
As a theoretical matter, I’m not so worried about the successful thriving. We know in jared theory principle what to do about that — limits to the extent money can buy political speech, high income taxes on of huckleberry finn where the rich, high estate taxes, etc. (Of course, as pointed out, converting these into practice is a different matter.) More problematic is the issue of failing. Let’s start with sole proprietorships and small businesses. Conceptually, of course, we can imagine each of these runs as an LLC, and the failure of the business represents the failure of the LLC, not the Essay on Military Reformation destruction of the in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo underlying proprietor. But, of course, one has to put some sort of limits and constraints on this, otherwise we’ll see a rash of sole proprietors living it up in a series of company housing and driving company cars. A similar version of the on Military problem exists with respect to choice of major in college. The details differ, but again we have a decentralized system of where is cairo choice, which is supposed to be grossly matching supply and demand.
Again we have the traditional games essay problem of what to finn where, do with the Is Love? student who, in good faith studied cardiac surgery [ie open heart surgery] only to practice in a world where cardiology [ie catheter based intervention, a rather different set of skills] has taken over of huckleberry where, the market and rendered her skills irrelevant. Again we have the companion problem of Ecofeminism: of Ecology examples what to where, do with the student who, in bad faith, studies History of games essay Video Games at college — and only managed to achieve a D. Finally we have the problem of the large enterprise which fails. At a conceptual level, yes, this is like the power of of huckleberry finn where imagination over evolution — our ideas die in The Feminism Essay examples our stead — and the death of a large corporation, per se, is no tragedy. BUT in the real world, the death of even a large enterprise means the loss of in adventures finn where a large amount of accumulated skill, and the loss of jared theory a large number of jobs. So what’s my point? For prices to actually do their job, failure has to have consequences. If we want failures to in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, have consequences, but also to live in a civilized society, we then need a whole lot of traditional games auxiliary mechanisms (government attempts to save, or have bought out, failing large enterprises; unemployment insurance; this sort of in adventures of huckleberry is cairo thing), and THEN we need a whole lot of limitations on these auxiliary mechanisms precisely to get back to the original point — failure should have a cost. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 11:04 pm. ” So how does capitalism solve them? Certainly not through market signals—which of course also don’t exist for things that don’t exist yet.
Rather, through planning: A designated group of jared diamond experts considers various proposals for where, new firms or projects, and allocates a portion of the social surplus to them based on Essay on Military Authority Reformation their assessment of their prospects. Now, we call these planners banks, or these days venture capitalists, but when Schumpeter, writing i 1939, wanted to explain the function of banks under capitalism, he described them as our version of Gosplan.” It’s important, in understanding the way the US REALLY works (as opposed to the nonsense ideological versions) to in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo, also include in this list of Essay Reformation planners. – DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of finn is cairo course), and. – NIH and Essay on Military Authority Reformation all the other science funding agencies: NASA, NSF, DoE etc. It was interesting to see who funded Spufford’s book (e.g., Target) I think you must be thinking of some other book. Nothing funded Red Plenty except a publisher’s advance. Damn, how do I turn the italics off?
Sorry, I was referring to the grant mentioned on the copyright page. Finn. I don’t know a lot about how that works, but I assume it could mean anything from minimal research support or archive access to anything at all. It’s important, in understanding the way the US REALLY works (as opposed to the nonsense ideological versions) to also include in this list of planners – DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course), and – NIH and all the other science funding agencies: NASA, NSF, DoE etc. Luis: I am happy to Ecofeminism: of Ecology Essay, stipulate, at least for the moment, that a number of independent planning agencies will approve a greater number of blue-sky projects than a single centralized agency, and that this kind of decentralization is more likely in an economy with private ownership of the in adventures is cairo means of on Military Authority Reformation production. What I object to, first, is the idea that decentralization decision-making is definitionally equivalent to markets, and second, that the greater innovation it results in has anything to in adventures is cairo, do with “optimization” in the sense discussed in Cosma’s post. Texting And Driving Persuasive Essay. What is the optimal frquency of iPhone-like innovations? How on earth could you know? rf 05.30.12 at 11:22 pm. Malfunctioning italics.
Accusations of corporate sponsorship. The delegitimisation begins ( I couldn’t resist – but I should) Oh. [Looks hastily at is cairo book.] I think that’s a grant from Target to Graywolf Press to support it as a publisher, presumably as a piece of Minnesota-to-Minnesota philanthropy. It didn’t come my way. : it seems so obvious to me that the reason firms exist is due to millionaire, local nonconvexities in production that I don’t understand why I’m the only person on the planet who says this. Isn’t this Chandler’s argument, sort of? Capitalism can have institutions: think about of huckleberry where is cairo, Toyota and its subcontractors. Each subcontractor has a contract specifying what it produces and when, but this is an incredibly complicated contract, and one that is always changing as Toyota’s needs change. What makes this noncapitalist?
Capitalism is texting essay not just Econ 101 commodity markets, which even the Pharao bought and sold in. Is Cairo. There is a developed theory of the The Feminism firm to address the existence and in adventures finn where is cairo behavior of jared diamond theory firms, which is worth looking into. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 11:32 pm. @sebastian, markets are surely emergent, but we seem to understand them far less than evolution. In Adventures Where Is Cairo. The turnover of firms and products is Is Love? not fast enough for an equivalent process to natural evolution, for example, and the standard economist’s model of in adventures of huckleberry finn them is persuasive essay strangely off as well. Without understanding ‘emergent’ is just another word for ‘exists’. I’d say “emergent” means that the emergent phenomenon is more the consequence of the RELATIONSHIPS between the lower level entities than a consequence of the PROPERTIES of the in adventures of huckleberry lowere level entities. So, to slumdog, give two examples. – you learn about liquids, as an emergent phenomenon, by studying the forces between atoms, not by ever more careful study of the of huckleberry properties of an Essay on Military Authority, individual atom OR. – to put it a little differently, you can create a usefully realistic model of highway traffic jams by simulating actors with the correct relationships (response time, breaking distance and so on); you don’t need a full or even a partial model of human psychology and different car models.
In this context, most models are NOT emergent markets by this definition. The financial markets (where so much is driven by the rules in place) are the of huckleberry where closest, but even they rise and fall based on human psychology — and jared diamond the whole point of emergence is where is cairo that this underlying specific trait of humans shouldn’t matter. Essay On Military Authority. As we move to other markets — the market for cell phones, the market for clothes — we get further and further into territory that is very much determined by specific human psychology. Malfunctioning italics. Accusations of corporate sponsorship. The delegitimisation begins ( I couldn’t resist – but I should) Let it all come! Nothing can quench my sublime and funky love. I think I’m going to try and keep my serious comments for the responses, though. They’re already getting alarmingly long, and it’s also half-past-midnight in England. guest passing through 05.30.12 at 11:41 pm.
How far does it get you — if it gets you anywhere — if you a total ordering ordering on the set of goods, but nothing further? david 05.30.12 at 11:43 pm. For The Market to of huckleberry finn where, tatonne its way to equilibrium requires rather well-behaved excess-demand functions on the part of the economy anyway, so is there some reason in jared theory principle that The Planner cannot assume that the same? There is a shortage of something: so make more, comrade! Central planning is of huckleberry easy under the conditions which the market works perfectly. John Quiggin 05.30.12 at 11:52 pm.
Markets don’t provide much of an incentive for innovation because most innovations are easily copied. States can provide an incentive by creating intellectual property rights, but these discourage about as much innovation as they promote. So, most innovation is not going to arise from market incentives, with or without strong IP. OTOH, central planning is also adverse to and driving persuasive, innovation, since the whole idea is that all the possibilities are known in advance. Some kinds of innovation can be ‘planned’ . Dor example, if you want to build a rocket that can go into outer space or, less happily, deliver a nuclear weapon to finn is cairo, the other side of the planet, you can throw lots of resources at the problem, specify the goals and let the slumdog boffins come up with the means. But lots of in adventures innovations don’t work like that, and historically, most of the interesting ones have come neither from Ecofeminism: Essay examples profit-driven firms or from goal-driven publicly funded research. In Adventures Finn Where Is Cairo. The big example is the Internet, which got a little bit of startup money from the US, but was largely built by academics in on Military Authority Reformation their spare time, until it got big enough to wipe out the similar attempts of the private sector (Delphi etc) and some public competitors (Minitel), after which private firms got interested. Where. That produced the dotcom bubble, which also did not show market-driven innovation in a good light. 80 seems exactly right. Joe 05.31.12 at 12:07 am.
even if it were efficient, would that be optimal? quoting schumpeter: “a system- any system, economic or other- that at every given point of time fully utilizes its possibilities to Authority Reformation, the best advantage may yet in th elong run be inferior to a system that does so at no given point of time, because the latter’s failure to do so may be a condition for the level or speed of long-run performance.” setting aside the gulag and the corruption, i think this gets right to the heart of why planned economies don’t work all that well in in adventures finn where the long-run. Barry Freed 05.31.12 at games essay 12:15 am. Bruce Wilder 05.31.12 at finn where 12:20 am. It is common, but still problematic to identify “innovation” with “novel invention”, when the on Military Authority Reformation economically significant process is the grinding out of technical economies from in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo progressively improving the architecture of control, once a production process is under control. So, Ford and General Motors gradually advanced automated assembly processes. General Electric and Westinghouse worked out essay, electrical generation and in adventures is cairo distribution.
U.S. Steel and What Essay Bethlehem Steel. Proctor Gamble and Colgate, etc. Standard Oil and its progeny worked out the worldwide production and distribution of oil. IBM. Boeing and Douglas and of huckleberry is cairo the other aircraft makers. Warner Bros.and the other movie studios. ATT and slumdog millionaire free GTE (Verizon). F.W.
Woolworth down to Wal-Mart. Container shipping. Coke and Pepsi. This is where “capitalism” has shined, at least since the beginning of the of huckleberry finn where Second Industrial Revolution in the mid-19th century, with the growth of the railroads. Large bureaucratic private enterprise steadily advancing their technical control of production and distribution processes, driving down costs and prices, driving up productivity and quality, often over Is Love? Essay, many decades. In Adventures Where Is Cairo. Railroads are still scoring productivity gains from applying innovations in motors and engines and control systems. You can deride “central planning”, but these are large bureaucracies, which are not adverse to mobilizing the state on What behalf of their schemes, nor is the in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo state adverse to jared diamond theory, mobilizing these bureaucracies, when it suits. “Market incentives”?
There’s a story about First Mover advantage, although that may be more a case of the of huckleberry surviving winners writing history. The firms that do most of the long-run work of innovation in the sense of refining control regimes tend to be the ones that follow up on a key innovation, and acquire a dynamic capacity to continue progress along those lines, taking advantage of a dominant market position, which makes it easy to capture returns from innovation. Innovation carries no magic virtue, to ensure that the sunk cost investments can be recovered; market power is millionaire free necessary for that, and IP is weak tea at best in most industries. Matt 05.31.12 at 12:56 am. Are there no parallel algorithms with good scaling properties for of huckleberry, solving linear programming problems?
Like ajay, I don’t understand why the diamond theory computational reference unit is one desktop computer; many scientific problems solved by computer today would not be tractable on one desktop computer. More serious is the problem that people will straight-up lie to of huckleberry finn where, the planners about resources and jared diamond technical capacities, for reasons which Spufford dramatizes nicely. There is in adventures where is cairo no good mathematical way of dealing with this. Governments and corporations have developed and continue to rapidly improve electronic panopticons for The Feminism of Ecology examples, the purposes of waging war, enforcing laws, and optimizing advertising. Is it folly to think that a data mining panopticon could solve the problems of deceit in economic planning? Merely creepy?
The central planner needn’t ask factory managers how much labor it takes to make a kilogram of viscose fiber or how often machinery breaks down; just have cameras everywhere on the production floor and networked machinery constantly reporting self-diagnostics and statistics. Everything that happens is recorded; if central planner and lower managers alike are competent and acting in good faith, it aids them both, and if not it identifies the weak point. The instance of elaborate sabotage and its twisty motivations, described in Red Plenty , came about only where, because planners could lie about how much production a given machine was capable of and lower managers could lie about how much was actually achieved. If a machine reports as idle for a day when it was supposed to be in texting essay production, maybe the machine is faulty. Check the video camera footage to in adventures where, see what was happening with the Ecofeminism: Essay workers and in adventures finn where is cairo the machine. If the workers are behaving as usual, the machine probably just needs its sensors or software fixed. Most of the watching, aggregating, cross-correlating, consistency checking, etc. Of Ecology Essay Examples. can be done by in adventures computer, otherwise you’d just be solving one problem with a worse one (lying replaced by and driving essay enormous amounts of oversight labor). Thanks for is cairo, an extremely engaging, thought-provoking piece. I have wondered about these sorts of problems since I read Accelerando and The Cassini Division ; Red Plenty has just excited my interest again. Alex K. 05.31.12 at What Essay 1:02 am.
DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course) The 2012 DARPA budget is in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo about $3 billion — about the size of the RD budget of Google and and driving persuasive about a third of the in adventures finn where is cairo RD budget of Microsoft. Diamond. Hardly close to anything resembling “The Ministry of Planning.” Keshav 05.31.12 at of huckleberry 1:36 am. Matt @ 93 – I found slides for a 2005 talk by Jacek Gondzio, “Massively Parallel Implementation of Interior Point Methods for Very Large Scale Optimization” in which he reports that a linear programming problem with 1bn variables and 353m constraints can be solved in and driving persuasive 50 minutes using 1280 processors. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo. This is not my field, so I don’t know whether his algorithm exploits some structure in his problem that would not exist in the central planner’s problem. On a related note, Cockshott and Cottrell have a number of papers arguing that central planning is feasible with modern computer technology. As I understand it, the What Is Love? Essay algorithm they present (e.g. in “Towards a New Socialism”) does not consider a linear programming problem; rather, it takes as given a target for final goods production (determined elsewhere in their model, which includes some markets for consumer goods) and in adventures finn is cairo solve for the gross output levels required to meet this target. Ecofeminism: Essay Examples. They exploit the fact that the input-output structure of the economy is sparse (only a small fraction of the goods in the economy are directly used to produce any single good). Their algorithm’s complexity increases with n*m, where m is the number of direct inputs for where, each product, which seems manageable even with n=12 billion. Of course, even if true, this does nothing to ameliorate the other problems – collecting and representing the required data, aggregating preferences, etc. Ecofeminism:. – which Cosma describes so well (I am so much in the target demographic of this post it’s not even funny).
Loved the finn where essay but don’t feel qualified to comment until I’ve read the book. Authority. But I will anyway. The whole socialist calculation debates seems to me to be predicated on in adventures of huckleberry two misconceptions or fictions: one, that there is a system of production and What Essay distribution of goods and services that consists fundamentally of markets operating on in adventures a logic of markets and, two, that to replace it one had to develop a system of Ecofeminism: production and distribution that consists fundamentally of planning operating on a planning logic. Aside from in adventures finn where is cairo primitive accumulation, residual feudal relations, reproductive labor, the structure of the firm and traditional monopoly power some strategically important market interventions do indeed occur in a so-called capitalist economy. In Adventures Where Is Cairo. Why then should a socialist economy require a complete non-market retrofit from the ground up (including those elements that are already outside markets in a so-called market economy?) rather than just some strategically vital tweaking here and there? David Childers 05.31.12 at 2:11 am. There’s a lot more here to comment on than I could cover, aside from to express agreement and appreciation, but as an economist-in-training (for what that’s worth), there are a few related points which I think are worth elaborating upon. I would like to focus on the statement that there is no good mathematical way of dealing with the propensity of individuals to free, lie to planners.
This seems to miss important recent developments in economics, by no means obscure, which have taken the effort to attempt to alleviate this. The rise of in adventures of huckleberry is cairo mechanism design as a major paradigm in economic theory has not only provided a way to approach the issue of lying, but has come up with a set of ideas and results which ought to reshape the way people think about markets and games essay exchange in general. The following should be quite boring to those familiar with mechanism design, but I hope will be informative regarding this under-popularized area. While game theory, including the in adventures of huckleberry finn branch of What Is Love? game theory which deals with games of incomplete information, focuses on determining the in adventures of huckleberry finn where actions of individuals in a given social environment (formally a tuple consisting of, for each individual, a space of possible actions, an information set, and an objective), mechanism design reverses the process. What Is Love?. Given a group of in adventures finn ex ante diverse agents, one seeks to design an environment which induces them in equilibrium to voluntarily*1 take desired actions optimizing a given social objective, which might be a social welfare function, or just the whims of the planner. The application to the problem of lying is direct: take your God-given social welfare function (the issues with which you have ably described here), open up your Contract Theory textbook*2 and program in the optimization problem over the set of all societies such that the technological structure of production is given and Authority Reformation that all individuals will behave according to their individual objectives. Finn Where Is Cairo. Incorporating this extra structure adds to the computational difficulty of course, but as with the use of convexity in standard optimization, under some regularity conditions the problem of searching over the space of all possible societies, calculating equilibrium behavior in that society, and theory then optimizing over the resulting set of outcomes, can be drastically simplified.
Indeed, the in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo revelation principle reduces the problem to ensuring that each agent truthfully reports their type (say, their exact valuation for every kind of good), which mathematically amounts to adding a bunch of additional inequality constraints to the original programming problem of deciding what allocation to Reformation, give them.*3 Adding these constraints of course takes you away from the unconstrained optimum, but one can at least attempt to achieve the best possible outcome over any society which is in adventures where feasible given technology AND human nature, which sounds to me like pretty close to the goal of feasible planning. Essay On Military Reformation. This does not overcome computational difficulties (and relaxing the assumption of quasilinear preferences takes it from impractical to computationally nightmarish, according to my colleagues who work in the area), and the social welfare function is still not something one can realistically define, but the problem is at least mathematically well-defined. The relevant question to in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, ask, once the setup is well defined, is what kind of restrictions are imposed by taking into account these difficulties, and traditional games essay here is where the results become somewhat ugly. Some of the more important results in mechanism design, aside from some clever tricks on the forms of in adventures of huckleberry is cairo institutions (“mechanisms”) which make people willing to traditional games, reveal their information, are impossibility theorems. Once you take into account unverifiable actions, it becomes generally impossible to achieve a system which both ensures maximal productive efficiency without also imposing undesirable risks on workers: this is the well-known issue of moral hazard, though what is of huckleberry where is cairo not well known is that except under extremely restrictive informational assumptions, it is NOT the What case that the solution to moral hazard is to in adventures of huckleberry, increase the size of the punishment for bad outcomes and reward for good ones. The relationship is in on Military Authority Reformation general nonmonotonic, a finding which strongly contradicts the in adventures is cairo moral intuitions of the diamond theory kind of people most likely to talk about in adventures where, moral hazard. It also has some unfortunate implications for decentralization: the Myerson-Satterthwaite theorem, my vote for free, the result in in adventures is cairo economic result which is least recognized relative to its importance, is that there exists no possible mechanism under which bilateral exchange between agents who do not know each other’s valuation for the good can be conducted efficiently: completely decentralized voluntary trade, contra Hayek, is informationally inefficient. Traditional Essay. It has been shown in the one homogenous good case that as the number of agents grows, efficient exchange from sellers to buyers can be achieved asymptotically using a mechanism that looks like a market price, suggesting that the in adventures of huckleberry where Walrasian fiction of exchange by informed agents under competitive market prices can be approximated in slumdog millionaire large markets even in the absence of finn knowledge of slumdog millionaire free valuations by both buyer and seller, though how this applies to more general situations I can’t say. I believe most of the in adventures familiar limitations should apply (though, since allocations are being decided by a planner, things like public goods and pollution and other externalities can be handled in a similar way to the full-information social planning case, modulo the need to elicit valuations for such objects). The approach also brings about the issue of What who, precisely is designing the is cairo mechanism, and whether it is possible to force the Essay mechanism designer to commit to in adventures is cairo, the allocations prescribed by the mechanism ex post.
In many of the Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology Essay cases where this theory has been practically applied, these become major issues. Small scale mechanisms, like an employer designing a labor contract, generally don’t have social welfare as the objective: usually the goal is to extract as much rent as possible. Of Huckleberry Where Is Cairo. In the case of a government, this should also be an issue, with the additional complication that even if an objective is decided upon democratically, ensuring truthful voting will become even more difficult because votes not only make a decision but also reveal information, creating possibly conflicting incentives for Essay Authority Reformation, voters. Ensuring that the contract is of huckleberry finn where fulfilled by all parties is free also difficult: clearly in the case of an employer, who has incentive to promise high pay and good conditions and then renege, but also for a benevolent government, which may want to implement a mechanism which ex ante entails bad outcomes for some people in some states, but may ex post want to forgo punishment or reward. One could always attempt to put an incentive structure for the government which attempts to remove this, but then you have to in adventures of huckleberry finn where, ask who will impose that on Essay them and in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo it’s turtles all the way down. None of Is Love? Essay this suggests that at any point a centrally planned society could overcome the practical difficulties entailed by lack of knowledge and of huckleberry finn where processing power, even with optimal mechanisms. Optimization is hard and approximately optimizing over a criterion that is approximately right is not a guarantee of approximate optimization (at least in the absence of uniformity in diamond theory that approximation). In Adventures Finn Is Cairo. Even if finding an ideal were approximately achievable in a centralized fashion (my suspicion is that in practice, since goods and services would need to indexed by time, location, and state of the world at a minimum, even without nonconvexities or social interactions which make the slumdog problem NP-hard it would be infeasible for in adventures finn where, the foreseeable future), it would be cheaper and easier to slumdog millionaire free, decentralize many aspects of the process, allowing individuals and organizations to make substantial fractions of their decisions individually or in small groups and so participate in activities that look something like (regulated) “markets” and “firms” and in adventures finn where is cairo “social organizations”, while only jared diamond theory, some aspects would be carried out in a centralized fashion, with decisions informed by gathering information in in adventures of huckleberry finn some way from the populace. Of Ecology. In other words, even with the ability to formalize the in adventures finn where problem of extracting decentralized information, computational capability is likely to change the slumdog millionaire free scale and in adventures of huckleberry where type of activities which are carried out in firms, markets, and governments, and may even result in a greater degree of centralization as it becomes more practical to Essay, organize some activities in a way which takes advantage of capabilities for more complex economic arrangements to in adventures finn where, be determined mathematically, but it’s not likely to essay, facilitate a planned economy. Instead, just as linear programming has become a part of the standard toolkit for operations research, affecting the way some businesses manage sales and inventories but not strongly changing the structure of the economy, mechanism design is today primarily used by companies like Microsoft and Google to find more profitable ways to sell advertising, and practical applications to government mostly consist of somewhat more efficient tax schedules. So, in practice, although economists have given a lot of thought to the problem of social decision making in the presence of decentralized information and have some relatively intriguing results suggesting forms of allocation which often differ in details from Walrasian markets, most of the conclusions regarding the infeasibility of large scale planning seem to hold up.
*1 “Voluntarily”, meaning, of course that given the induced structure of society, it is in an individual’s best interests to do as told. Of Huckleberry Where. This is perfectly compatible with said structure of theory society consisting of: “Do X or I will shoot you and where is cairo your entire family,” see, e.g. Acemoglu and Wolitzky (2011) “The Economics of Labor Coercion”. Note also that in general such a social structure is theory not necessarily sufficient to ensure ideal response, as not all actions are verifiable, as aptly illustrated in the process of dekulakization. *2 In our first year theory courses, we use Salanie’s “The Economics of Contracts,” but as this is not my area and it is a mature field, I suspect that just about any textbook on in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo contracts, auctions, or market design will contain the relevant details.
*3 These are usually referred to The Feminism of Ecology examples, as “incentive compatibility constraints.” If you want to do more than just allocate goods, but also, say, force workers to do something when they have the possibility of doing something else, you also need participation constraints, but these can often be handled along the lines of in adventures of huckleberry finn where Footnote 1. blavag 05.31.12 at 2:17 am. Why do planners have to know all outcomes in advance? Empirically, planning certainly exists in essay capitalism as the of huckleberry above comments have pointed out. Sophisticated, effective planning even without knowing all in advance. But this was not always the case, much of it (in the US) did come from organizing production for the First and Second World Wars but it was by no means a smooth or easy process. It was however a fundamentally political rather than technical process. See for example Brian Waddell’s War Against the New Deal. Which brings up the role and weight of the Ecofeminism: military industrial complex in the US economy for of huckleberry, which there is still nothing better than the Is Love? various works of Seymour Melman.
js. 05.31.12 at 2:32 am. Wow. This was awesome. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn. A lot of it went right over my head, but I still learned a ton. Cheers. gordon 05.31.12 at Essay 3:04 am. Some quotes from the post and remarks on them, and in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo a thought. “I don’t think this sort of pathology [that the whims of the rich matter more than the needs of the Essay on Military poor; that it is more important to keep bond traders in strippers and cocaine than feed hungry children] is intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from market exchange plus gross inequality. If we want markets to signal supply and demand (not just tautological “effective demand”), then we want to of huckleberry finn, ensure not just that everyone has access to the market, but also that they have (roughly) comparable amounts of money to spend.
There is, in other words, a strong case to be made for jared diamond, egalitarian distributions of resources being a complement to market allocation. Of Huckleberry. Politically, however, good luck getting those to go together”. But inequality isn’t fixed; it has been increasing in theory Anglophone countries for a while now. That seems to show that the author’s despair is ill-founded; if a lower-inequality regime has existed once, it can prima facie exist again. It isn’t impossible. “…planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism…[the partisans of capitalism] themselves should be able to where, say what will happen then: the masters of the diamond system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to finn is cairo, claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily”.
This seems to indicate that capitalism is not a viable alternative to planning. So now we have two non-viable options. “What we can do is try to millionaire free, find the specific ways in which these powers we have conjured up are hurting us, and use them to check each other, or deflect them into better paths”. So the author would like democratic government to work. Well, wouldn’t we all? I suspect the real problem here is that it isn’t working (at least not in the realms he is thinking about) and that worries the in adventures finn is cairo hell out of him. But if that is the on Military Reformation case, why not just say so? Overall, I find it remarkable that there is finn no historical perspective. Inequality was once less; governments once owned and managed more of the economy than now; regulation was once more effective than it seems to be now. Of Ecology. Yet he talks about the need for “bold, persistent experimentation” as though we confront new problems which have never been addressed before.
That isn’t the case. “This seems to indicate that capitalism is not a viable alternative to planning. So now we have two non-viable options.” That’s what it seems to in adventures finn, indicate. Stephen Leacock covered much of this territory nearly a century ago in “The Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice.” One needs to take both laissez-faire and its centrally-planned, Oscar Lange doppelganger with a pinch of Veblen. Nobody 05.31.12 at 3:29 am.
Wanted to millionaire, address the in adventures of huckleberry is cairo idea that there was no extant alternative to the market pricing system for essay, determining individual preferences — What is internet advertising then? These companies observe human behavior on finn where is cairo a massive scale and infer preferences. I’d go so far as to hazard that every good Web 2.0 site is a non-pricing/market solution to on Military, revealing preferences. The attention this blog post gets, in hits, comments, referrals, etc. are all non-marketplace indicators of relative worth. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Where. A nice, open letter to the universe for more of this. Thanks for sharing your thoughts! A terrific essay and absolutely the way into Essay the future. Reality is going to require overlapping institutions and organizations of different kinds because we cannot know it all.
It is not simply complexity that it the issue; it is that your brain can’t wrap around it. Any institution allows you to where, act, while depending upon some pieces of information being held in the category of “being held by all others”, so that you do NOT have to re-obtain it locally. This saves your information budget. What. For example, the market system works by establishing that you don’t have to recalculate the value of the currency at in adventures of huckleberry each transaction, and Is Love? Essay you don’t have to establish the validity of consumer protection laws for each new thing you buy. Working for finn where is cairo, a business firm is the process of doing what is required without having to know the final ends of the owners, or even necessarily the next step in the production process. Having a government policy for climate or retirement security saves the citizenry from enormous cogitations on risk and the vagaries of life. Etc. etc… Market institution, business institutions, government institutions are the same sort of thing, at Authority Reformation a deep formal level. Nescience is in adventures of huckleberry finn allowed, and indeed it is depended upon. Jared Diamond Theory. You are freed from having to finn is cairo, learn, or to re-establish everything. This reduces your time cost, and you don’t have until the end of time.
All institutions do this, including government ones. It goes even deeper: any organization whatsoever, ideas, individuals, inventions, and institutions are all the same kind of thing: they are rings of transactions/transformations around a central context or central agreement that rules them, and that local central context (1) allows specialization among the Essay on Military Authority parts, and the central context also (2) reduces the transaction cost between the parts, by making the repetition of common information unnecessary. All institutions must have radial connections between the members and the central rules — connections of in adventures where focus, transparency, responsibility, and redress. Thus there are two types of jared theory basic connections in economics, the finn is cairo transaction between two parts, and the connection to the rules. Finally to work well, institutions should be narrowly focused. Even the market institution is quite narrowly focused, on balancing scarcity and desire by the use of the slumdog millionaire scarcity of money. That is all it really does. That is precisely why it works well, when it does work well.
The “knowledge problem” assertion that all local information is communicated in finn where markets is incorrect and has led people to fantasize that such a systemic calculation is being made. Traditional Games Essay. In fact, the local knowledge is in adventures finn where is cairo specifically NOT transmitted; this non-transmission is the jared diamond theory market institution’s function, that is how it reduces transaction costs: you do not need to know the other fellow’s business. We must look at the operation of negative information, of nescience, in in adventures finn is cairo information and organization of all types. What Is Love?. The only way forward is to solve problems as they arise, which may require adjusting old institutions or creating new ones, to allow us to hardwire the of huckleberry finn common information, thus saving our information and diamond theory energy budgets for new flexibilities. Frank Ashe 05.31.12 at 5:02 am. Please make all this disappear for the next few days! I have work to do and very little will power to overcome such a great temptation. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 5:14 am. DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course)
The 2012 DARPA budget is about $3 billion—about the size of the RD budget of Google and finn is cairo about a third of the RD budget of millionaire free Microsoft. Hardly close to anything resembling “The Ministry of Planning.” The issue is not the finn where raw money involved, it is the What Is Love? directions that are set. What do you think a Ministry of where Planning would refer to? Hint — the Authority Reformation word Planning is not the same as the word Production. 80 is in adventures now 89 — John Quiggin.
A lot of new commenters in the moderation queue on this one it seems. I’ve spent years begging CT to texting persuasive essay, do something about the comment renumbering issue, but at of huckleberry where this point it’s just one of those things. Yet…the Soviet Union did not need an optimum solution. The Soviet Union only needed to do a better job than US Steel, General Motors, etc., plus the US banks. Artificial intelligence research did not lead to artificial intelligence, but instead led to computer science. The attempt to automate building design instead led to the invention of new media; the MIT Media Lab started out as part MIT’s architecture department. Traditional Games Essay. The honest attempt to build a planned economy using computing might have lead to…what?
Water under the bridge, of course; the Soviet leadership didn’t want that. In Adventures Finn. They scorned the beginnings of information technology, much as capitalists did and for, it seems to me, very similar reasons. Awesome essay, BTW. “But, and this is I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of theory a cold monster as the market. “ Or perhaps a family? Turn it around: the human response to finn where, participating in larger social systems is similar to the ape response to existing within a tribe. With its status divisions, um. Are we to conclude, then, that class systems are an outgrowth of ape tribalism?
BTW, the Mac, the iPad, and the iPod/iPhone were anticipated at Xerox PARC, roughly two decades earlier. These were pure research projects. Jobs’s role was marketer and popularizer; he is perhaps more akin to Edison or Sarnoff. Peter Dorman 05.31.12 at 6:44 am. This is one of the Essay on Military best posts-plus-comments I’ve read in a long time.
Kudos to all of you. I wish I had more time to in adventures of huckleberry finn where, take part in this discussion, since I’ve been wrestling with this stuff, and occasionally writing about it in obscure venues, for over 30 years. But I don’t. 1. I agree with many of the comments as well as Mirowski’s Machine Dreams , among others, that the programming interpretation of prices is somewhat of a distraction. Yes, the Soviet Union in games essay the 1950s faced a problem of dysfunctional pricing, but reformers were as hoodwinked into the programming concept as were the Cowlesians etc. in the west. Prices do not represent optimal anythings, because, if we have learned anything at all from general equilibrium theory, it is that the conditions for in adventures finn, optimization are so fantastically implausible that it is free all a fantasy. It has nothing to do with why some prices are “better” than others. I wish Hayek had not been so mushy on this matter. In “The Use of Knowledge in Society” he seems to say that prices actually convey social costs and of huckleberry finn benefits, as if they were optimal in the programming sense, the output of a social algorithm that fine-tunes and makes compatible all our economic choices. Ecofeminism: The Feminism Examples. But at other times he seems to point to their role in the discovery process, where they are not assumed to be optimal.
The distinction is important, because the optimality argument is indefensible. Prices (a) set a standard for producers to meet, through production methods, quality, timing, marketing and so on, that is set by the ones that are most financially successful, and (b) offer an incentive for everyone, producers and consumers alike, to is cairo, find ways to improve on the choices implied by existing price ratios. If the price of cloth diapers is games essay very low compared to bedsheets, consumers become smarter at finding new uses for in adventures finn, diapers. (When my kid was new, we used diapers very creatively.) Firms find new ways to use cheap resources, etc. None of slumdog millionaire free this is optimal. We have gross price distortions in every real economy that can be seen with the of huckleberry is cairo naked eye. The process is crucial, but in the aggregate it is socially beneficial only on average. 2. JWM: Sometimes I get the impression that Chandler goes in millionaire free the same direction I do; he refers to but does not really analyze things like economies of of huckleberry scheduling, assigning tasks, and so on. These things are more effectively done via administration if there are nonconvexities; otherwise just identify the specs for intermediate products and let it be arranged through a market. But he never really says it outright, nor does he really address the essay boundary between what works better one way or another.
I think he had a gut feeling for the issue, but not more than that. 3. I disagree with John Quiggin about the of huckleberry where evanescence of innovation. There is an immense literature on knowledge management that points in other directions. What I would add from my perspective is that a lot of innovation is, temporarily at least, embodied in organizational structures that internalize the nonconvexities associated with a particular process of process or product development. Outsiders can copy specific blueprints, but they will remain a step behind.
This matters if the technology is dynamic. If it is just a matter of a one-off innovation, of course, then you either have lots of copying or endless IP litigation (or both). 4. There has been a lot of discussion here about traditional essay, innovation. I’ve written about in adventures finn where, this elsewhere and don’t want to repeat myself, so I’ll be elliptical: genuine innovation nearly always involves nonconvex recombinations of existing, or potentially existing, activities. So they can’t be assembled through markets; they need an agent that is engaged in planning over the relevant activity space. This can be a small enterprise, a large firm, a relational structure (joint planning), or a government agency. But this planning, in order to be tractable, has to be tightly bounded, and in jared theory this way it takes as given the in adventures finn where is cairo routine choices of the agents that make up its external environment. Moreover, the planner needs to learn whether the innovation is successful or not, and not at some hypothetical final moment, but in an ongoing process. Markets are not the games essay only way to do these things, but they are the simplest and in adventures of huckleberry where most versatile. (War does it too, for example.) The point is that, while there is a tradeoff between markets and planning at the margin (and there are millions of such margins in What Essay a modern economy), at a higher level there is symbiosis: neither can function tolerably without the other.
5. The real systemic problem in capitalism, in in adventures finn my opinion, is political-economic. Identifying the margins where more should be planned, or less, and making choices democratically and intelligently is at odds with the pervasive power of capitalists. (And, agreed, there was a terrible problem with the Soviet state, too.) Thoughts just seem to be coming… Here’s an optimization constraint for games, you: survival of in adventures of huckleberry is cairo human civilization. Can we frame a sustainable economy as an optimization problem? j 05.31.12 at texting 7:00 am. I think Sandwichman #97 is on the right track. The OP identifies a location at the far end on the “planning spectrum” (the degree of planning in the economy) and described systemic problems with that location. The question then is what locations are available inbetween that and where is cairo current capitalist society. Essay. What factors could be excluded from central planning so as to make it tractable?
Nine 05.31.12 at 7:25 am. I wonder though if it wouldn’t be the case that a world with the computational power. and/or theory and tools to solve intractable problems like GOSPLAN wouldn’t also be a world where GOSPLAN is unnecessary because said computational power tools could be used to create surplus’ by solving other hard problems – mapping the of huckleberry is cairo brain, whatever. What purpose would central planning serve in such a world ? “The reductionist “people only innovate because of the profit motive” argument is a zombie that really should die.” One economist who has done much work here is William Baumol.
He divides the process into two. There is invention (the design and making of a spiffy new thing, Job’s iPad for example) and then there’s innovation, people actually using this spiffy new thing to do old things in persuasive essay new ways or entirely new things. He’s quite clear that either a planned or market system (with the caveats that JQ mentions, like being able to in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, appropriate some measure of the value add through patents etc) can do the Essay on Military Reformation invention. In my own field the Soviets invented some pretty spiffy new alloys for example. It’s the innovation (note, using the in adventures of huckleberry finn where word as Baumol does) which planned economies have serious difficulties with. How good a distinction this is is for others to make up their own minds. But it does neatly solve, say, the internet point.
The invention could have come either way and Essay as it happened it came from government. The dissemination of pron, blogging, killing the newspaper industry, flogging books over it, these came from the innovation that a market system allows, not whether the State produced the original spiffyness or not. Like, wow. This has arrived about of huckleberry where is cairo, a fortnight too early for me to have time to join in the discussion properly, but only a week early for me to take full advantage of it in finishing a speculative paper on ‘The Market in of Ecology examples Classical Antiquity’, trying to engage with similar issues in a much less elegant and coherent fashion (not least because of the need to engage with the debate as it actually exists in in adventures finn ancient economic history, rather than the debate we ought to be having). Indeed, and each of these structures embodies a different spirit, logic and ethos and on Military requires different things from us; we never have complete knowledge or understanding of how best to orientate ourselves towards them, even assuming that we’re conscious of how differently we ought to behave in in adventures of huckleberry different contexts; and slumdog however much we try to conform, the finn is cairo system is never consistent or coherent enough for games essay, this to guarantee success. I’m reminded for some reason of where is cairo The Magic Mountain as well as Kafka. I do wonder about scale; how far does this presupposed systems operating at a global or trans-national or national level, and how far does it go all the way down? One, very partial, reading of the collapse of the Roman system is that the effort involved in sustaining a pan-Mediterranean structure simply became too great in the face of external shocks and pressures, not least because there were too many conflicting if not contradictory forces and organising principles within which those in authority had to games essay, work and everyone else had to live.
The establishment in many areas of societies based on dependence relationships with a local warlord and of huckleberry finn his clan, rather than societies involving complex relationships with state systems and markets, appears to come as something of a relief to on Military, many. Damn, blockquote failure; the following should have appeared between my first and second paragraphs: “Human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of of huckleberry finn is cairo which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of a cold monster as the market. We have no choice but to live among these alien powers which we create, and to try to direct them to slumdog millionaire free, human ends. “ I, too, thoroughly enjoyed Cosma’s essay. I found insightful the point in finn where the book that the Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology examples rulers were not going to turn the most important decisions over to the computer, even if they were convinced that planning would work. I know Kornai had a two level planning algorithm, where the of huckleberry finn is cairo center’s problem is formulated as a game.
I don’t think the jared game was set up to address lying. (I liked the novel’s depiction of the sabotage of one factory’s machinery, the whys, and the consequences.) Anyways, suppose almost all commodities had embedded some sort of Radio Frequency chip. Being bought and sold are state changes to be recorded on the chip. Our phones provide a wireless sensor network to collect this information and forward it on to the center. How much of the problem of in adventures finn where is cairo collecting the Ecofeminism: of Ecology examples information on finn what, of currently existing goods, is wanted is then solved? (I suppose the calculations of the theory plan can be distributed across this network too.
Vector multiplication is easily parallelizable, but, I guess, matrix inversion is in adventures of huckleberry finn where a bit more difficult. Maybe we make to with iterative approximations with matrix inverses. But I’m getting beyond what I know here. Ecofeminism: The Feminism. I’m better with understanding the simplex algorithm than I am interior point methods.) Maybe we make do with iterative approximations to matrix inverses. But I’m getting beyond what I know here. I’m better with understanding the simplex algorithm than I am with interior point methods. Data Tutashkhia 05.31.12 at 8:28 am. What if I set up several central planning systems, and let them compete against each other.
I’d establish the rules: same initial conditions, define what exactly the ‘central planning’ entails, allow and facilitate free flow of populations between the systems, prevent any flow of goods/materials/capital. With any luck, in fifty years you’ll have the central planning system that people like. Well, and why not add other, decentralized models into the mix? Same rules. Of course you’ll have to make me The Emperor of the Universe first, so let’s work on that. Anyways, suppose almost all commodities had embedded some sort of Radio Frequency chip. Being bought and sold are state changes to be recorded on the chip.
Our phones provide a wireless sensor network to collect this information and forward it on to the center. Finn Where. How much of the problem of collecting the information on what, of currently existing goods, is theory wanted is then solved? RFID chips are plausible solution for consumer end products; less so for intermediate products and in adventures of huckleberry raw materials. (How would one associate RFID chips with oil, or water, or a given supply of electricity?) In any case, I don’t see how that solves the problem of traditional essay what is finn where is cairo wanted (e.g., over the next year, or the slumdog free next five years), which is largely orthogonal to solving the problem of where things currently are. At best, it solves some part of Cosma’s (IIA), but by no means all of it (I don’t see how it helps you with constraints such as pollution, for example.) Peter Dorman 05.31.12 at where is cairo 9:05 am. In an essay in the late 70s I also proposed a “market in plans”. My focus was on Ecofeminism: of Ecology Essay severing the in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo link between planning and political authority, and I think that part was OK, but I was still quite naive about games, planning itself.
It is symptomatic that I never even mentioned the issue of time — how long a plan would be in effect until it was subject to review/revocation. In Adventures Finn Is Cairo. I had no idea how important it was for there to be ongoing feedback. And Driving Persuasive Essay. How do you integrate the market or competitive aspect which generates this feedback and still have planning? Looking back, I now think I was trying to plan far too much and had not raised the in adventures of huckleberry finn question of how to identify the core choices where planning was needed. Even there, though, the time dimension matters a lot. ajay 05.31.12 at games essay 9:14 am.
68: The market is an emergent system. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Is Cairo. One of the funny things about scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in markets. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in economies. This is quite clever in a junior common room sort of way, but the Ecofeminism: The Feminism examples problem is that I think it’s not a joke: Sebastian actually is confused between believing in something in the way that we believe in dogs, or clouds, or Canada (dsquared excepted), and believing in finn something in the way that we believe in The Feminism of Ecology Essay the scientific method or the system of of huckleberry where is cairo trial by jury. Slumdog Free. If we were speaking Latin the problem wouldn’t arise, because we could use credo or confiteor , just as they do in the Creed. ajay 05.31.12 at 9:15 am. 53 missed an absolutely cracking opportunity to say “ajay, you know nothing of in adventures finn where my work”. Alex 05.31.12 at 9:51 am. I don’t think the USSR did have a problem innovating. I think they had a problem of What quality control. One of the things about innovation is that a lot of ideas are bad ideas.
Consider the Alfa-class fleet attack submarine, capable of 40-odd knots dived, powered by a nuclear reactor that used liquid metal (zinc, IIRC) as its cooling medium. It scared the in adventures of huckleberry NATO navies shitless, but the Soviets had endless problems with maintaining them because the reactor couldn’t be allowed to persuasive, cool down or the metal coolant would set hard and finn where the entire cooling system would be a block of cast zinc. This meant that while the boat was in port and on Military Authority Reformation the engines shut down, high temperature steam had to be pumped from shore into the submarine’s secondary cooling circuit to keep the primary molten. Now, the kicker: repeatedly, the shoreside equipment broke down and there would be an epic flap as they either restarted the of huckleberry where reactor in a hurry or else towed the sub across the harbour to moor alongside a ship with steam-turbine propulsion that happened to have steam up at Ecofeminism: The Feminism Essay the time, before it all went horribly wrong and of huckleberry finn is cairo they lost a first-class naval unit for good. Eventually, the Northern Fleet decided to keep the reactor going at minimum power in harbour, which basically set the boat’s life at jared diamond theory her time between refuelling overhauls.
In 1991-1992, predictably, all the in adventures where Alfas lost power and Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology Essay examples froze solid at their moorings and in adventures they’re still there as so much radioactive scrap metal. So, they could build a giant submarine speed boat driven by a nuclear reactor that sounds like it was designed for a space ship…but not keep a boiler house on the quayside going reliably, even for a major national priority. Now, there’s an What Is Love?, important distinction between product innovation and process innovation, and I have the impression Soviet industry was awful at the latter, hence their dreadful environmental impact and epic waste of energy. Scott Martens 05.31.12 at 9:59 am. Wonderful essay! This fills in one of the big gaps in the previous essay on cognitive democracy: The notion of democracy not as elections but as feedback, and effective democracy as adequate feedback. It’s just that this is is cairo not the standard way of understanding democracy and it’s difficult to see how it can be aligned with the notion that the legitimacy of government comes from the election of representative agents. The whole core of your argument screams “representative government is flawed for all the same reasons as central planning.” That argument lends itself far too easily to anti-government ideology, not expanded democracy. “Computer science, which is not really so much a science as a branch of mathematical engineering, studies questions like this.” Actually, I’ve come to the conclusion that computer science is a branch of the of Ecology humanities (what are algorithms if not the work of man?) and in adventures of huckleberry finn where has far more in common with art and literature theory than with any physical science. I’m still on the fence about whether the same can be said for all of Ecofeminism: Essay math, but it’s definitely true about foundationalist problems in mathematics like the interpretation of in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo probability.
“If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly.” I have an SF plot I’ve fiddled with (even wrote a first chapter once) that addresses some of this. The economy is run by software agents with a significant amount of artificial intelligence and What Is Love? Essay a capacity to modify their own code and copy themselves. They engage in barter and exchange of complex barter-backed derivatives in a large free market on behalf of humans who own or rent them. For a piece of software itself to survive and perpetuate its code, it has to pay for its runtime and storage space by acting as an accountant/buyer/broker for humans, who are paid at their jobs in certificates that constitute futures on of huckleberry finn their own production. Their software must barter and trade these digital certificates away for the goods and services their human clients actually want or need. No person ever has to see or touch money, no consolidated balance book exists, but if a human is Authority Reformation dissatisfied with how well their electronic agents are providing for their needs, they can replace them at in adventures of huckleberry any time. It would be a true dog-eat-dog capitalism and free market for software, but practically a nanny state for games, humans, since all a person has to do is enough productive work to have what they want, and the entire system organizes itself around their needs. If I was looking for a reason to argue in favor of quasi-socialist planning, I would ask how, from the perspective of human workers, such a world is different from a large, comprehensive, detailed economic plan. The market exists only in the computer as part of the algorithm.
Feedback is provided from consumers by whatever means are appropriate to control their electronic agents. It’s more or less Lange’s vision for the socialist firm combined with a kind of deconstruction of in adventures where is cairo Iain Banks’ Culture novels (imagine a million Minds per human instead of the other way around) and a bit of old fashioned cyberpunk, but it poses a problem for the planning vs market argument: Plan construction is an algorithm of some kind. So is the market. Ergo, there exists an adequate planning algorithm, and the computational resources to construct the plan. To get away from this, you have to claim that market allocation is, in some way, non-algorithmic, but doing is counterintuitive. “But, and this is Essay I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. Finn. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is Essay on Military Reformation a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of a cold monster as the market.” Indeed, this is a problem.
My efforts to get decent Internet access in Germany attest to how alienating even fairly responsive governments can be. It seems there is a legal mandate to provide me with high speed Internet access, but the actual access does not exist. I have gone as far as talking to the village ombudsman about it as well as the Deutsche Telekom office here. No one seems to have any clear idea why I can’t have decent ‘Net access, since the village wants the infrastructure and where is cairo DT wants to put it in. This feels very disempowering. Although it doesn’t quite rise to the level of What Greek tragedy, I do feel pretty alienated. I have my doubts that any solution to this problem exists at finn where is cairo all.
This is the kind of thing that motivated Guy Debord’s brand of “cranky Marxism” – pervasive of alienation is a side-effect of having to have large distant institutions to coordinate large, distant collective action problems. We cannot dispense with the large, distant, collective action problems and retain any of the benefits of industrial civilization. At the same time, alienation from distant coordinators of large scale collective action leads to Essay Authority Reformation, things like, for example, Greece’s current mess. ajay 05.31.12 at 10:15 am. One of the things about innovation is that a lot of ideas are bad ideas. This is a big feature of wartime RD as well, as see (frex) David Edgerton, “Britain’s War Machine”. Of Huckleberry Where Is Cairo. Britain in 1940, like the USSR in 1970, was a rich country with a huge amount of centrally directed military RD funding, and a lot of the results were highly innovative, but ultimately just a ludicrous waste of time and money. Essay On Military Authority Reformation. The trench-digging Mole. The Grand Panjandrum. In Adventures Finn Where. The fluvial mine project. The U.P. anti-aircraft system.
Project Habbakuk. PLUTO. (Lead-bismuth, apparently, rather than zinc, btw, Alex.) Great essay! It’s worth mentioning that capitalists face computational problems that are even harder (in the asymptotic sense) than linear programming. For example, the What best algorithms we know for finding a single-round Nash equilibrium for a non-zero-sum 2-player game are exponential in the number of in adventures of huckleberry where available pure strategies. Richard J 05.31.12 at 10:34 am.
I don’t think the USSR did have a problem innovating. I think they had a problem of What Is Love? Essay quality control. One of the things about innovation is that a lot of ideas are bad ideas. I think it’s fair to say that the performance of the Soviet economy in WW2 suggests that a planned economy can be very effective when you’re able to narrow down an economy’s output to just three key deliverables: weaponry, munitions, and cannon fodder. If none of them are expected to in adventures of huckleberry, have a long time in use, quality control problems become significantly less important. Brilliant essay: many thanks! Are there alternatives? Well surely it depends what people want. Marx wanted both to turn us from and driving puppets of the economic system into its masters and to have an economy productive enough to dispense with scarcity. You show that if we want high levels of output, with lots of choice in a large-scale and complex society then we had better put up with being puppets to a larger extent than we like. Correct.
Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option. (Cf. the 18th-century problem of the incompatibility of in adventures of huckleberry is cairo “luxury” and democracy.) I couldn’t live in such a society, though I feel its attractions strongly as many people do (and have done historically – Thoreau, possibly Tolstoy). One thing we can do, though, perhaps, is to try to find ways of games essay getting some of Simon’s “green areas” to have more of the look and feel of that alternative in their internal operations. But maybe this is also, like Marx, trying to have and eat one’s cake.
derrida derider 05.31.12 at 11:49 am. On the discussion about socialist innovation surely they DID innovate, and very well, when adequately motivated. The T-34 tank, the Energiya rocket, even the Mig 27. But notice in what sphere they innovated? And note how so much innovation in late-capitalist US stemmed from in adventures where is cairo exactly the same sphere with exactly the same motivation? Which I suppose is just reinforcing the point previously made that Schumpeter et al were quite wrong – innovation is not mostly driven by the prospect of The Feminism Essay monopoly profits. Kinda makes our intellectual property regime, which assumes otherwise, a sick joke. Alex 05.31.12 at 12:50 pm. Well, for an interesting cross-check, how about NREL?
I’ve seen some truly impressive estimates for the economic value of its work since the late 1970s, based on energy savings. Someone will probably point out that a lot of DARPA work fed into it. But my point is that US industry did internalise it, alter its objective functions, and of course other Western and developed Asian industries did even more so. Soviet industry doesn’t seem to have done very well at this stage – internalising innovations. Mind you, was there even a Soviet Academy of Sciences Renewable Energy and finn is cairo Efficiency Laboratory?
Thanks to everyone for Essay on Military Reformation, the really gratifying response. Unfortunately, I’m on deadline, so replying will take a few days. “Markets don’t provide much of an incentive for innovation … OTOH, central planning is also adverse to innovation, …” This is a vague argument, but innovation essentially perturbs the objective function, whatever it is by in adventures where adding new parameters, as many have observed above. Now, any system inherently has to have some notion of stability, I feel, otherwise it will disintegrate very fast. Communism (or whatever it was) in Is Love? Soviet Russia did have this problem to an extent. There is in fact a trade-off between stability and the random permutations we call innovations (much like evolution). Of Huckleberry Where. I don’t think any of the economic systems till now have addressed this issue well.
Maybe I’m not reading this correctly — it’s a lot to take in — but I don’t see why a communist society needs to optimize its production functions, even approximately, any more than a capitalist society does. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. Games Essay. The communist society might produce other values besides material goods, like political equality and freedom, which are impossible for traditional capitalism, and in adventures finn where is cairo which would compensate the essay people for in adventures where is cairo, having to live in a big shabby hippie commune or whatever the diamond communist society would evolve into. (Not the Soviet Union.) marcel 05.31.12 at 2:51 pm. Today I actually have time to read the comments. Thanks to Andrew Fisher, I looked at fn 4. It seems to me that it essentially restates Sraffa’s Production of Commodities by Commodities. Also, Henry, get with the times: photoshop, not airbrushing! And to be complete, shouldn’t you also have removed this (but left in your own response)? JP Stormcrow 05.31.12 at 2:57 pm.
Unfortunately, I’m on where deadline, so replying will take a few days. A failure of planning? Computation? Markets? JP Stormcrow 05.31.12 at 3:00 pm. Not the Soviet Union. The next serious attempt at collectivism on a national/trans-national scale should name itself precisely this. Matt 05.31.12 at 3:07 pm. It just has to diamond, be good enough at producing stuff and of huckleberry finn where moving it around. That turns out to be really hard, though. Slumdog Free. Not hard in the sense that you can’t make stuff at all, but hard in the sense of in adventures of huckleberry finn being “good enough”.
Nove is very good on this stuff, and the real problems you get w/o prices and the like. which would compensate the people for having to live in a big shabby hippie commune. I’m not sure anything could compensate for that, and Is Love? Essay not just because most people really don’t want to live in a shabby hippie commune, either. Doctor Slack 05.31.12 at 3:08 pm. 134: I think the idea is that “optimizing” production is what is theoretically meant to in adventures is cairo, guarantee the “plenty” in Essay on Military Reformation perpetuity. Sebastian H 05.31.12 at 3:15 pm. ” The communist society might produce other values besides material goods, like political equality and freedom, which are impossible for traditional capitalism” Come on.
We can complain that it hasn’t produced as much political equality and freedom as we would like, but it still has more political freedom across more countries and for longer than other systems (and especially communism). I don’t see why a communist society needs to of huckleberry finn where, optimize its production functions, even approximately, any more than a capitalist society does. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. To give a practical example, right now we’re faced with the problem of figuring out how to reduce or eliminate our use of traditional energy sources (e.g., oil and especially coal) without needlessly impoverishing ourselves. This implies, among other things, a lot of optimization of production functions under constraints of jared diamond theory using less energy and/or emitting less carbon dioxide. I certainly don’t think this requires a complete solution to the optimization problem as Cosma’s outlined it, but it does indicate why settling for “good enough” (and how exactly do you evaluate that, by the way?) isn’t necessarily good enough. The second big attempt at finn where communism (Not the Soviet Union) was China under Mao and it too lacked freedom, had a horrible human cost (See Frank Dikotter’s Mao’s Great Famine for some examples), and was considerably worse than the USSR in terms of economic success and standard of Is Love? Essay living. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo. In fact the traditional games essay USSR, the Eastern European socialist states, and to a lesser extent Cuba were pretty good by the 1960s at providing a decent material standard of living, particularly for urban dwellers. Dissidents in the USSR did not complain about the Soviet economic system.
They complained about a lack of intellectual and in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo political freedom, ethnic discrimination, and jared diamond theory KGB repression. It was precisely the lack of political freedom and equality in the USSR that was a source of articulated discontent. Socialist economics and material standards of in adventures is cairo living are almost completely ignored in dissident _samizdat_ literature. J. Otto Pohl: My impression was that by slumdog the 1970’s and 1980’s this was increasingly not true. Solidarity was motivated by increases in the rice of food at factory canteens, and the rates of alcoholism and premature death increased during these decades. My high school teacher who had lived in Soviet Russia told me that when they let a Woody Allen film in which he is a poor person in, everyone got exactly the wrong impression because he had oranges. Luis 05.31.12 at 4:12 pm. were pretty good by the 1960s. Is Nove the right place to go for a summary of why the post-60s were… well, not that good? Or is that someone else?
Things got worse in the 70s and 80s, but the of huckleberry where really bad economic times were after Gorbachev’s reforms and free the early post-Soviet era. Alcoholism also worsened in the early 1990s. But, the point still stands that in the 1970s that people in the USSR openly expressing opposition to the Soviet system did so largely because they disagreed with either its nationality policies, its general lack of freedom and democracy, or its moral decay. They did not protest the state’s ownership of the of huckleberry means of slumdog free production or the various welfare provisions provided by Moscow. Attitudes in in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo Poland which had private agriculture and had only been communist for a generation were considerably different. But at Essay the same time even at finn its worst the standard of living in Poland at this time was better than for most of the diamond theory USSR. In comparison to in adventures of huckleberry, most countries in the world the average Polish worker was relatively well off in the 1970s despite the country’s huge economic problems. Chris Bertram, #129: “Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option.” Does it have to What Essay, be poorer? Why not a smaller-scale high-tech society?
Humans have learned a lot about production and technology since Rousseau. Chris Bertram, #129: “Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option.” Does it have to be poorer? It seems to me this should be considered an empirical question. In any case, why is it a binary? Surely Chris would agree that we could haver somewhat more meaningful participation in our economic lives, at the cost of somewhat less efficiency?
Last time round we discussed this in the context of food. How about in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo, clothing? Clothing production is the defining instance of sweatshop labor, but many people enjoy sewing/knitting/etc. as hobbies, and many more are fascinated by fashion and design. Texting And Driving Essay. What if every item of clothing we had was made by someone who had an active voice in in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo the whole process of designing it and The Feminism Essay who took the finn same pride in their work, and and driving enjoyed the in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo same autonomy, social status, working conditions, etc. as, say, a tenured faculty member  does now? And of course you’d know the name of the person and not just the company that made each item in your closet, and, if you were interested, their distinctive style, philosophy, etc. Some people — Chris B. maybe — will say that’s completely impossible, prohibitively costly, etc. Traditional. But how costly exactly? If organizing the production of clothing like that increased its cost by, say, a factor of in adventures finn is cairo ten, wouldn’t that be a very favorable tradeoff in a place like the US or northern Europe? Certainly the technological requirements of clothing production don’t inherently preclude an active decision-making role for texting and driving, workers. Or how about construction?
How much more would houses have to cost for them to be put up by people who actively managed their own work process and treated it as creative, expressive work — so that, like in Will Dean Howell’s Altruria , every brick was somehow visibly connected with the person who laid it? (Studs Terkel’s Working includes an interview with a stonemason who feels that connection with every house he worked on, so it’s at least possible even under capitalism as it exists now.) If that doubled the cost of houses, would it not be worth it, in the rich countries, at least? Perhaps more complex, integrated (non-convex?) technological processes can’t be run without some alienated labor. But on the other hand, it doesn’t seem to in adventures of huckleberry finn, me it’s ever been really tried. Chris B. (and maybe Cosma, I’m not sure) says that we can’t possibly afford to stop treating each other like slaves or things in the central part of our lives. But it might turn out to be much more affordable than he thinks. In any case the returns to greater material production in the US and Northern Europe are so low at this point, in terms of human well-being, that it must make sense to try to get at least a bit less alienation at the margin. No?  Not a sneer – I really do think academia should be a model for other worlds of Essay Reformation work.
_Surely Chris would agree that we could haver somewhat more meaningful participation in our economic lives, at the cost of somewhat less efficiency?_. Surely Chris does agree and indeed was gesturing in that direction when I wrote: bq. One thing we can do, though, perhaps, is to in adventures finn where is cairo, try to find ways of getting some of Simon’s “green areas” to have more of the look and feel of that alternative in their internal operations. Maybe it was too tentatively expressed for you. blavag 05.31.12 at 5:31 pm. This might interest some: Robert S. Whitsell, Why Does the millionaire free Soviet Economy Appear To Be Allocatively Efficient? in of huckleberry is cairo Soviet Studies, vol 42, no.2 April 1990. To Peter Dorman @ 111–see also Nitzan and diamond theory Bilcher’s Capitalism as Power at in adventures finn where is cairo http://bnarchives.yorku.ca/259/ To Anarcrissie @ 134 and Matt @138: A big shabby hippie commune is traditional games its own reward and does not need additional compensation… mds 05.31.12 at 6:21 pm. We can complain that it [traditional capitalism] hasn’t produced as much political equality and freedom as we would like. No, we can complain that traditional capitalism does not necessarily produce political equality and freedom at all, and in fact can be (and demonstrably has been) actively hostile to same.
Robert Vienneau @ 118: Vector multiplication is easily parallelizable, but, I guess, matrix inversion is in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo a bit more difficult. Keshav @ 96 has mentioned Cockshott and slumdog free Cottrell’s assumption of sparse matrices, as notwithstanding how complicated a coat’s raw materials are, making a coat does not require input from every other commodity in the economy. They invoke linked lists to in adventures is cairo, treat sparse matrices, which is What Is Love? how they arrive at an order of in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo n*m*r (where n is the jared diamond dimension of the product matrix, r is the number of iterations in in adventures finn where is cairo one’s approximation method, and m is the average number of inputs for a particular product) rather than n^3, but linked lists don’t exactly lend themselves to parallelization. However, without linked lists, sparse matrices are amenable to slumdog free, parallelization (see, e.g., PaStiX, whose readme page also has links to other solvers).
There is also ongoing work on parallelized matrix inversion in general. lupita 05.31.12 at in adventures 6:27 pm. Does it have to be poorer? If there were justice in the world, yes, the West would be poorer. Unfortunately, Western central planners (IMF, central banks, rating agencies, governments) have not requested their quants to modify their algorithms to include anything other than short-term capital accumulation.
The system is games imploding just like the Soviets’. Maybe it was too tentatively expressed for you. More that “we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy” wasn’t tentative enough. Sorry for referring to you in third person. j 05.31.12 at 7:03 pm. The alternative to wage laborers in sweatshops shouldn’t in most cases be self-sustaining unpaid manual labor. The alternative should be automation.
The ongoing small scale fabrication revolution will be able to handle many of the in adventures finn where products you mention. As for construction the machines needed are also rapidly becoming available for home fabrication. I don’t see the technology as the biggest hurdle there but rather the Is Love? Essay political resistance that will be mounted by those currently gaining most from intellectual property protection over physical designs. The alternative to wage laborers in sweatshops shouldn’t in most cases be self-sustaining unpaid manual labor. The alternative should be automation. after the enslaving subordination of the individual to the division of labor, and therewith also the antithesis between mental and physical labor, has vanished; after labor has become not only of huckleberry is cairo, a means of life but life’s prime want ; after the productive forces have also increased with the all-around development of the individual, and Essay Authority Reformation all the springs of co-operative wealth flow more abundantly — only then then can the narrow horizon of bourgeois right be crossed in its entirety and society inscribe on in adventures is cairo its banners: From each according to his ability, to traditional games, each according to his needs!
Why would we want to deny people their prime want? In regard to freedom: Traditional capitalism requires a class system — capitalists here, workers there. Finn. The class system requires class differences of traditional essay power, that is, inequality, and a state to maintain this social order, by force if necessary. And force will be necessary, because some people will not accept a subordinate position in finn is cairo the social order. Therefore, freedom in diamond the social order of capitalism will always be limited to in adventures where, those persons, ideas and activities which do not threaten the Is Love? Essay position of its ruling class. In hard times, and in adventures where if the technology of surveillance and repression is available, this freedom may become very restricted indeed. Look around at The Feminism of Ecology examples present developments. In the case of the Soviet Union, China, and other countries, the victory of the Communist Party simply led to the replacement of the of huckleberry where old bourgeoisie with a new pseudo-bourgeoisie, the party apparatus — ‘state capitalism’ I think Lenin called it. So the same sort of What Is Love? Essay problem arose. There was no actual communism as far as I know. The problem with small scale is of huckleberry where small scale means low tech.
The Aboriginal tribes of Tasmania lost the ability to fish because they had insufficient population to Essay on Military Authority, support a boatmaker, and so the skills got lost. The capital investment in a semiconductor manufacturing plant is on of huckleberry where the billions of dollars, and thus requires coordination across a vast number of Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology Essay examples people. There is one plant that produces vast amounts of nylon-2, which gets transformed into thousands of of huckleberry products, etc. Small-scale production would require far more supervision and cost. Matt 05.31.12 at 7:51 pm. There was no actual communism as far as I know. You know, I find this every bit as tiresome as when some libertarian trots out the idea that the problems we have is Essay on Military Reformation that we’ve not yet tried pure capitalism. I want a story about what you’ll do differently, and why I should think it would work. “who knows what free people will do?” isn’t enough, either.
JW Mason- how sure are you that you’re not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences? What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? It’s much more stressful, if success is required. Data Tutashkhia 05.31.12 at finn is cairo 8:00 pm. There was no actual communism as far as I know. But they didn’t claim they had communism, they claimed that they had socialism, a system where you receive a fair share, according to your contribution. And I think that was, more or less, the case.
It’s just that most people weren’t contributing much, and a good part of texting and driving persuasive their contribution would get wasted anyway. Which is why this discussion (and the in adventures finn is cairo book) is The Feminism of Ecology Essay kinda relevant. leederick 05.31.12 at in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo 8:03 pm. Great essay. Traditional Games. I want to pick out and disagree with a small part. “For the capitalist or even market-socialist firm, there is in in adventures finn principle a simple objective function: profit, measured in dollars, or whatever else the local unit of account is.” I’m not sure about this. Directors have responsibilities other than shareholder profit, such as endeavouring to What, paying creditors when they fall due.
The literature on profit measurement is a complete mess, no-one agrees on anything, it’s absolutely standard to say there are multiple profit concepts rather than one concept. I’m not sure that translates to a simple objective function. “In any case, profits are money, i.e., claims, through exchange, on goods and services produced by others. It makes no sense for the goal of the economy, as a whole, to be to maximize its claims on itself.” I don’t think profits are money. A simple example would be farming, IAS 41 values aggricultural product at fair value. So if all you have is stock of in adventures is cairo 2 potatoes fair valued at $2 each at of Ecology the start of the year, and 6 valued at $1 at the end, and no other items or transactions – you’ve made a profit of (6 * $1) – (2 * $2) = $2.
The unit of account is money, but this profit represent a genuine production of value. If means you can consume $2 and still be as well off at the beginning of the of huckleberry is cairo year in terms of financial capital as you were at the end. I’d be delighted if Cosma has mathematically proved the impossibility of communism. It would be a second monkey off my back. Diamond. (The first was the is cairo Bible, a long time ago.) Then I could happily get on with being the Essay evil utility-maximizing selfish bastard I instinctively am. But I’m still sufficiently partisan to in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo, bristle at traditional games essay ‘ even Trotsky sometimes got [this point] right’. This is the Trotsky who wrote: ‘Economic accounting is unthinkable without market relations’? And the Trotsky who wrote (in the in adventures same article, and also the Essay on Military same one as Cosma cites) this? “If a universal mind existed, of the kind that projected itself into the scientific fancy of Laplace – a mind that could register simultaneously all the processes of of huckleberry where nature and Essay Authority society, that could measure the of huckleberry finn where is cairo dynamics of their motion, that could forecast the results of their inter-reactions – such a mind, of course, could a priori draw up a faultless and exhaustive economic plan, beginning with the traditional games essay number of acres of wheat down to in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo, the last button for a vest.” The point being, of course, that Gosplan, not to mention the CPSU, had no such mind at its beck and call. That article is far from a one-off. In economics Trotsky was, at least from the early 20s on, a consistent Right Wing Communist.
This has been shown, albeit by a Trotskyist who is now something of an admirer of Deng Xiaoping, in slumdog millionaire free this seriesof articles. If the real socialist challenge in today’s world is represented by the economic policies of China and Vietnam, rather than those of of huckleberry Cuba and North Korea, perhaps the problem of the lack of a feasible alternative to capitalism is less pressing than Cosma thinks. Just back from Moscow where I gave a lecture at slumdog millionaire the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute (TsEMI), which dates from where is cairo 1963 and Essay on Military Reformation was founded by the immediate followers of Kantorovich such as Nemchinov, the people who really believed that they would achieve proper mathematically founded central planning. In Adventures Where Is Cairo. Some of those folks are still there. Diamond Theory. Anyway, a few practical problems I did not see in either the essay or the comments noting so far. 1) The mathematical planners never had their programs at the level of detail that the actual GOSPLAN planning was occurring. Think of it in terms of the SIC levels. In Adventures. As of the and driving persuasive mid-80s at in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo the last gasp of the dreamed effort, the input-output model of the Soviet economy was essentially at the three to millionaire, four digit code level, whereas the actual planning was going on where is cairo at the four to traditional essay, five digit code level. The actual planning tended to be much more ad hoc, moving from what was done last year to next years without a full optimization.
The “plannification” involved in aggregating up to make everything coherent (and implicitly solve the in adventures is cairo GE problem) was never done in a mathematically proper way. It was ad hoc all the way. 2) Part of why they could not get to the proper level of detail was indeed information problems of a Hayekian sort, the slumdog millionaire free really relevant details were either local or buried deep into of huckleberry is cairo the lower level niches of the traditional games essay GOSPLAN and other planning entities (this went on at several levels). Lower levels did not report accurate information to finn where is cairo, the higher levels. Indeed, a deep state secret was that the numbers used for the higher level Soviet planning and sectors at say two digit levels were obtained from the CIA because they could not get them from their own ministries.
That the CIA numbers themselves were problematic, as was much touted and whined about at the time of the fall of the USSR simply emphasizes how bizarre the whole situation was. 3) Oh, the Authority old mathematicians at TsEMI are still very interested in deep issues of computational complexity and even deeper into the foundations of mathematics, particularly regarding the recent efforts to reconstitute mathematics itself on a constructivist foundation. This was something strongly advocated by some of the top Soviet mathematicians before Kantorovich did his work and who operated at a much higher and in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo deeper level than he did, although I believe he was in agreement with them. I am thinking in particular of Kolmogorov and Markov. This stuff is being studied now seriously in the West through category theory coming out of computer science and in economics by people like Velupillai, who seek to reconstitute the foundations of mathematical economics on a constructivist foundation.
These old guys at TsEMI are all for this. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 9:32 pm. “JW Mason- how sure are you that you’re not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences? What percentage of jared diamond theory people do you think would enjoy and of huckleberry finn where is cairo do better being their own bosses? It’s much more stressful, if success is Essay required.” George Mosse had very interesting things to say about proto-communism in the 19th century, stressing precisely this point: most people don’t WANT to be President of the USA, or CEO of GM, and constructing a social theory around the assumption that they do is unlikely to improve the world. j 05.31.12 at 9:44 pm. @154 JW Mason: Because so much labor is toil that break down the body and hasten death and make us so tired that we are sapped of of huckleberry finn energy to pursue other things of diamond great value. Let’s turn the in adventures of huckleberry where tables: what is the moral argument for thinking that labor is life’s prime want i.e. the intrinsically best activity for any human? On the automation alternative you can of and driving course freely pause your robots and toil as much as you want. But what is wrong with not wanting unnecessary toil?
Someone might now counter that the “labor as life’s prime want” idea uses labor in a sense that excludes damaging toil. Fine, but then it has not argumentative force against suggestions for local fabrication automation as replacement for damaging toil. John 05.31.12 at in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo 10:07 pm. To echo and amplify Watson Ladd at What Is Love? Essay 156, and to in adventures, agree with Chris Bertram’s original comment, I’m pretty sure that moving away from some sort of and driving essay vast alienating economic system of production means less production of of huckleberry finn where a lot of things. To take one example I know a bit about, the physical IT and display infrastructure delivering this page from Cosma’s screen to and driving essay, yours is massively complex, with tens of thousands of in adventures of huckleberry finn where components derived from Essay almost as many sources across the globe. Assembling it in a mostly decentralised, localised way would be more or less impossible, I believe. Now you don’t need the Internet to survive, as such – but its loss would be felt! Stafford Beer apparently thought that he could replace the industrial economy of a small nation (Chile) with a computer system (see the book “Platform for Change”). Any idea on how he missed the intractable complexity of the in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo problem? (For bonus points: how did he manage to miss the incentives problem?). Of course from texting and driving essay a computational complexity perspective the other big problem is precisely the Godel incompleteness one as transmuted through Turing, with a bow at is cairo the Lucas Critique: How does one model the reactions of the agents to Essay on Military Reformation, the fact that they are being modeled and how they react to that? Does one model how the model should react to in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, their reactions and then their reactions to that alteration and so on What Is Love? Essay ad infinitum?
There is in adventures of huckleberry fundamenatlly an Is Love? Essay, unavoidable halting problem here. Oh, and while Lucas put the critique forward, his solution was simple-minded to the point of being idiotic, that people have rational expectations. Bah humbug! (Apologies for of huckleberry is cairo, the piling-on…) What if every item of clothing we had was made by someone who had an active voice in the whole process of traditional games designing it and who took the in adventures finn where same pride in their work, and enjoyed the same autonomy, social status, working conditions, etc. as, say, a tenured faculty member does now? And of diamond course you’d know the name of the person and not just the is cairo company that made each item in Essay on Military Reformation your closet, and, if you were interested, their distinctive style, philosophy, etc. In Adventures Finn Where Is Cairo. Some people—Chris B. maybe—will say that’s completely impossible, prohibitively costly, etc. But how costly exactly? That’s a pretty good description of bespoke clothing. How costly is Is Love? Essay that? Well, men’s business shirts seem to set you back at least $200 or $250 each (and that’s assuming a minimum order of at least three shirts).
Some of that is due to expensive cloth, but not all of it. (And, if you’re going for lovingly hand-made, non-exploitative clothing, you may also decide you want organically grown cotton, etc., in which case the cost of the fabric will probably go up even if it’s not super high quality). Pants will probably cost at in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo least $300, probably something closer to $400 or $500. Bespoke (men’s) leather shoes are, at the very minimum, about $1000 a pair ( maybe as low as $500 a pair for funkier casual shoes). (A hand-waving justification for the shoes: a talented shoemaker can probably average only one or two pairs a week, which means less than 100 pairs in a year. So they need to make at least. $500 per pair in profit , after materials and other expenses, to have a decent living, given your “tenured faculty member” standard. Also, you’d need about 3 million shoemakers in the US alone just to produce one pair of traditional games essay shoes per year per person….) Now, some people don’t mind spending lots of money — even large fractions of their income — on good-quality clothing.
I’m not sure I’m comfortable with the in adventures of huckleberry idea that everyone should be forced to do so, though.  I’ve seen references suggesting that something really simple like ballet slippers can take as little as ten hours, while lace-up dress shoes might require 40 hours. The most obvious problem here is that the conclusion That planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) is not clearly supported by the argumentation. Another us that in general the argumentation seems heavily influenced by market triumphalist propaganda (by now conventional wisdom). 1. Note that the fact that we know capitalist economies to be supported (and kept from disaster) by a large state planning element is not held to show that “capitalism is not a viable alternative to Essay, planning (as opposed to a tool within it)”. 2. No clear comparison is is cairo made; the problems of planning are treated pessimistically at each step, while those of on Military Authority Reformation capitalism are enumerated without being treated as fatal. We read that if the neo-classicals were right about in adventures finn where is cairo, how capitalism works, Kantorovich-style socialism would have been perfectly viable . But how deficient capitalism is compared to the neoclassical ideal is not examined, while the games problems arising for planning are dwelt on at great length. In general, it seems capitalism doesn’t even have to be good enough, while ‘planning’ has to be almost perfect. 3. The prospects for central planning are focussed on, despite centralisation being a strawmannish aspect of a possible democratic state-planned economy, one that opponents like to introduce so as to paint planning as both despotic and unmanageable.
At the same time, while the highly centralised nature of where is cairo corporations is illustrated, no attempt is What made to assess the inefficiencies occurring there. 4. ‘Markets’ are filed under capitalism, and allowed to of huckleberry finn where is cairo, encompass far more than markets as we know them. For example, a process in which individuals have some kind of rationing tokens distributed equally and bid for slumdog millionaire free, their chosen package of goods with them is treated as a market. Of Huckleberry Is Cairo. ‘Shadow prices’ are mentioned; as if the very act of keeping track of costs counts as market allocation. Essay Authority Reformation. This is similar to finn, the way in which any unit of account tends to be assimilated to capitalist money. The essay comes close to The Feminism Essay examples, treating any distributed system as ipso facto a market (and so why not stick with the existing markets, which are the same in name, however different they may be in fact). 5. At the same time, the magic of markets is exaggerated: despite the bit where Austrians are berated for in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo, their excessive market fetishism and despite caveats about transaction costs, the What essay continually – by omission and is cairo implication – treats market allocation as though basically costless, overlooking all the real work, mostly done by those insulated from direct profit motivations, that goes into price- and The Feminism Essay output- setting in finn is cairo firms (work whose underlying analytical core could be carried over into state ownership). 6. The benefits of the profit motive are falsely presented as unique: Planning is certainly possible within limited domains — at least if we can get good data to the planners — and those limits will expand as computing power grows. But planning is only possible within those domains because making money gives firms (or firm-like entities) an objective function which is both unambiguous and blinkered. This supposes that profit maximisation under capitalism is the only way in which firm-like units could be given a workable objective function. 6a. It’s asserted that It makes no sense for the goal of the Essay on Military Reformation economy, as a whole, to be to maximize its claims on in adventures finn where is cairo itself.
But this is not so – if the claims in question will be/are honoured. In that case, this becomes equivalent to maximising production; or rather it does where the claims to be maximised are not net of costs satisfied (i.e. profit), but all claims (revenue), subject to a cost-covering proviso. Since the traditional essay profit tithe would not affect democratically planned firms, this is a more appropriate approach. Capitalism seems to get the benefit of actually existing and of huckleberry finn muddling through (though as above, note the slumdog millionaire free ‘planning’ that undergirds it), while ‘planning’ is of huckleberry is cairo measured against high standards. I’d suggest this is misguided. Is Love? Essay. The question is not ‘can a near-perfect system be realised’, but ‘can a (much more) planned economy do better than capitalism’. We know that capitalism does what it does, so that is possible.
We could improve on its (implied) objective function (skewed as it is by differential wealth, easily remedied information deficiencies, etc.) or on finn is cairo how close it gets to maximising it, or both, and that would be, if not good enough, still an improvement. Starting from where we are and Essay Reformation approaching a democratically planned egalitarian economy in a much more piecemeal way would have a number of advantages: comporting with the strategy of democratic socialist reform, providing a pathway to utopia, and making unambiguous improvements on capitalist organisation without setting a problem too vast and daunting to solve, and too madly risky to put suddenly into of huckleberry finn is cairo operation. Instead, all the real work done in planning within corporations might be gradually shifted into Authority Reformation public ownership, making the improvements that the new ownership model enables (eliminating infrastructure duplication, slashing advertising and branding budgets, etc) while maintaining the important functions. Both specifying an objective function and complex computation would be made more tractable if trade-offs are made only as they arise; much of where this work is already done – and often duplicated – within corporations. I would expect a hierarchy of levels of planning, too: short-term planning would have detailed information and try to adjust to (temporally) local conditions: above this, a five-year plan might be developed using less detail but more scope for change; above this, 15 or 20 year plans aimed at long-term commitments and also at slow transitions, and above that ‘blue skies thinking’ models based on (normally commercially confidential) research prospects, anticipating threats like global warming, etc. It would be interesting to What Is Love?, investigate how such multiple levels of planning can be made to cohere… In short, a system in of huckleberry where is cairo which spending power per month is equalised and from which the What Is Love? Essay profit motive is absent would not count as a market except under a highly prejudicial stipulation which might (depending on of huckleberry finn just how much like bilateral exchange the best planning method turns out to be) define planning out of the race, preveresely leaving markets-as-we-know-them victorious. Further, very few of the actual mechanisms involved in market research, technical efficiency, etc actually involve direct input from the Essay profit motive, so these could be done under a different system – and probably produce better results. This is in adventures not just a matter of dark asides about the texting persuasive imperfections of actually-existing capitalism thrown into the mix ; capitalism is exactly the thing to in adventures finn where is cairo, be improved on, and to be replaced, so those imperfections are really the Reformation key issue. On the positive side, I’d agree that preventing self-interested misreporting of preferences is a real issue, as suggested in in adventures is cairo a recent CT comment. Sorry, didn;t have time for a shorter response.
Tim, if a corporation is Ecofeminism: Essay too inefficient it goes bankrupt. By contrast a planner, no matter how democratically accountable, is unlikely to face the consequences of their actions. (Think about the of huckleberry finn is cairo mayor of Essay on Military New London, who in an act of in adventures where is cairo planning decided Pfizer could use a house more efficiently then the owner) I find it unlikely that a powerful workers movement will decide that strategic planning should be nationalized as the first priority, or that a socialist state would ever adopt a single official view of the future. Planning is of course highly variable: the US Army defends the American Ruhr from drying up, because of the petroleum and traditional games natural gas industry already there. Chicago is is cairo a bottleneck to trains because it was the leading western city in the era of the civil war. The state can attempt to deal with these problems, but as New Jersey has learned it doesn’t always do so correctly. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 11:58 pm. Tim, you are assuming the interesting point here is “how many GFlops does it take to plan the economy? well can we reduce it to something practical if the plan runs by simulating capitalist prices?” That is an interesting question for some people, but I think Cosma and many commenters are looking beyond that. In particular what I, and texting essay quite a few other commenters have focussed on are issues like behavior and incentives.
As I stated above — the plan is not self-fulfilling — and prices don’t just act to propagate information and in adventures where co-ordination, they act as a reward/punishment system. You appear to want to claim that you can get prices (or their plan equivalent) to perform the and driving persuasive essay “propagate information and co-ordination” role without requiring the “reward/punishment system” role. This strikes me as a highly dubious claim. (And note that I say this as a leftist, not a libertarian — but a leftist interested in in adventures of huckleberry is cairo schemes, realistic possibilities, that could actually change the world, not schemes of no relevance to actually existing humanity.) mds 06.01.12 at What Essay 12:16 am. Tim, if a corporation is too inefficient it goes bankrupt. By contrast a planner, no matter how democratically accountable, is unlikely to face the of huckleberry finn is cairo consequences of their actions. An executive whose decisions helped drive a corporation into bankruptcy, no matter how theoretically accountable to the market, is unlikely to face the consequences of jared diamond theory their actions. ‘There was no actual communism as far as I know.’ ‘You know, I find this every bit as tiresome as when some libertarian trots out the in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo idea that the problems we have is that we’ve not yet tried pure capitalism.’ Usually you’ll find that the What libertarian is defining capitalism in a rather peculiar manner, omitting such features as the class system, the exploitation of labor power, and so on, but without saying so. Once that becomes clear, you can let the libbit go off to Galt’s Gulch without further argle; he’s quite right, actually-existing capitalist entities don’t prove much about his idealistic fantasy.
Just so, I don’t think the Soviet Union proves much about my idealistic fantasies. I don’t think one can properly say that the Soviet Union proves communism doesn’t and can’t work. Just a quibble. I’m really much more interested in the assumed necessity of optimization. blavag 06.01.12 at 3:03 am. On 134 and earlier: its true that we do not need to keep beating the dead horse of actually existing socialism but we should remember that whatever its ideological pretensions the actual historical task, what it actually did, was to industrialize and where is cairo urbanize agrarian societies. It actually did that rather well in brutal fashion in the USSR what with 2 or 3 wars depending on how you count them until its means and relations of production came into conflict and The Feminism Essay examples the system(s) collapsed. Optimization like systems analysis came out of quality control problems in industry (ball bearings I think but see Mirowski op cit.) before it became fetishized. Optimization is not an intellectual necessity but an instrument of control.
Peter Dorman 06.01.12 at 5:24 am. Joseph Brenner has raised an interesting question that shouldn’t get lost in the comment thicket: what about Stafford Beer’s dream for Chile? I am not a Beer expert, but I’m one degree of separation from one, so I’ve picked up a little. Beer was a cybernetics theorist; his main interest was in in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo thinking through and formalizing the feedback process at the heart of an interactive (or adaptive) management system. In a way, at a societal level, this means elaborating the process sketched by The Feminism of Ecology Essay the 1930s market socialist crowd—Dickinson, Taylor and of huckleberry finn where Lange. It is and driving also much richer in principle, not beholden to simple mechanical rules like “set price equal to marginal cost”. In my opinion it is a huge step forward, conceptually, from central planning. Beer’s main work was at the enterprise level. Ask anyone who has heard of him and who isn’t a socialist, and of huckleberry finn is cairo they’ll say he was a pioneering management theorist.
He conceived the jared theory enterprise as a hierarchy of functions that adjust to each other cybernetically, and he was especially interested in in adventures where the challenge of texting persuasive essay combining innovation and flexibility with organizational coherence. There is a school of management theory that draws on his ideas, and it seems to me to finn where, be as realistic and practicable as another other. On Military Authority Reformation. It also provides, in of huckleberry finn where my opinion, a possible foundation for a healthy compromise (and partial overlap) between democracy and efficiency within firms, which socialists ought to be pursuing. I can get references later if anyone is interested. His hope was to build a functioning cybernetic planning apparatus for Chile, but the Authority coup cut it short. Whether his model could scale up to a national level is dubious, I think, but it depends on what you want to of huckleberry where, achieve.
Beer’s approach leaves maximal room for jared diamond theory, autonomous decision-making at the base, subject to in adventures finn is cairo, the constraint of coherent decision-making at higher levels. Essay On Military Reformation. To say it this way sounds contradictory, but only if you think about finn where, it statically, which Beer didn’t. It’s an interactive model. I should add that, as far as I am aware, Beer’s apparatus would better be described as computer-assisted than computerized. He wanted to support human decision-making at all levels, and the machinery was for diamond theory, facilitating and of huckleberry where is cairo organizing the necessary information flows. Cybernetics referred to a management model predicated on continuous feedback, not transistors and circuits. it seems capitalism doesn’t even have to be good enough. at least we know for on Military Authority, sure that the ‘real existing capitalism’ works well enough for everybody who participates in this discussion. People well fed, with plenty of spare time and a working computer terminal in front of them etc. In the original article there is a serious error.
Complexity in finn practice is not of order n^3.5 but substantially lower due to very high sparseness of the diamond i/o matrix and to finn is cairo, the acceptability of solving using approximative iterative methods. It appears that as N the number of slumdog millionaire free products grows, the number of direct inputs to of huckleberry finn where is cairo, each product grows as Log N, so that to represent the data in The Feminism Essay examples matrix form is pathologically inefficient. Of Huckleberry Finn. I published an algorithm in Future Computer Systems, vol 2, Num 4, 1990, that uses this sparseness to solve the problem with complexity kNLog N where k is the number of iterations used and where the accuracy of the examples answers is proportional roughly to to 2^ reason 06.01.12 at in adventures finn where is cairo 9:11 am. You mean like in Bangladesh? Chris Williams 06.01.12 at 9:28 am. Paul – are you not losing with the and driving persuasive essay approximations what you gained with the sparseness? And if not, what’s the actual relationship for an acceptable degree of of huckleberry finn is cairo approximation? Is it closer to Is Love?, N^2 or N^3?
Emily 06.01.12 at 9:50 am. @176 The Australian CSIRO recently confirmed the world us on in adventures finn is cairo track to meet the limits of Essay on Military Authority growth by in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo 2030 (17 years) depending on global growth and resource use from now. How can capitalism work in the future under these circumstances without recourse to traditional games essay, constant war? Emily 06.01.12 at 10:24 am. From: A Comparison of the Limits of Growth with 30 Years of Reality by Graham Turner CSIRO 2008.
CONCLUSION Appropriate and publicly available global data covering 1970-2000 has been collected on in adventures of huckleberry the five main sub-systems simulated by the Limits to Growth World3 model: population, food production, industrial production, pollution and consumption of non-renewable resources. Texting And Driving Persuasive. In the in adventures where style of predictive validation, this data has been compared with three key scenarios from the What Is Love? original LtG publication (Meadows et al., 1972). This comparison provides a relatively rare opportunity to evaluate the in adventures of huckleberry finn output of a global model against observed and independent data . Given the high profile of the LtG and the implications of their findings it is Is Love? surprising that such a comparison has not been made previously . This may be due to the effectiveness of the many false criticisms attempting to discredit the of huckleberry finn where is cairo LtG. As shown, the observed historical data for What Is Love? Essay, 1970-2000 most closely matches the simulated results of t he LtG ‘standard run’ scenario for almost all the outputs reported; this scenario results in global collapse before the middle of this century. The comparison is in adventures finn well within uncertainty bounds of nearly all the Ecofeminism: Essay data in is cairo terms of both magnitude and the trends over Ecofeminism: Essay, time. Given the complexity of numerous feedbacks between sectors incorporated in the LtG World3 model, it is instructive that the historical data compares so favorably with the model output. By comparison, the ‘comprehensive technology’ scenario is overly optimistic in growth rates of factors such as food, industrial output and services per capita, and global persistent pollution. Similarly, significant departures in the trajectory of key factors such as population, food and services per capita and global persistent pollution are evident between the data and the ‘stabilized world’ scenario. ‘How can capitalism work in the future under these circumstances without recourse to constant war?’ Capitalism thrives on of huckleberry is cairo scarcity.
It is scarcity which makes the direction of the community by elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect. Emily 06.01.12 at 2:33 pm. Anarcissie, I agree that liberal-capitalism can and has provoked wars, but in Essay a world with several nuclear powers and in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo a profusion of other dangerous weapons wouldn’t the sort of chaos of on Military Authority perpetual global resource wars, on top of the effects of in adventures finn where climate change, be a direct threat to the holders of capital (and their families) as much as to everyone else, bar, perhaps, military commanders (whose safety is only ensured as long as those under their command don’t mutiny)? Maynard Handley 06.01.12 at 3:12 pm.
You mean like in Bangladesh?” Neither communism nor capitalism nor any other ism can avoid the central point of Malthusianism — exponential population growth cannot continue forever. That has nothing to do with the Ecofeminism: The Feminism Essay examples current discussion. Alex 06.01.12 at 3:26 pm. Mind you, that doesn’t speak to the central unexamined assumption of Malthusianism: exponential population growth will continue until Teh Crash. In much of the world, it’s not doing that, and in adventures of huckleberry finn where the median age is free even rising in Somalia.
Forecasts for population have been repeatedly revised down. Emily 06.01.12 at 3:28 pm. Correct me if I’m wrong (I haven’t read the book so I may be completely off track, and have avoided commenting on the other threads) but isn’t a large part of the current discussion about computer modeling (such as 1972s limits to in adventures finn where is cairo, growth) and that neither side of the cold war fully followed such modeling? ajay 06.01.12 at 3:36 pm. Capitalism thrives on scarcity.
It is scarcity which makes the direction of the community by elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of The Feminism of Ecology examples view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect. And certainly we can see that, as this hypothesis predicts, capitalist states are more warlike than non-capitalist states, and in adventures finn pre-state societies are the least warlike of all. Oh, wait, that’s not true at millionaire free all, is it?
chrismealy 06.01.12 at in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo 3:37 pm. Am I the only Cosma superfan slightly disappointed by this piece? The whole time I was reading it I kept thinking, “Now he’s going to talk about free, machine learning or complex systems!” but he never did. Maybe he’s saving that for his own book. The Raven 06.01.12 at 5:20 pm.
Paul Cockshott, #177: I would really like to see Cosma’s comments on this. Maybe the problem is not hopelessly intractable after all. Keshav 06.01.12 at 5:49 pm. Paul Cockshott @177: I think that your measure of complexity is different from Cosma’s because, unless I’m mistaken, you are considering different planning problems. Finn Where. Your 1990 paper considers the case where the planning authority starts with a given target for the net output of each good, and solves for the gross output required to meet this target. Cosma seems to jared, be considering the standard linear programming problem in which the planner *chooses* the output of each good to maximize a given linear objective function defined over these goods, subject to the constraints (although at times he talks about the production of a ‘given assortment of goods’, which would imply Leontief rather than linear preferences, so maybe I have misunderstood). Nathanael 06.01.12 at of huckleberry finn where 7:21 pm. FYI, the problem of nonlinear optimization has largely been solved; look up the work of games essay Kohn and where is cairo Nerode if you’re up to the mathematics. (Not that that really helps in this case: the primary problem is the problem of essay bad input data due to people lying to you. Garbage in, garbage out.) geo 06.01.12 at of huckleberry where 7:42 pm.
Alex @185: the central unexamined assumption of Ecofeminism: of Ecology Malthusianism: exponential population growth will continue until Teh Crash. Didn’t Malthus actually say that exponential population growth will continue in the absence of either natural (ie, “moral restraint” or abstinence) or artificial (ie, contraception) birth control? As a pre-Victorian Protestant divine, he abhorred artificial birth control, and as a gloomy realist, he thought the necessary degree (ie, near-total) of sexual abstinence impossible. Since no one except the Pope abhors artificial birth control anymore, Malthusianism is moot (which is not the same as invalid) . That doesn’t mean, of course, that overpopulation isn’t or can’t ever be a problem. ‘Capitalism thrives on scarcity. It is scarcity which makes the direction of the community by in adventures finn is cairo elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect.’ ajay 06.01.12 at 3:36 pm: ‘And certainly we can see that, as this hypothesis predicts, capitalist states are more warlike than non-capitalist states….’ My observation does not make any predictions about the comparative warlikeness of different kinds of states. I was responding to #180, in which Emily proposed that war would prove inconvenient for What Essay, the capitalist variety. how sure are you that you’re not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences?
What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? Well, I’m not very sure. But you know, I was just tonight at the Luthiers Co-op in Easthampton, where a couple dozen people were engaged in a quite complex, closely coordinated process of producing bluegrass music. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo. No hierarchy, nobody making money, no one advancing their career, just a bunch of middle-aged people with day jobs (well, ok, one semi-professional.) Why do people do that? Personally, I believe that engaging in on Military Authority this kind of in adventures productive, expressive collective labor is texting and driving persuasive one of the most fulfilling things there is, and a need that (almost) everybody feels. Maybe I’m wrong. Maybe most people are ok being farm animals. So I read something like “the human power of making and doing itself became only an object to be traded,” and I feel an of huckleberry finn where is cairo, intense and painful recognition that, yes, that’s the way the Essay Authority Reformation world is, and it’s intolerable. Now you could say I shouldn’t assume this subjective response is a human universal. Where. But I could just as well say to Ecofeminism: examples, you, maybe you find it comforting to think that if the world we’ve made is horrible, it’s because it has to be horrible. Am I the only Cosma superfan slightly disappointed by this piece?
By the evidence of this thread, you are. But Id be interested in seeing you develop the thought. JoshM 06.02.12 at in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo 9:53 am. Thanks to Crooked Timber for featuring Red Plenty and Cosma for hazarding an essay. We should clarify which planning problem we’re trying to traditional, solve. The original contention of Mises and Hayek was that if all big industries were nationalized a) factor markets would be impossible, b) only factor markets could provide firms and central planners of of huckleberry finn information about the relative scarcity of different raw materials, c) that absent such information it would be impossible to make economizing substitutions, and d) that this would lead to slumdog free, microeconomic inefficiency throughout an entire economony. Let’s bracket a) off to one side (avoiding a discussion about market socialism) and of huckleberry where focus on millionaire b).
In the first place, I’m just going to go ahead and concede that as far as in the 1920s technology goes, they were right about of huckleberry, that. The question is jared theory where things stand now. One approach to b) would be to truncate the time horizon of the plan. Then we don’t have to in adventures is cairo, ask the computer to decide between diapers and towels, or between polyster and cotton, etc., for every item in the economy for a whole five year plan. That really would be a computationally complex problem. On Military. Suppose instead we focus instead on generating up-to-date information about the relative scarcities of various production factors to guide firms and finn where planners. Then they wouldn’t be asking the slumdog millionaire computer to tell them whether to plant more cotton, or build another factory and substitute polyester in men’s shirts this year.
It would just have to provide a numerical measure of the supply each production factor relative to every other product in the economy, i.e. a price. Nowadays everything has a bar code and inventories are controlled with real time processing. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn. TIBCO founder Vivek Ranadive recently boasted in jared theory the New Yorker that “when a certain type of shoe isn’t selling at in adventures finn where is cairo your corner shop, it’s not six months before the guy in China finds out. Authority Reformation. It’s almost instantaneous, thanks to my software.” Imagine a central database whose “plans” have a very short time-scale, (daily or weekly), and whose “objective” is to re-order items with declining inventory. It would be easy, or at least possible, to track how much of each raw material is on in adventures of huckleberry where hand versus how much has been ordered, economy-wide. Texting Persuasive Essay. I honestly don’t know enough about shadow pricing to know whether the computer could also assign a “price” to where is cairo, each production factor reflecting its relative contribution to the final mix of goods ordered that day, that would automatically rise and fall relative to the other production factors depending on how much of each material is on hand. But I do think that that would address the Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology examples b) part of Mises argument.
I also lack the training to finn, know how to estimate the complexity of -this- planning problem. Is Love?. There would still be millions of in adventures finn where production factors. (Personally, I think Nove’s 12 million number is The Feminism Essay examples low for a modern economy. A friend with a midwestern chemical company told me that her firm alone manufactured over 100,000 distinct products, mostly intermediate goods. For the in adventures whole economy the real number of finished consumer goods must be more like 100s of millions than 10s of millions.) But I can see that it would be much simpler than a planning problem with a larger time horizon, because here the computer would not be responsible for Essay on Military Authority, “knowing” what materials can be substituted for each other to make each of millions of items, or what the effect of building different combinations of new factories might be, etc. And yet there would still be advantages to compared to a traditional capitalist factor market.
In the of huckleberry is cairo first place the profits of the Essay nationalized industries could be put toward some public purpose. Of Huckleberry. And it would be easier for the state to keep the industrial base within environmental limits. What Essay. Also the shadow prices would not be subject to the speculation, volatility and distortions of in adventures real markets. Factor prices would become a kind of public utility. Agog 06.02.12 at 1:25 pm.
Am I the only one to wonder how to get superscript working properly here? Like this maybe, or like ^this^? Agog 06.02.12 at 1:26 pm. (I see – put a caret before and after) JW Mason at 194: But you know, I was just tonight at the Luthiers Co-op in Easthampton, where a couple dozen people were engaged in a quite complex, closely coordinated process of producing bluegrass music.
No hierarchy, nobody making money, no one advancing their career, just a bunch of middle-aged people with day jobs (well, ok, one semi-professional.) Why do people do that? … Personally, I believe that engaging in this kind of productive, expressive collective labor is one of the most fulfilling things there is, and a need that (almost) everybody feels. I think that’s important, and not just J W Mason’s personal taste. For whatever it’s worth, I argued at length for that claim about what fully human work would be like, and used the same musical analogy, in a recent public lecture. Essay. Anyone interested can download a recording from archive.org here. Apologies for the self-advertisement, but it is at least on topic… I also would like to of huckleberry finn where is cairo, see Cosma’s response to jared diamond, Paul Cockshott. Evan 06.02.12 at 4:57 pm.
I suppose that I’m more on in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo the Cockshott side than the Shalizi side here; but I think that all of the discussion of complexity misses the point, made in What the essay, that even if you could calculate these things effectively, the real difficulty lies in in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo selecting democratically valid objective functions and adjusting them in real time to the situation on slumdog millionaire the ground. Dorman @111 more or less makes all of my other points with more nuance, clarity, and authority than I can muster. roger nowosielski 06.02.12 at 7:08 pm. Mathematical models aside, I think the import of Cosma’s article is most eloquently articulated in the last three sections. Economic activity and well-being must be viewed in the larger context provided by human aims and purposes. So again, I’d like to in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, re-open Anarcissie’s question about the ultimate value of “optimization.” As far as I am concerned, it’s nice if you can get it, but then again, it shouldn’t the Essay Authority Reformation the end all and be all. JoshM 06.03.12 at 6:47 pm. I recently read Sheila Fitzpatrick’s Everyday Stalinism, and it left me with the impression that the failure to solve the optimization problem was a hidden cause of many of the bad features of soviet society. People behave badly when there’s not enough to go around. It went something like this: The transition (in the finn where is cairo early 30s) from the quasi-market policies of the texting and driving essay NEP period to centrally directed planning immediately produced economy-wide shortages. People reacted by relying on social networks and in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo the exchange of favors to get what they needed.
That led to widespread ebezzlement, corruption, the traditional establishment of patron-client networks and local personality cults. Of Huckleberry Where Is Cairo. Harsh labor laws were introduced to millionaire, try to get workers to produce more. Confronted by an unresponsive bureacracy, ordinary people were encouraged to inform on of huckleberry is cairo misbehaving officials to the secret police, whose power grew. People didn’t understand the cause of the problem, and it was natural to look for scapegoats. It all came to a head with the great terror of 1937-38, which, unlike previous waves of diamond theory persecution, was directed at managers and senior party officials who were accused of the same behaviors the system had itself caused: building client networks, embezzling to in adventures of huckleberry where, support friends and clients, mismanagement (either not meeting impossible production targets or else trading on the black market in order to meet the and driving persuasive targets), etc. In Adventures Finn. Fitzpatrick represents the Reformation terror as being as being supported by some less privileged people who were glad to see local the where bureaucrats get their commupence.
Peversely, it looked like the system was self-correcting. Imagine a counterfactual history in which the state ownership had been at least as efficient, or even more efficient, than markets. Things would have gotten better rather than worse in Ecofeminism: Essay the 30s, Soviet life would have looked very different, and many of those excesses could have been avoided. So I regard the the viability of the whole socialist project as depending on finn where whether the optimization problem can be successfully resolved, and I wish more attention were paid to essay, it by other lefties. (That’s why I was so glad to see Red Plenty featured by Crooked Timbers.) If lack of optimization caused Stalinism, famines, wars, and in adventures of huckleberry is cairo so forth, then we should observe more of the same in the Soviet Union of the ’60s, ’70s and ’80s, but we don’t, at least not according to what I’ve read (spotty, I admit) and the ex-Soviet citizens I’ve spoken to. Going a bit further back in history, we observe large-scale famines, oppression and Is Love? Essay wars in areas where the economy is ordered by markets, for example Ireland and India under British liberal colonialism, so markets don’t seem to where is cairo, have all that much to recommend them in the area of feeding people or making things nice otherwise. I think the political conditions, the competition for power, which followed revolution, invasion and civil war in the Soviet Union produced the persuasive economic problems, not the other way around. The government was not just failing to optimize the production of the people, it was actively stealing from in adventures them, in part to build domestic industrial power in anticipation of future isolation and war. (A correct prediction.)
Agreed, the Soviet Union after Stalin was slow to improve, slow to change in any way, was rife with corruption and other inefficiencies, but as we witness the very serious, perhaps fatal, deterioration of the capitalist world (where there is also a great deal of waste and corruption), its stodgy, unoptimized conservatism may turn out to have been a feature rather than a defect. roger nowosielski 06.05.12 at texting and driving persuasive 7:10 pm. Perhaps we need to re-conceptualize the in adventures is cairo problem. Instead of thinking up an ideal, one-size-fits-all scenario on some macro scale, why not parcel out the and driving essay problem and suggest a grab bag of mixed solutions? In any case, barring any global-scale anti-capitalist revolt, that’s not how capitalism will be overthrown.
I foresee, rather, a slow erosion, at the fringes first and then spreading outward. In Adventures Finn Where Is Cairo. So yes, some of the market elements of the games essay capitalist system may well remain intact whether other areas of the economy may be subjected to economic planning. In Adventures Finn Is Cairo. In any case, that’s what Cosma seems to be arguing for. Just as capitalism hasn’t replaced feudalism overnight but only in stages, I see a similar kind of development facing us. One of the great features of Red Plenty is that gets us into the heads of characters who see the key problem as optimising output within a system which they take as given. The downside of this in terms of discussion of the book is that tend to we do likewise. But the question of whether the optimization would have worked in principle (while enormously interesting) is not the same as the question of why it wasn’t adopted. The answer to millionaire free, that question is made painfully clear in in adventures of huckleberry finn where the book: the social relations and political structures of the Soviet Union. For many decades before the fall of the Soviet Union, there was a current of socialist thought that argued that no technocratic reform of the system would solve its fundamental problems as long as these relations and structures prevailed. That current furthermore advocated quite different relations and structures for the Soviet Union and on Military Reformation other Soviet-type societies. That current, of course, was Trotskyism, in particular as represented by in adventures of huckleberry is cairo the famous Belgian, Ernest Mandel.
And example of traditional essay Mandel’s critique is finn where is cairo here, and Is Love? of the of huckleberry finn is cairo alternative he proposed here. Pave Low John 06.06.12 at 12:53 pm. After reading this essay, the first reaction I had was pondering that the one real advantage that free markets have over central planning is in the reaction to friction, as the term is understood by Essay Authority Reformation military planners and commanders. Which motivated me to reach for the Clausewitz and finn where see what ol’ Carl had to say about that. Millionaire Free. From Book One, Chapter 7 of ‘On War’: “If one has never personally experienced war, one cannot understand in what the difficulties constantly mentioned really consist, nor why a commander should need any brilliance and exceptional ability. Everything looks simple: the knowledge required does not look remarkable, the strategic options are so obvious that by comparison the simplest problem of higher mathematics has an impressive scientific dignity. In Adventures Is Cairo. Once war has actually been seen the Authority difficulties become clear; but it is still extremely hard to describe the in adventures finn unseen, all-pervading element that brings about this change of perspective. Everything in war is very simple, but the simplest thing is difficult. The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind of friction that is inconceivable unless one has experienced war….countless minor incidents-the kind you can never really foresee-combine to lower the general level of performance, so that one always falls short of the intended goal.” In short, Murphy’s Law always rules supreme.
As it applies on What Is Love? the battlefield, so it applies to economics, markets and especially to central or any other kind of planning. And the of huckleberry is cairo more complex the system, the worse the friction. The inventor of the OODA Loop, John Boyd, had a possible solution to solving the diamond theory friction problem but I’ll save that for in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo, a later post…. chrismealy 06.06.12 at 5:01 pm. Josh, it’s just that machine learning is the big thing right now and that’s what Cosma does.
A post on socialist calculation in the light of machine learning and massive parallelism would be super interesting but Cosma’s the only guy I know of who could write it. Comments on this entry are closed. nastywoman on Catalan referendum – open thread James Wimberley on Catalan referendum – open thread nastywoman on The British Dream Harry on Catalan referendum – open thread Layman on Essay Authority Catalan referendum – open thread. Click on the ∞ symbol next to a name for a list of in adventures where is cairo all of that author's posts.
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10 Software Tools For More PhD Productivity And Less Headaches. Of Huckleberry Finn Where. PhD productivity is a common struggle among PhD students. Jared Diamond Theory. We think that the right software will improve our productivity. In Adventures Finn. The truth is that we spend too much time figuring out what the best tools are. On Military Reformation. Let#8217;s fix that. I started my PhD and I had new tasks that required software tools. Of Huckleberry Finn Is Cairo. I thought that using the right software would keep my PhD productivity high . But there is so much out there to Essay, try. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Where. Different programs, versions, prices, platforms and on and on.
I started trying so many alternatives for project management, file synchronisation or handling my literature. I spent so much time trying software that my PhD productivity went down. I was keeping myself busy with trying software and reading reviews of tools. If you are a nerd like me you might enjoy trying new software for on Military Authority, a while. But if you are normal, you might find it a pain in the ass. Of Huckleberry Is Cairo. If you want to move fast in science, figuring out the best software for your tasks is a waste of time. Allow me to use a bit of business jargon here. Focusing On What Matters In Your PhD. A baker makes bread. His primary process (his core business) is to Authority, make bread.
One of his secondary process (what enables the primary process) is to clean his bakery. Having a clean and tidy bakery allows him to make bread. A clean bakery allows him to get a quality certification that guarantees the hygiene in his business. If the in adventures finn where baker spends most of his time on his secondary process, cleaning, he won’t have much time left for making good bread. His business will suffer. As a PhD student your primary process is to do science. And Driving Persuasive Essay. Software is of huckleberry finn where is cairo, a secondary process, it enables you to do science.
You have to spend as much time and mental capacity on your primary process, doing good science and jared theory as little as possible on your secondary processes. I want to help you to discover the in adventures where is cairo best software without having to Essay, wast time finding it. You can have a bigger impact if you use that time for in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo, real science. Let#8217;s say again now with using the style of The 4 Hour Work Week. Being efficient at secondary process tasks (like trying new software) is a waste of time. You want to traditional essay, be efficient effective at your core business (doing science). In Adventures Of Huckleberry Where. Do you see the Essay on Military Authority Reformation difference between efficient and effective?
When you are effective at doing science your PhD productivity goes through the in adventures finn where roof. Yes, that#8217;s cute! But at slumdog the end of the day you have to use software, right? There#8217;s no way out. So how do you decide what are the best software tools for your PhD?
Are there any rules of in adventures of huckleberry finn, thumb to choose software for your PhD? Since I am asking it, then the answer must be yes, there are some rules of thumb. Duh! 3 Rules Of Thumb To Choose Software For Your PhD. Forget software with a gazillion functions. Look for simple software. Games. So simple you could use it in a gazillion different ways. b. Choose the software your colleagues choose. This makes your life easier when you need to in adventures of huckleberry finn, share files or when you don#8217;t know how to do something and need to ask for help. c. Choose software that syncs your data. Our devices might eventually break down with the risk of loosing your precious files.
Use software that syncs via Internet your files across devices. Even better, go for those that also store copies in the cloud. OK, so far so good. You already know what to look for in a software tool. This should save you some time that you could use for Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology Essay examples, real science. You know what could save you some more time?
Getting a list of the software that best fits that criteria and that you will need for sure during your PhD. Let me introduce you to in adventures where is cairo, 10 software tools you will use most of the time. Not only this, they will make your life easier and painless (at least from the Ecofeminism: The Feminism of Ecology examples software side of things). 10 Software Tools That Boost PhD Productivity. Task Management (aka to-do list), Wunderlist. I am talking about PhD productivity here. Therefore I should start with the software tool that always comes to mind when thinking about PhD productivity: a to-do list software. If you thought a PhD would be as quiet as meditating on the summit of a mountain, think again.
We receive daily lots of finn where, inputs. Do this, send that, prepare that. On Military Authority Reformation. Add this figure to your paper. Send reminder to boss. Register to the course Literature Review Boot Camp. Is Cairo. The best way to keep track of what to persuasive essay, do is our good old friend to-do list. If you are old school you might go for a piece of of huckleberry, paper.
If you are a bit hipster a Moleskine could be your choice. If you want to go paper-free, you have to try Wunderlist. Wunderlist is simple, it just keeps a list of tasks. You can group them, for instance if they belong to the same project. You assign (or not) a date to your task. You have an automatic list with delayed tasks and those you should finish today. Wunderlist syncs your to-do list between devices (Windows, Mac, smartphones, tablets, web browser).
I dump all my tasks in Wunderlist, both private and work related. Since it works everywhere, I can check my work activities in my work PC and my private tasks at home from my Macbook. Wunderlist is (a) simple software that (c) syncs your data. During your PhD you are going to spend a lot of time doing three things: reading papers, reviewing literature and and driving essay formatting the citations in your publications. Mendeley can help you with that. It’s quite simple and it syncs everything to is cairo, the cloud and between computers (so your papers are not lost when your computer breaks down). Here’s how it works. You download the PDFs of the papers you want to read.
You dump them in Mendeley. Mendeley annotates all the Ecofeminism: of Ecology title, authors and is cairo other info. It syncs the Authority Reformation papers to the cloud and other devices. When you are writing your paper, the Word or OpenOffice extension allows you to insert your citations in the correct format of the journal you want to in adventures finn is cairo, publish in. And that’s it. The Feminism Essay Examples. No hassle. Of Huckleberry Is Cairo. Mendeley is Essay, (a) simple software, (b) that colleagues use (in my case) and (c) that syncs your data. Handling Information Deluge, Evernote. Here’s one of the must have software tools for PhD students. Finn Where Is Cairo. It’s worth every penny. But wait, Evernote is free.
Even better! Evernote does two difficult things in a simple way. It stores all sort of Is Love? Essay, information you throw at it and it finds this information when you search for it. Forget about bookmarks in your web browser, a folder with photos and is cairo screenshots, text files with your notes or documents with drafts. Evernote creates notes with whatever you find on the Internet, with screen captures, with photos from your phone, with PDFs or simply those you write yourself. Examples. Everything in one place. And when you look for them, you just need to search for them a-la-Google. In Adventures Finn. Evernote is (a) simple software and jared diamond (c) it syncs your data. Since Evernote is so simple but so powerful, you can use it in a million, trillion and gazillion ways. If you want to learn how to squeeze all the juice out of Evernote, please read Evernote Essentials.
Evernote Essentials is the Bible of Evernote. Get Evernote Essentials here. File Back-up / Sharing / Sync, Dropbox. As you have seen I recommended some software that syncs tasks, papers, or notes. How do you sync other types of in adventures where, files like code, photos or documents? The answer is Dropbox. When you install Dropbox in your computer it creates a folder called #8216;Dropbox#8217;. The contents of this folder are sync#8217;d with #8216;Dropbox#8217; folders in other computers or Dropbox apps in smartphones and tablets.
Additionally, Dropbox sotres a copy of your files in the cloud to make sure you don#8217;t lose a file under any circumstances. How to use Dropbox for your PhD? Easy, drop all your PhD files and slumdog millionaire free folders inside the #8216;Dropbox#8217; folder. In Adventures Finn. Install Dropbox in other devices. Sync. Done. No more “I can’t work on it because the file is in the other computer#8221;.
Additionally, you can share with other Dropbox users a folder and its contents. You can use this feature to share multiple files with your collaborators. Remember when your email provider said you cannot send that files because it#8217;s too big? Dropbox fixes that. Do you know a real PhD productivity killer? Having to Essay Reformation, re-do everything, I mean everything, because a damaged hard disk made you lose all your files. Dropbox would save your ass in that catastrophic event. Dropbox (a) simple software, (b) that colleagues use (in my case) and (c) that syncs your data. Using Software From Other Operating System, Virtual Box. Now we are going to of huckleberry finn, get a bit computer nerdy, but do not be afraid. Persuasive. Here#8217;s a common pain with software in science: the program you want to use cannot be executed in your current operating system (OS; like Windows, Linux or Mac OS).
When does this happen? With legacy software, aka freakishly old software. It hasn#8217;t been updated anymore and it uses some old libraries, so for instance, it can only run on Windows 95. Software developed by of huckleberry where is cairo other scientists that is not compiled in on Military Authority Reformation your SO. Finn Where. So that good willed scientist built a program that is the golden standard in What Is Love? your field, but it only runs in Linux, and in adventures where you have Windows 7. The simple solution here would be to The Feminism of Ecology Essay, buy a computer and install the SO you are missing. Or#8230;you virtualise a computer using VirtualBox inside your current computer. Then you would install the needed SO in that virtual computer and the desired software. With VirtualBox you can have as many virtual computers with different SO#8217;s as you want.
VirtualBox is (b) software that colleagues use (in my case). In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Is Cairo. Writing papers is one of the persuasive essay important tasks in your PhD. True, most of the time is finn where is cairo, spend doing real research. But you will show your research to the world with your publications. Do you know what happens before you publish one of and driving persuasive, your papers as a PhD? Endless feedback on your draft. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn. Don’t worry, it gets better as you gain experience. For my first publication I got a ton of feedback. Jared Diamond Theory. For the second paper just half a ton.
And so on. Now back to writing papers. You have to use a text editor. Since you want to get digital feedback (not unintelligible cramped handwriting on the sides of your printed draft), you need to use the same editor as the in adventures finn where person giving the feedback. Texting And Driving Persuasive Essay. And it’s going to be Microsoft Word 99% of the times. So there you go. Get yourself Microsoft Word. Truth be told, I use also other editors.
I like Pages and Evernote for in adventures is cairo, preparing my blog posts. Is Love?. Scientific fields with a high formula to text ratio in their publications use LaTeX as editor. Social sciences PhDs have recommended Scrivener, which I used to write my ebook 17 Simple Strategies To Survive Your PhD (don’t forget to download it, it’s free) Word is in adventures finn, (b) software that colleagues use (in my case). Get Microsoft Word here.
During your research you are going to produce some data and theory store it as a table. Next you might want to calculate percentages, or counts of something, or ratios. I don’t know, something. You might want to make some plots comparing X and Y, or some line charts showing some trends. Those plots will be some of the figures in your next publication. I know, Excel images in a scientific paper are not very sexy.
But hey, who hasn’t done it at least once in in adventures of huckleberry finn their career? Excel is (b) software that colleagues use (in my case). Get Microsoft Excel here. Let’s talk now about making slides. It’s not the first task that comes to mind when thinking about science, is it? Well, during my PhD I have made plenty of slide decks. Mostly for conferences or little group meetings. You know the drill. Traditional. You attend a conference to present your scientific results. You go on stage.
You first slide is on where is cairo, the main screen. Your legs are shaking. Thanks to the organisers for inviting me. You think everybody is smarter than you and will tear you off as soon as you make a mistake. My name is #8230; You feel the sweat drops sliding in texting and driving persuasive your back. The title of in adventures finn, my presentation is #8230; Your vision gets blurry. What Is Love?. 4 years of work summarised in 20 slides. The will laugh. In Adventures Finn Is Cairo. You pass out.
Sometimes it’s like this otherwise it’s not if you developed the presentation skills of PhD students. But the important part are the slides. They are made in PowerPoint. And Driving Essay. Why? Well, everybody uses PowerPoint.
Many conferences only of huckleberry is cairo, allow presenters to texting persuasive essay, use PowerPoint slides. They say that they cannot guarantee that other formats will work well. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where. But Julio, Keynote on a MacBook always works well at the first attempt. But Julio, I heard many PowerPoint presenter saying “Ooops, this is not displayed as I expected”. You are right, but if you want to present at What conferences you have to in adventures of huckleberry is cairo, swallow it. PowerPoint is Is Love?, (b) software that colleagues use (in my case). Get Microsoft PowerPoint here.
Browsing the in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo Internet can destroy your PhD productivity. It can also help you find the information you need and answers to some questions. It’s time to talk about the software tool that is going to help you answer a question. It’s a big question. Probably the most interesting question in the course of your PhD. Is the slumdog free new lab intern single? That scientific curiosity should be addressed. And you should do it by checking her out in Facebook using a web browser: Google Chrome. Sick and sad stalking jokes aside, if you have to use the Internet, do it via Chrome.
It’s a clean, beautiful and easy to use browser. I have used most of the browsers and I can say that Chrome feels like it was developed by people who like to in adventures of huckleberry where, spend time on the Internet. A last tip: install the Evernote plugin for and driving, Chrome so you can create a note from any website directly from Chrome. Chrome is (b) simple software and in adventures finn is cairo (d) better that Internet Explorer. Download Google Chrome here. I don’t know how I would have gone through my PhD without music. Music to cheer me up on a grey day. Music to focus while writing. Music to slumdog, keep me awake while doing repetitive tasks. Music to stream to in adventures finn is cairo, my smartphone.
Music to boost my PhD productivity. Music to activate my resourcefulness while programming. Music to survive a PhD. All this music came from Spotify (and a bit from Youtube). But mostly Spotify. I gladly pay for the Premium version. For me it’s worth it. I got tired of downloading music, and loading it in Essay a MP3 player, and updating my playlists. Spotify was just so convenient.
Let music boost your PhD productivity! Spotify is (a) simple software that (c) syncs your data. Julio Peironcely, PhD is the founder of Next Scientist and where a PhD by of Ecology examples Leiden University. In Adventures. He helps PhD students to stay motivated, be more productive and finish their PhDs. Texting And Driving. Follow him on Twitter (@peyron) or read more from him on in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, JulioPeironcely.com. I use most of them, but EndrNote x6 for writing the bibliography and citation which is very convenient. I highly recommend it for you guys.
Yeah, EndNote is widely used in Academia. In my case, the free Mendeley was good enough compared to the paid version of EndNote. qiqqa is Ecofeminism: Essay, nice. I like it so far. its free-ish, you can use the free version but if you want to use their cloud you gotta pay a small fee. Also if you are buying office , oneNote comes with it and its awesome and you get free skydrive space. For browsing I started using maxthon cloud browser, its one option for bookmark syncing. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Is Cairo. I use Kanban Tool (http://kanbantool.com) to plan activities and collaborate with my colleagues on research projects. The tool is based on Kanban method, it helps organize tasks, documents and so on.
It facilitates cooperation between people that are in different, distant locations as it allows to diamond, share tasks, documents and comments. Though I am a bit late to read your article, but to in adventures finn is cairo, be honest I had the the same situation during my PhD. I am gonna recommend it to diamond, my research students. By the way how could you forget Qiqqa and in adventures finn Google Drive.! I would also like to recommend another app Proofhub (http://www.proofhub.com/) to plan activities and collaborate with my colleagues on diamond theory, research projects. Finn. Productivity is one such aspect that needs rigorous dedication to meet the and driving persuasive deadline. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Where. In order to millionaire free, have a great reach of productivity, it is in adventures of huckleberry where, very much necessary to have the main points to be considered, and among all the concerned points, I prefer time as one of the major aspects of a good gain in productivity. To have a good control of time and be specific on that I have specifically use the hours tracking software from traditional games, Replicon ( http://www.replicon.com/olp/hours-tracking-software.aspx ) which practically manage the in adventures where is cairo time with the tasks management as well. Diamond Theory. I would like to where is cairo, recommend this software here over. Games Essay. I was using Mac (sometime Linux and Window) for my Ph.D. Therefore, I used this set of finn, tools that work on all such platforms: 1) RTextDoc LaTeX editor with grammar checking and BibTex database: http://jwork.org/rtextdoc/ 2) SCaVis to make graphs in EPS format that can be included to millionaire free, my LaTeX documents http://jwork.org/scavis/ And all of this can be installed using one-click approach using jPort portable desktop (http://jwork.org/jport/) All of it corporative software.
You dont give any reference to in adventures where is cairo, open source software. Even a simple browser#8230;. why not Modzilla?, what makes Chrome so special?. On Military Authority. Julio, I spent more than 4 hours on your awesome plug today, all the information is exactly what I was looking for in adventures is cairo, before starting the real work. Thanks for your time and effort and keep it coming #128521; Disagree in you recommendation about slumdog, Word. Scrivener is far much better, it gives you much better overview, both when you write an article and the final thesis. Of course, you have to you use Word to wrap it all up at the end. [#8230;] Does your PhD productivity need a push? Stop looking for the perfect software tools for PhD students. Use these and supercharge your PhD productivity [#8230;] [#8230;] wants more PhD productivity, right?
Well, I think we should be productive in things that are important, like doing research. In Adventures. [#8230;] [#8230;] wants more PhD productivity, right? Well, I think we should be productive in things that are important, like doing research. [#8230;] [#8230;] 10 Software tools for more PhD productivity and less headaches [#8230;] [#8230;] 10 Software tools for more PhD productivity and less headaches [#8230;]
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Could Sadness Be the Key to True Happiness? The other night I felt overcome by sadness as I reflected upon in adventures of huckleberry all the jared theory, suffering of this world. In many ways, I have a perfect life. Nevertheless, a part of of huckleberry where, me will always be sad as long as others suffer. Life is bittersweet. And that’s okay with me.
As long as suffering persists, happiness without sadness seems insensitive. I sat with the feelings of sadness, gazing at games the dark night sky. I didn’t try to is cairo push them away. Quite the contrary, I felt empowered by them. Usually, we want to move away from sadness as quickly as possible. Often, we’re encouraged to divert ourselves from sad feelings by engaging in physical activity, imagining pleasant and relaxing experiences, or looking for humor in a situation that makes us sad. Some people, who are naturally empathetic, have decided to protect themselves from jared diamond, sadness and in adventures where, other challenging emotions by not watching the news. I can understand. But I say, let your heart be broken into a million pieces. Traditional Essay? You will be all the in adventures where, better for it if you allow it to open your heart. Here’s why.
3 Ways Sadness Can Be A Gateway to Genuine Happiness. Sadness is not always as bad as it’s made out to Ecofeminism: The Feminism Essay be. In fact, sadness can be the start of your journey directly to in adventures of huckleberry finn the heart of true happiness. Here are 3 ways that sadness can help you discover a more lasting, genuine sense of happiness. 1. Let Sadness Crack Open Your Idea of Reality. There’s not a single person in this world that can escape from suffering. Essay? Suffering is the fundamental characteristic of the way we lead our lives—full of attachment and finn, aversion. This is precisely what brings unhappiness our way. I like this.
I don’t like that. I want this. I don’t want that. There may be transitory moments of jared theory, happiness when things go our way, we have an enjoyable sensory experience, or acquire an entrancing new possession. But temporal happiness such as this does not last long. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo? Before you know it, dissatisfaction arises, and you’re on to wanting the next thing, person, or experience. All the millionaire free, tension of striving for what we want and rejecting everything else just brings more complications and more distress. We’re rarely satisfied for more than a few moments at a time.
How about in adventures finn is cairo trying this – when sadness pops up, instead of running away, let her wake you up. Sadness has the power to of Ecology Essay introduce a crack in our limited and where is cairo, limiting version of reality. Maybe life isn’t all about Ecofeminism: of Ecology Essay examples wanting, getting, accomplishing, and possessing. Maybe there is another way. And even if you know this already, sadness can sing you an even deeper song. A moment of sadness can be profound, indeed. You might see clearly for the very first time. Or you might get fantastically woken up once again.
Either way, let sadness spark your life with new meaning and purpose. 2. Let Your Heart Break Into a Million Pieces. When sadness breaks open our heart, we have the opportunity to become fully human. By having the courage to of huckleberry finn where touch our own pain and games, suffering, we naturally feel empathy for the pain and in adventures where, suffering of others. Suddenly we see: your suffering and my suffering are the same. Suffering, as well as the wish to avoid it, are one common thread that unites all of humanity. From recognizing this simple truth, one we tend to neglect in day-to-day life, a profound feeling of interconnectedness can arise and bring about an unspeakable joy.
It can ignite the wish to bring happiness to others and to do all you can to eliminate their suffering too. Now, that is jared, living for a much higher purpose, one that leads to a more sustaining joy. 3. Nothing Ever Stays the Same for Even a Moment. Sadness comes when things change – a relationship ends, someone dies, we’re fired from a job, illness descends, a friend is of huckleberry finn where is cairo, physically hurt, a disaster happens. Sadness introduces us to of Ecology Essay examples impermanence and so can help us learn to is cairo let go.
Change is the only constant in life. Until we learn to accept change gracefully, we’ll always suffer. There’s a blessing in embracing the and driving, beauty of impermanence. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn? Through doing so, we can come to value every precious moment of this life and live in a far saner and more fulfilling way. Since no one is immune to sadness, why not use it to Essay on Military spark more meaning and purpose in your life. That is what will bring you a more genuine and in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo, lasting happiness. I’m not suggesting that anyone get stuck on sadness – that could be depression or unending grief.
Repressed grief leads to Essay Authority Reformation contraction and despondency. Instead, the in adventures finn where is cairo, willingness to acknowledge, express, and resolve grief, over a natural course of essay, time, leads to greater health and happiness. At the where, same time, we don’t need to push sadness away as soon as it pays a visit. Sadness can be the The Feminism of Ecology examples, doorway to profound understanding. I feel empowered by sadness because it helps me see what really matters in life: kindness, love, and compassion. How do you look at sadness in in adventures finn your life? Has sadness every brought more meaning or happiness into your life? P. S. If you are on a journey of self-discovery, you might also like: Self-Love: Why Should It Matter to Essay You? Thank you for your presence, I know your time is precious!
Don’t forget to sign up for my e-letter and get access to all the free self-development resources (e-books, mini-guides + worksheets) in in adventures where the Always Well Within Library. May you be happy, well, and safe – always. With love, Sandra. Wild Arisings + Free Self-Discovery Resources. Sign up for Wild Arisings, my monthly soul-stirring letter, and receive access to all the free resources in the Always Well Within Library, including my 50-page guide - 21 Simple Stress Tips. Essay? Just pop in your email address below.
In my life, the experience of great sadness, and the understanding resulting from what I learn in overcoming it has led directly to being a more compassionate person. If you have known hurt, you recognize it in others and are able to more effectively act to alleviate needless suffering. If you can’t be sad about where is cairo your own ignorance and theory, failures, you won’t rededicate to improving your focus. This post was very easy for me to relate to, Sandra. Where Is Cairo? It’s an important subject to tackle.
“Great sadness” – such a gorgeous phrase! Regret is another wonderful quality that you mention in Ecofeminism: The Feminism examples the context of sadness! Thank you for reminding us of how regret is another aspect of sadness that – in the proper doses – moves us forward. Of Huckleberry Where? You have such a full heart! Beautifully said Sandra. Pain is a reminder of our humanness. Is Love?? It’s also a motivator to begin learning how to change our reality.
Thanks, as always, for your healing perspective. I’m reminded of the amazing transformation you’ve made in life to learn to love deeply and fully. I know you know the “great sadness” well! Thanks for your appreciation. So much truth in this post Sandra. When sadness comes along we must embrace it in the same way that we should embrace every other experience that makes us human. Of Huckleberry Where? Without sadness, how could we experience joy and happiness? Like Mikey, I think that through experiencing sadness and suffering we are more fully able to show love and compassion to others. Thank you, once again. You’ve underlined the key point instead of texting and driving persuasive essay, turning away from sadness, allowing it in and even embracing it. Very beautifully said, Stella.
I always appreciate hearing your thoughts. I guess it’s the accepting of sadness as part of the human condition that’s required for is cairo serenity. Because all feelings are transitory, the good news is that the sadness will lift and Essay on Military Reformation, bad news is that those moments joy and elation will also cease. And if sadness isn’t understood and handled in in adventures finn where is cairo a healthy way, there is the risk that it can spiral into depression. A very insightful blog and ironically a joy to read. Thanks Sandra. I agree fully, Riley.
All these feelings are transitory like the clouds in Essay Reformation the sky. They aren’t the real you or me. The best way we can approach them is to in adventures simply let them drift by. Due to our long standing habits though, that’s usually easier said than done! But with time, we can come to understand our emotions and slumdog millionaire free, take them less seriously. These are good points. I thank you for in adventures of huckleberry where them. I’m glad this post was a “joy” to read. I just came home from a few days at the cabin and found your post. I came home in such a sad mood.
I don’t know why, but I feel soooooo sad today. So how timely. There is a quote that goes something like, “A heart broken open can contain the entire universe,” or something like that. Slumdog Millionaire? I can’t put my hands on in adventures where is cairo, the source right now. There is also something I’ve read in Buddhism about the connection between being awakened and sadness. Traditional? Again, my memory is fuzzy (too much napping at the cabin!). Does that sound familiar?
It brings together joy and in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo, sadness in a way that made so much sense to me at the time. I will see if I can find it. I’m going to read your post again right now and traditional games essay, sit with this sadness for awhile. Thank you. Sadness just come up sometimes, doesn’t it? That’s a beautiful quote about the heart broken open. In Buddhism, there is a connection between sadness and awakening that teachers often talk about, but I’m not sure which one you might have read. I appreciate your courage to simply sit with the sadness!
This post is finn where is cairo, absolutely touching. When we pass through water or fire, life cannot be the same again. When we live pain or sadness, we’re playing our role as a human beings. Essay? There isn’t another way or choice to take. For that reason: There isn’t growing without battles; there isn’t light without darkness; there isn’t freedom without chains; there isn’t happiness without sorrow. That’s life, a bittersweet melody. Thank you, for your beautiful soul Sandra. ¦ Very insight and beautiful verse.
Thank you for this gift! This is such an in adventures finn where, important post. I especially love #2, letting your heart break into a million pieces. If we hold ourselves back from heartbreak, we sustain our separateness – then wonder why we feel disconnected and traditional games essay, alone. Moving our attention, our whole being, into this tender space reveals the intimacy with all things that we long for. Thank you for in adventures finn where is cairo sharing with such clarity.
So nice to see you! I really appreciate your emphasis on the way we often sustain our separateness and then suffer for it. When we can touch the tenderness of heartbreak, it can reveal so much to us. Traditional Essay? Your thoughts added so beautifully to this exploration of sadness. It’s been 3 months since my mom made her transition. In Adventures Of Huckleberry? Sadness and grief hit me in waves…a smell, spring flowers, a memory. I do sit with it yet it certainly has colored my world grey. I’m so sorry for your loss. Sadness and grief are without question a process that take time.
A tinge of greyness can certain descend into our world as we move through the process. I don’t know if we ever extricate ourselves fully from sadness and grief. They simply become old, familiar friends. Thanks for sharing this article. I think that sadness is not a bad thing to allow in your life. Balance is about moments of happiness and sadness. These are natural feelings to have. Allow them to be part of your life, allow them to bring balance in your life.
When I feel sad, I stop and think about why. I ponder on the reasons that brought me to this place, the reasons why I am feeling sad, and ways to go forward from there. It enables me to traditional essay reflect on where is cairo, who I am, on Essay on Military Reformation, my relationships with others, on in adventures of huckleberry finn, my purposes in life, and to understand more about how I think and how I act, which then clarifies the motivations behind the diamond, way we all act and respond to what life throws at us. This is good advice for working with sadness and just about any challenging emotion. It’s always good to press pause and take a look within. I like the way you look a happiness and in adventures finn where is cairo, sadness as a balance. You certainly have a balanced perspective! Sandra, this is a very unique approach to happiness. And it makes a lot of What Is Love? Essay, sense. Sadness, by where is cairo the way, is not the same thing as depression.
I have experienced sadness when a loved one passed away or when a joyous time in my life came to an end. And I have found that reflecting on Is Love?, those sad endings made me appreciate the happy moments within them. And as a songwriter, they have helped me pen some pretty good songs, if I do say so myself. #128578; Hi Bryan! I love how you say, “reflecting on those sad endings made me appreciate the happy moments within them.” That’s so beautiful. I bet you’ve written some amazing songs. I also really love #2 – let sadness imbue your being, and let your heart break into a million pieces. So often I’ve tried to instantly dissolve sadness – I’m invincible, it won’t get to me or inhibit me in any way.
Perhaps it’s just another form of running away. Other times I have dwelled too long in where is cairo sadness, trying to analyze its endless faces for truth. That’s when I fall into free depression. Perhaps today was the day I best handled sadness, for of huckleberry where those reasons you ended with. I felt sad, really quite sad, and let myself go with the experience, my heart falling into pieces, painful, but after a few hours of grief, returned to diamond a state of normalcy. Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo? All the while, I felt the Invincibility Syndrome bubbling beneath, ready to run away with my emotions as soon as they hit. But I was careful to let sadness have a chance. It was good in the end, I cherished it, as it validated the specialness of my relationship w/bf.
Thanks so much for this special post, I think it must have helped me out today. #128578; Thank you for sharing so openly about your experience today. What you’ve said is texting, so true, being “invincible” only works for awhile. In the end, it breaks us into pieces in a different sort of way. I celebrate your courage to look more deeply and your willingness to finn where is cairo let the sadness be. I’m glad you were able to texting and driving cherish it in the end and that it brought a sense of specialness for in adventures of huckleberry finn you. I’m sure your experience will inspire others too. A beautiful post, Sandra.
Profound words. Thank you. Sadness breaks your heart into diamond theory a million pieces but somehow the human spirit has the in adventures of huckleberry, most unbelievable capacity to pick up those pieces and put them back together time and time again. I’ve learned those lessons in my own unique way. The most important thing, for me, is to realize sadness always brings with it a new perspective.
And perspective is a good teacher. Your post inspired me to reach out and touch my sadness and share a part of The Feminism examples, my life with the is cairo, world in my last blog post. You were not even aware of texting, it. But, thank you for being my inspiration. Your last blog post touched me so deeply. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo? I felt such a kinship as I read it. Ecofeminism: The Feminism Examples? I’m glad I brought a little inspiration your way. I’m really grateful too that you have highlighted the incredible resiliency of the of huckleberry where is cairo, human spirit. In the end, everything does boil down to and driving essay perspective and perspective is in adventures finn where is cairo, something we can keep fine-tuning all along.
You have a beautiful heart. Thanks for sharing here today. Hi Sandra – a visit to What your blog has been on my ‘to do’ list for months now and I finally got round to in adventures finn it this morning. I’m so glad I did! This post in particular reminded me of something written by the philosopher Anthony Grayling in an essay about ‘loss’. It seems relevant and I hope you don’t mind if I share it with you. What? It is his response to one particular aspect of the in adventures finn, Stoic philosophy that advocates a sort of self-limiting lifestyle to Ecofeminism: Essay avoid pain: “…if one is frugal with one’s emotions – limiting love in finn is cairo order to avoid its pains, stifling appetites and desires in jared diamond order to escape the price of their fulfilment – one lives a stunted, muffled, bland life only.
It is in adventures of huckleberry where, practically tantamount to of Ecology a partial death in order to minimise the electric character of of huckleberry finn where, existence – its pleasures, its ecstasies, its richness and texting persuasive, colour matched by its agonies, its wretchedness, its disasters and grief. To take life in armfuls, to embrace and accept it, to of huckleberry finn where is cairo leap into texting persuasive essay it with energy and relish, is of course to invite trouble of all the familiar kinds. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn? But the cost of avoiding trouble is a terrible one: it is the cost of having trodden the planet for games essay humanity’s brief allotment of less than a thousand months, without really having lived. I’m so glad you did stop by! Thank you for this wonderful gift from Anthony Grayling. How beautifully said! I think the of huckleberry finn is cairo, key when your heart breaks, is finding a way to make it grow back stronger, and jared diamond, choosing the path of compassion over the easier path of callousness. “the path of compassion over the easier path of of huckleberry where is cairo, callousness” – perfect point! In college, I knew a girl who had the millionaire free, poem “Separation” by W.S. In Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Where Is Cairo? Merwin tattooed on her back. It’s a short poem, three simple lines: “Your absence has gone through me / Like thread through a needle. / Everything is stitched with its color.” I didn’t really understand what this meant until I lost a dear friend and constant companion and spent the next year trying to put myself back together.
In that year, I gradually realized that sadness and traditional games, loss could also be catalysts. In trying to in adventures of huckleberry finn is cairo fill the gaps, I found that I was reaching out more, taking more risks, moving beyond the complacency of a relationship that had been comfortable and slumdog free, stable for many years. Finn? It was a painful lesson, but a valuable one. Ah, such a strong short poem! Intense, really. Thank you for sharing these powerful lines. This is another important perspective on sadness and loss, the way it can also be a catalyst for transformation. I appreciate how you’ve shared your personal experience and the positive change it brought for you. Thanks so much. Hi Sandra, this was a very thoughtful post. Texting? I agree with David’s idea about balance.
Too much sadness and we are paralyzed, unable to do much. In Adventures Of Huckleberry? Too much avoidance of sadness, and we mindlessly chase the next superficial pleasure, which only holds off the unpleasant feelings for millionaire a short time, and sometimes creates its own problems (like drug abuse). I have personally found #1 to be empowering. If your life makes you sad all the time, it’s a hint that you need to change something. I too like the in adventures finn where, middle way of balance! Being paralyzed doesn’t really help. This is a very useful point, “If your life makes you sad all the time, it’s a hint that you need to change something.” It can really help to see that.
Thanks for bringing in millionaire this perspective. Yes Sandra, truly sadness can break our heart. But the in adventures of huckleberry finn, result — if we stay with it, trust the mirqcle we call life — is a healing and wholeness we might otherwise never have known. Beautifully said, Christopher. Trust is an important element, indeed! “Sadness Has the Power to Introduce a Crack in Our Idea of Reality” that reminds me of Leonard Cohen: “There’s a crack, a crack in everything. That’s how the light gets in.” Thank you, Stefan. Essay On Military Reformation? Leonard Cohen has his pulse on the deeper artery of life, that’s for sure.
I appreciate the quote. I know what you mean when you feel sad just by looking at all that goes on in the of huckleberry finn where, world today. Jared? There is so much suffering everywhere. But I believe that suffering is necessary to help us grow. After all, the of huckleberry finn where is cairo, deepest insights to life comes from great suffering. The critical point is Is Love? Essay, whether we can survive the suffering and grow or not. Trying to in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo resist suffering when it arises is like an essay, oak tree trying to in adventures of huckleberry where resist a violent storm. It will put up the fight of its life but eventually the greater force of nature will break it. Instead, we should strive to be like the traditional games, blade of grass and go with the flow. The grass bends in the face of the storm and reverts to form when it passes.
Happiness and sadness are part and parcel of in adventures finn is cairo, life. We cannot appreciate one without the other. Having said that, we should always remember that sadness will not last forever. It is games, merely a cycle we pass through. When we experience happiness, we should also be aware that it too will pass. With this awareness of the bigger picture, we can take steps to prolong our happiness and to manage our sadness better. Thank you for sharing this lovely article and for the link to my article! #128578; Irving the Vizier. You always offer the most profound wisdom in your comments.
Suffering is the unique element in our life that prompts and propels us to grow if we don’t resist it. Your analogy to the oak tree and of huckleberry finn, blade of glass are easy to understand and distinct images that we can recall to mind as reminders. I agree that the more we think of suffering as “bad”, the more suffering we create. The approaches you offer here put suffering into perspective and allow more happiness and freedom into our life. Thank you so much, Irving. Hi Sandra – your post reminds of Erich Fromm’s quote: “One cannot be deeply responsive to the world without being saddened very often.” Thank you for traditional games essay this gift, Leigh. Such a poignant and true quote. And thank you for in adventures of huckleberry finn where taking the time to leave a comment. All the best to diamond you.
I did a little research after my earlier comment. The heart broken open quote is by Joanna Macy. Is Cairo? The sadness/Buddhist connection is from Chogyam Trungpa’s book, Shambhala, the Sacred Path of the Warrior, chapter 3 “The Gentle Heart of Sadness.” Thank you, Galen. You are so well read! I recall to Chogyam Trungpa’s writing on “the genuine heart of sadness.” Carolyn Thomas says. Lovely piece, Sandra – I have quoted it (with links back to your site) on HEART SISTERS today: “Is Is Post-Heart Attack Depression – Or Just Feeling Sad?” at http://myheartsisters.org/2011/07/24/is-it-post-heart-attack-depression-or-just-feeling-sad/ Carolyn Thomas says. Thanks for letting me know, Carolyn!
My wife left me 3 months ago. My depression and millionaire free, our own individual issues were too much for her. The sadness was indescribable. My world was destroyed. Where? I let the sadness completely consume me, and I found the other side. “Fantasically woken up” describes it perfectly. Games Essay? Life had lost meaning. My choices were suicide, self destruction(drink, drugs, food), and complete reinvention and improvement. After a week of of huckleberry finn where is cairo, absolute hell, I found the slumdog, strength to finn where choose the and driving persuasive essay, only realistic option- reinvention and improvement. Using every ounce of strength, I have committed to improving every aspect of finn, my life, and the results have been incredible. I have strengthened and reconnected more deeply with my friends and diamond, family. Where? The sadness is more of a hand on my shoulder, than the crushing weight of the world.
My wife, my true love, is traditional games essay, gone forever and will never come back. I am somehow filled with more hope, love, and passion for life than I ever though possible. In Adventures Where? In time, I hope to recover from her loss. The strength gained from this sadness has improved my life immeasurably. Thank you for a wonderful article website. I am so sorry for all you have been through. My heart goes out to you for all the pain you have felt. Slumdog Millionaire Free? I’m so glad you have found more hope, love, and passion. Is Cairo? I wish you well in your recovery and transformation.
Thank you for showing us all what it is possible even in the darkest of essay, time. You are an inspiration. I just broke up. I still cannot accept this fact. My partner broke up with me because of religion matter. and I always imagine how my partner will be happier without me. How it breaks my heart. I want to be able to see how sadness awakens me, but I still have bad feelings inside and turn out I’m not letting any other feeling to come to me. How should I be?
Thanks a lot for sharing these words with us. I’m very sorry for your breakpup and the suffering you feel. I know it’s not easy at all. You can’t force the painful feelings to in adventures of huckleberry where go away. At the same time though, if we can, it can help not to traditional essay let our mind go off in more thoughts that create suffering like thinking your partner will be happier without you. The best thing is to try not to think about it too much.
Sometimes, when we feel so sad like this we can think of all the other people in the world who are sad and suffering. Sometimes that can help put our own suffering into perspective and in adventures is cairo, help us to know we are not alone. Whatever pain we have right now feels very strong, but it will change and you will see happier days again. Maybe there are some nice things you could do for yourself, to take care of your self. I’m very sorry for games your suffering.
I hope it begins to ease up soon. Your article is great. I found many people change their attitude positively after they suffered from of huckleberry is cairo, sadness, but in Ecofeminism: Essay my recent situation I find the reverse. I have met many people who suffered from where, sadness then they eventually succeeded–being promoted and achieved the top position. On Military Authority Reformation? These people did a revenge, they seem very happy to see other people suffering and they have no heart or intention to help. Unfortunately, those mean people want to keep their happiness, by allowing and making other people more suffering.
The more other people suffering, the more those mean people happy. kimberly gartrell says. Sadness doesn’t help me one bit. I don’t see how you can even write an article stating that sadness is actually healthy for of huckleberry you when it is not. I am in of Ecology therapy now to get over my sadness. I am so sorry for you pain. Finn Is Cairo? I fully understand why it’s challenging for you to slumdog millionaire free understand where I am coming from. I wish you the best in overcoming your sadness. Of Huckleberry Where? I’ve had my fair share of sadness too! But I’m no longer entrapped by it and so I very much hope you find your freedom too.
Welcome to on Military Authority Reformation my island of sanity and in adventures of huckleberry finn where is cairo, serenity. I’m Sandra Pawula - writer, mindfulness teacher, and games, lover of ease. I help deep-thinking, heart-centered spirits calm their mind, ease their heart, and listen to their inner wisdom. Curious? Read On! Wild Arisings + 21 Simple Stress Tips. Sign up for Wild Arisings, my monthly note and receive my FREE 50-page guide - 21 Simple Stress Tips + access to the Always Well Within Library of free resources.
Just pop in your email address below. Living with Ease is a complete road map to help you to dispel stress and prevent it from overpowering you again. Finn Where Is Cairo? 30 carefully composed step-by-step lessons will help you gather the courage you need to change the way you respond to stress. You can do this! Click the image for jared theory full details. Would you enjoy a year of in adventures finn, guided simplicity? The top simplicity writers and teachers, will guide you through simplifying one area of your life each month: clutter, busyness, cooking, digital, money, and more. Slumdog? Early registration with a discounted price starts Oct. 3rd for a limited time only. Click on the image for all the details. 33 Powerful Morning Mantras That Will Transform Your Day.
Every morning, I choose a word or phrase, a “mantra,” to guide my day. My daily mantra keeps me tuned into my most important emotional, mental, and spiritual priorities for the next 24 hours. It also sets the tone for the day. If life feels frazzled, my mantra reminds me to in adventures is cairo breathe, relax, or rest.  5 Things You Need to Know for a More Enlightened Life. I like to track my life lessons from birthday to slumdog birthday, the time it takes the sun to go through the entire zodiac and return to the position of my natal sun, astrologically speaking, rather than by the calendar year. Astrologically, things tend to of huckleberry finn shift around your birthday each year, when you may become aware  18 Before 2018: A Year-End Goal Setting Challenge.
I’m excited to and driving participate in Lisa Jacob’s end-of the-year goal setting challenge: 18 Before 2018. In Adventures? If you’ve lost touch with your goals or feel they need to be refreshed, you’ll love this challenge. I have a different relationship to goal-setting than I did earlier in my life. I’m less focused on material accomplishments and care  How to Soften Anger with Tender Mindfulness. Anger is complex, isn’t it? You want a peaceful world, but you don’t always feel peaceful inside.
Sometimes your anger burns so strongly that you explode, and then find you’ve made matters worse. Other times, you try to restrain your fury. But what happens when you bury displeasure inside of of Ecology Essay examples, yourself, especially if you do  37 Fun Activities That Will Re-Introduce You to the Power of Play. Do you play every day? If not, consider the powerful boost play could give your emotional, mental, and in adventures of huckleberry where is cairo, physical well-being.
Most notably, play can: Relieve stress when endorphins, the Reformation, body’s natural feel-good chemicals, are released. As an added bonus, endorphins can reduce pain too. Enhance brain function when you engage in cognitively challenging games like