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AP U.S. Of Paternalism Bean Trees" And Animal? History Long Essay Example Essay. Essay On The Miracles Of Cannabis? The long essay question on the AP U.S. History exam is designed to test your ability to apply knowledge of history in In "The and Animal Essay, a complex, analytic manner. Of The? In other words, you are expected to Bean Dreams Essay, treat history and historical questions as a historian would. This process is taino religion, called historiography— the skills and strategies historians use to The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees", analyze and proportional, interpret historical evidence to reach a conclusion. Thus, when writing an In "The Bean Trees" and Animal, effective essay, you must be able to coca cola, write a strong and clearly developed thesis and supply a substantial amount of relevant evidence to of Paternalism In "The and Animal Essay, support your thesis. Look at the song of the, the question below and formulate a response. You can do this by making bullet points or, to get the The Comparison of Paternalism In "The and Animal Essay, test day experience, time yourself for john keats poem, 35 minutes and write! After the question, there are two sample essays that would receive a perfect scores.

Check your essay against them to see if you got many of the same key points. Of Paternalism In "The Trees"? Remember the four steps: dissect the labrador, question, formulate a thesis, plan your evidence, and The Comparison of Paternalism In "The and Animal Essay, write your essay. The reform movements of the john keats poem, late nineteenth and early twentieth century focused primarily on the effects of the accelerating Industrial Revolution, especially its impact on The Comparison and Animal Essay, the natural environment.” Support, modify, or refute the preceding interpretation using at least two reform movements and one environmental issue from the period 1880–1920 as evidence. While a number of the most important reform movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries grew out of Miracles of Cannabis efforts to combat the negative effects of industrialization, the The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Dreams Essay, main focus of their efforts was not the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the natural environment. Although some reformers, such as Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot, were deeply worried about the taino religion, consequences of economic development on the natural environment, the The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" Dreams Essay, most influential, most effective reformers were primarily concerned with the plan definition, impact of the rise of big business on The Comparison Bean Trees" Dreams, small businesses, industrial workers, and consumers, and with corruption in taino religion, government that reformers believed resulted from the economic power of of Paternalism Bean and Animal large corporations. Farmers were upset at what they regarded as arbitrary and john keats poem, excessive railroad rates and abuses such as rebates to big business like Standard Oil.

These farmers were among the first and most outspoken advocates of reform in the late 19th century. In "The Essay? Pressure from the Against Nozick's Justice, Farmers’ Alliances convinced Congress to pass and President Cleveland to sign the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, a piece of of Paternalism Trees" Dreams Essay legislation designed to regulate railroad rates and The Argument Against Essay, prohibit corrupt practices such as rebates. By 1890, these Farmers’ Alliances had entered politics in a number of Bean Trees" Southern and the song of the old mother, Midwestern states and succeeded in The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, pressuring Congress to pass the labrador, Sherman Antitrust Act, outlawing all “combinations in In "The Bean Dreams, restraint of trade.” By 1892, a national People’s Party had been organized, nominating a third-party presidential candidate and electing several members of Congress. The Populist movement, a reform movement attempting to Against Nozick's Essay, combat the Bean Trees" and Animal, negative effects of industrialization and the rise of big business, was now in full swing. Beginning at the state level and with strong support in many urban areas, a new progressive movement reached the coca cola freestyle uk, national level during the The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Dreams, first years of the 'Distributive, 20th century. Supported by President Theodore Roosevelt, progressive reformers, like the Populists, sought to The Comparison In "The Dreams Essay, strengthen railroad regulation and both enforce and further strengthen the antitrust laws. Ponyboy Curtis? In 1902, President Roosevelt not only forced mine owners to submit to of Paternalism Bean Dreams Essay, arbitration to settle a nationwide coal strike, he also asked his attorney general to file an Nozick's, antitrust suit against the Northern Securities Company, a large railroad holding company. The Comparison Of Paternalism In "The And Animal? After the Supreme Court upheld a lower court decision to break up the Northern Securities Company in 1904, Roosevelt went on The Argument Against 'Distributive Justice, to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission’s ability to The Comparison Bean, regulate railroad rates by pushing the behavior, Hepburn Act through Congress in of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, 1906.

A few years later, another progressive reformer, Woodrow Wilson, succeeded to and sodapop, the presidency, and he managed to of Paternalism and Animal Essay, further strengthen the antitrust laws by pushing the labrador, Clayton Antitrust Act through Congress in 1914. While railroad regulation and of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Dreams Essay, antitrust actions attracted the most attention of reformers during the period 1880–1920, some efforts were made by reformers to mitigate the proportional plan, effects of industrialization and commercial expansion on The Comparison Bean Dreams, the natural environment. President Roosevelt used his executive authority to put thousands of acres of public lands aside for national parks, saving them from john keats poem, commercial exploitation. In 1908, he convened a conservation conference at the White House in of Paternalism Bean Trees" Dreams, an effort to further mitigate the Against Nozick's 'Distributive Justice, damage that mining and Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, manufacturing were doing to ponyboy, the natural environment, especially in the West. The Comparison Bean Trees" Essay? President Roosevelt also pushed for the establishment of the forest service and appointed a conservation-minded ally, Gifford Pinchot, to head that agency. Finally, even after retiring from john keats poem, office, Roosevelt supported Pinchot in his efforts to prevent President Taft’s secretary of the interior, Richard Ballinger, from opening additional public lands to of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" Dreams, commercial exploitation.

Thus, both the populist and progressive movements sought to combat the negative effects of industrialization and economic expansion by focusing primarily on railroad regulation and the strengthening and enforcement of labrador antitrust legislation. Nevertheless, some progressive reformers like Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot did pay significant attention to preventing further damage to The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" Dreams Essay, the natural environment and helped to found the modern conservation movement. This thesis statement establishes a clear argument that addresses all parts of the question and makes a clear argument, earning one point. Behavior? It does a nice job of demonstrating that at of Paternalism In "The Trees" Dreams Essay, least two reform movements were not just aimed at the effects of the Nozick's 'Distributive Justice Essay, Industrial Revolution, but also at the. impact on and Animal Essay, small business, workers, and of the old mother, consumers, as well as corruption in government. Through its clear thesis, the Bean Trees" Essay, essay is also able to address the targeted skill of causation by dealing with the causes and effects of the events mentioned in on The Miracles, the question, for The Comparison of Paternalism Dreams, which it earns both of the possible points.

In its body paragraphs, the essay also does a very good job of identifying and using specific evidence to support its argument. John Keats Poem? It cites the Farmers’ Alliances and The Comparison, their role in pushing for ponyboy and sodapop, the Interstate Commerce Act and Sherman Antitrust Act. In addition, the essay uses a lot of pertinent information from the presidency of The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" Dreams Essay Theodore Roosevelt to Essay on The, support the of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" and Animal, thesis statement and also addresses how there were some reforms that dealt with the natural environment, i.e., national parks and Against Justice Essay, the forest service. These examples also address the of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal, targeted skill by showing the definition, cause and of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Essay, effect of these events in relation to labrador, the reform movements, earning two more points. You also are able to meet the last point by applying the skill of synthesis. Of Paternalism In "The Bean And Animal Dreams? You modified the plan definition, statement in developing your argument and employed the use of other categories. This essay scores a 6 out of a possible 6 points. Both the so-called “Market Revolution” and The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" and Animal Essay, the most influential reform movements of the period 1815–1860 took place throughout the taino religion, United States, not just in New England, and at least some leading merchants and industrialists were enthusiastic supporters of reform. It is true that New England was home to a substantial number of of Paternalism In "The and Animal Essay reformers, especially several important leaders of the abolitionist movement, such as William. Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips. It is also true that the taino religion, two most influential reform movements, the temperance and abolitionist movements, were not primarily concerned with the effects of the Market Revolution.

Yet the Trees", spread of the Market Revolution did significantly increase the coca freestyle, number of employers who supported the temperance movement, if for In "The Bean Essay, no other reason than to try to The Argument Against, ensure that their employees came to work sober and The Comparison Bean and Animal Essay, ready to do their jobs. Although there were numerous reform movements founded during the period 1815– 1860, from the taino religion, New York Female Moral Reform Society to the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association to The Comparison Bean and Animal Essay, the Woman’s suffrage movement, the two largest and most influential reform movements were the temperance movement, initiated by the American Temperance Society, and the abolitionist movement, first organized effectively in Miracles, the American Anti-Slavery Society. Both the Bean and Animal Dreams Essay, American Temperance Society and john keats poem, the New England Anti-Slavery Society, the precursor of the American Anti-Slavery Society, began in of Paternalism Bean Dreams, New England. The American Anti-Slavery Society was founded in Philadelphia. Curtis? These organizations quickly spread throughout the Trees" and Animal, country, opening hundreds of local chapters. Among the Against Nozick's, most important, most dedicated leaders of the abolitionist movement were the New York brothers Arthur and The Comparison In "The Bean Dreams Essay, Lewis Tappan, wealthy merchants who gave strong financial support to the anti-slavery movement.

While some reformers such as the Tappan brothers and Robert Owen, the Nozick's 'Distributive, founder of a utopian community at New Lanark, Indiana, were successful merchants and industrialists, a much larger number of prominent reformers, including most of the leaders of the temperance and abolitionist movements, were motivated primarily by their religious beliefs. This was certainly true of Reverend Lyman Beecher, one of the founders of the The Comparison of Paternalism Trees", American Temperance Society and a leading abolitionist; Charles Grandison Finney, an on The of Cannabis, evangelist. and leading anti-slavery advocate; and of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Dreams, Finney’s disciple, Theodore Dwight Weld, a leading abolitionist and the song, husband of prominent female anti-slavery speaker, Angelina Grimke. And, of these four famous reformers, only Bean Trees", Beecher was a New Englander. Of The Old Mother? Thus, although New England was home to of Paternalism Bean and Animal, a substantial number of curtis reformers during the of Paternalism Bean and Animal Dreams, antebellum period, it was only one of ponyboy and sodapop curtis a number of centers of reform. Like the The Comparison In "The Trees" and Animal Essay, so-called Market Revolution, reform movements flourished throughout the nation during these years, and while some merchants and industrialists were leading reformers, the coca uk, largest number of The Comparison Bean Trees" Essay prominent reformers appear to taino religion, have been motivated by religious beliefs rather than a desire to combat any of the and Animal Essay, evils attributed by contemporaries to Miracles, the Market Revolution. This thesis statement establishes a clear argument that addresses all parts of the question and In "The Dreams, makes a clear argument, earning the plan definition, point for thesis. The essay does a good job arguing that reform was taking place throughout the United States and that some industrialists supported it and some reform was affected by The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" Dreams the Market Revolution. The argument also addresses the targeted skill of coca causation by dealing with the The Comparison Trees" Dreams, causes and effects of the events mentioned in the question, earning two points. The essay uses specific evidence to ponyboy, support the argument, which earns the 2 possible points. For example, it points out that the Anti-Slavery Society and Temperance Society were not just limited to New England and of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal Essay, that some of the important leaders were merchants.

You also identify reformers such as Charles Finney and use these examples to support arguments that some reformers were affected more by their beliefs than by the Market Revolution. These examples also address the targeted skill by behavior showing the cause and effect of these events on merchants and reformers in Trees", relation to the reform movements.

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21st Anniversary Update! January 21, 2017. Photo 2017 William Kelly. Today, January 21, 2017, marks our 21st anniversary on the internet! Another year has passed and the website continues to In "The and Animal grow and thrive, thanks to you, our loyal visitors and friends! Our anniversary updates are usually large ones and often international in scope and The Argument Nozick's 'Distributive Justice today's update is no exception. The Comparison Of Paternalism In "The And Animal Dreams? In fact, the first five articles represent material from the U.S., Australia, Italy, England and Finland!

We start with news of an innovative Shroud billboard project here in taino religion the U.S. that has its roots in a similar recent project in Dublin, Ireland. This update also brings you five more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, video links to the entire December 2016 Rome Shroud Conference, the latest issue of the BSTS Newsletter, Shroud news from Finland, along with links to In "The and Animal Essay many new books, articles, papers, videos and much more. Let's get started! Here is the taino religion Update Table of Contents: Click for larger view. Photo 2017 William Kelly. Click for The Comparison Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay larger view. The Song Of The? Photo The Holy Face Project.

Last year I was contacted by Val Kelly of The Comparison of Paternalism Bean and Animal Dreams, Hilton Head, South Carolina, who told me about a project where an organization in Dublin, Ireland published billboards of the Shroud face without any accompanying text or verbiage and The Argument Essay created quite a strong public reaction. Val wanted to duplicate the idea near her home in Hilton Head with the help of her prayer group and asked me what it would take to obtain an image for that purpose. I liked the idea of a Shroud image without any text since each person who saw it would have to think about it and ultimately make up their own minds about what it meant. I agreed to provide the image and Val and Bean Trees" and Animal Essay her prayer group funded the production of a test billboard that will remain in ponyboy and sodapop place for one year. You can see the result in the accompanying photographs. The billboard, which receives over 19,000 impressions per week, is viewable on the way back from Savannah toward Bluffton/Hilton Head, approximately six miles south of the Route 46 traffic circle (one mile south of the Pink Pig Restaurant) on Rt.

315, with Bellinger Hill Road being the closest intersection. (Click here for map provided by the billboard company). According to Val, We plan on The Comparison In "The Bean making presentations to the song of the old mother the local Catholic churches to see if they would have interest in The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal Essay sponsoring additional, local billboards and then hopefully expand from there. I do have contacts in South Carolina and taino religion will investigate expanding further. It will take some time, but, will keep you in the loop on our progress. I mentioned this project at the STERA, Inc. In "The Trees" And Animal? Board of on The, Directors meeting in In "The Bean and Animal December and some concern was expressed about the placement of the Shroud image on a double billboard. The question was, what might it be paired with and what implications could that have? As you can see in the above photographs, there is an image of a flooded home in john keats poem the lower billboard with the The Comparison Essay message Don't Wait. Communicate. and the sub-message, Make your emergency plan.

Frankly, I find the taino religion juxtaposition of the two actual billboards to be rather ironic, fitting and even complimentary! What do you think? Board member Richard Orareo promptly did some further research on the Dublin billboard and provided us with the following information: The image of The Holy Face that we saw in the photograph was on Trees" and Animal Sarsfield Road in Inchicore, in outer Dublin. This billboard is one of many that is part of The Holy Face Project. Twenty eight are scattered throughout Ireland with 8 in Dublin. This project is a small part of the greater Human Life International, a Pro-Life Organization.

Mr. Patrick McCrystal is the project manager. He organized a national prayer service in all 32 counties in Ireland that featured a large Holy Face banner at each service. There was also a project that brought the Holy Face inside the bus system in taino religion Dublin. The Comparison Of Paternalism And Animal Dreams Essay? They estimate that more than 1,000,000 viewed the image within the 200 buses. McCrystal raised necessary funding through an appeal to the Human Life International membership. They raised more than €60,000. Pam Moon also had a traveling Shroud exhibit that traveled from Dublin, to Cork, to Knock during 2014. Ireland has it going on! - Richard UPDATE: I am very pleased to report that as soon as this update went online we received a cordial greeting from ponyboy curtis, Patrick McCrystal , the man who manages the Ireland Holy Face Project that inspired the The Comparison Bean Trees" Dreams South Carolina group. Essay Miracles? We have agreed to stay in touch and Patrick was kind enough to send me a copy of their newsletter, which includes many more details and photographs.

You can read it here: The Holy Face Project Newsletter . He also provided us with a link to their new website, www.theholyface.com . We will keep you posted on everyone's progress. Updated January 25, 2017. Five More Issues Added to Rex Morgan's Shroud News Archive. With this update we add five more issues to Rex Morgan's Shroud News archive, which will total 118 issues when complete. This update includes Issue #62, December 1990 through Issue #66, August 1991 with articles by such notable Shroud scholars as John Tyrer, Ian Wilson, Eoin Mille, Andre Van Cauwenberghe, Remi Van Haelst, Joe Nickell, Prof. Of Paternalism In "The? Daniel Scavone, Prof. Taino Religion? Alan Whanger and Mary Whanger and Father Peter M. Rinaldi, S.D.B.

Our sincerest thanks as always to Stephen Jones for his extraordinary effort in scanning and optical character recognition of every page, Ian Wilson for providing the original issues and valuable input and of course, to Rex Morgan for his gracious permission to reprint them here on Shroud.com. December 2016 Rome Shroud Conference Videos Online. As we announced in our last update, an International and Interdisciplinary Conference on In "The Bean and Animal the Shroud of Against Nozick's 'Distributive Essay, Turin with the theme, He saw and He believed. The Shroud, science, faith and The Comparison Bean Trees" Dreams Essay proclamation of the Paschal Mystery , was held in john keats poem Rome on December 13 - 14, 2016. The event was sponsored by the Institute of Science and Faith of the Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum , in collaboration with the International Centre of Sindonology in The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" and Animal Essay Turin. Speakers included Prof. Antonio Cassanelli, Prof. Gian Maria Zaccone, Mgr. Giuseppe Ghiberti, Father Andrew Dalton LC, Father Nicolas Bossu LC, Father Rafael Pascual LC, Dr. Petrus Soons, Dr.

Ada Grossi, Fr. Gianfranco Berbenni OFM Cap, Prof. Bruno Barberis, Prof. Paolo Di Lazzaro, Roberto Falcinelli and many others. Recently, the on The Miracles organizers released videos of the conference on YouTube so we are including links to them all below. The Comparison In "The Dreams Essay? Most of the presentations are in Italian but a few are in English. Here are the links: Since I was unable to attend the conference in person, I created a PowerPoint/video presentation titled The Contributions of the and sodapop curtis Shroud of Turin Research Project , which was presented on my behalf (see link #5 above). Since it is difficult to see the In "The Trees" Essay screen clearly in the above video, I am including a link to a 640x480 mp4 video version of my presentation (84 MB), along with a separate link to a pdf version of the presentation script: BSTS Newsletter December 2016 Issue No. 84 Now Online.

We are happy to report that the Essay of Cannabis British Society for the Turin Shroud page of the website has been updated and the latest December 2016 Issue No. Of Paternalism In "The Trees" Dreams Essay? 84 of the BSTS Newsletter is now online. This issue includes several in-depth research articles starting with Did Joan of Arc See the Turin Shroud? by Hugh Duncan and The Pray Codex by The Argument Against, Hugh Farey , the Trees" newsletter's Editor. Taino Religion? It also includes a reprint of Pollen on the Shroud of Turin: The Probable Trace Left by Anointing and Embalming by Marzia Boi and an event article by Brenda Benton titled My First Visit to Jalsa Salana . Also includes news from around the internet and much more. Source: Mikael Agricola: Rucouskirja (Prayer Book) 1544. I recently received an update from our good friend Juha Hiltunen , about an upcoming Shroud Exhibit and Seminar in Turku, Finland. He also provided us with a link to the Finnish language website of the 2015 Shroud of Turin Rauma Exhibition , which was held in Helsinki.

Here is the information he sent us about this year's events: The Exhibit: Date: March 27 - April 17, 2017. Place: Turku, Finland. Martinkirkko (Church of Martin). The Comparison Bean Dreams? The first exhibit in Finland (2010) was also arranged here. Exhibit program is included as a part of the Reformation 500-year celebrations in on The of Cannabis Turku, as it was the former capital of Finland and the place where Mikael Agricola, in the inspiration of Martin Luther, worked and translated the Bible into Finnish and therefore started the Reformation here too. The Seminar: Date: April 8, 2017. Place: Turku, Finland. The Comparison Of Paternalism In "The And Animal Dreams? Martinkirkko (Church of Martin).

All participants are from ponyboy curtis, Finland and lectures are in Finnish. Name of the seminar: Contemplation of God's/the Lord's Face in The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal the Tradition of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Finland. Speakers: Prof. Antti Laato: The Face of God/the Lord in the Bible Rev. Pekka Kiveks: Contemplation of Christ in our Hymns and Spiritual Songs Prof. Visa Immonen: The Image of Veronica in our Medieval Churches Prof.em. Essay Of Cannabis? Jouko N. The Comparison In "The Dreams Essay? Martikainen: Contemplation of Christ and Nozick's 'Distributive Justice Essay His Face in the Prayer Book of the Finnish Reformer Mikael Agricola and in the Passions-Salve of Paul Gerhardt (1607-1676) Juha also pointed out that although the The Comparison Bean Trees" Essay topics of the scheduled lectures are not directly related to the Shroud of Turin, some references to it will undoubtedly be made.

You will also find his latest book, a revised and updated edition of his 2009 Finnish language work, will soon be available and is listed in our Recently Published Books section below. It is and sodapop, great to see an ongoing effort to educate the The Comparison Bean and Animal people of Finland about the Shroud of Turin by Juha and his colleagues. Thank you for keeping us informed Juha! International Conference on the Shroud of Turin, Washington State, 2017. In our September 19, 2016 website update we announced that an International Conference on and sodapop the Shroud of Turin will be held in Pasco, Washington State, USA on July 19-22, 2017. The Comparison Of Paternalism And Animal? We wanted to The Argument Against Nozick's 'Distributive Justice remind everyone that the deadline for submission of The Comparison Bean Trees" and Animal Essay, papers is February 28, 2017 so there is old mother, still time to participate.

See our previous article or click on the above link to In "The and Animal Essay visit the conference website where you can find more details, register for the event, learn about travel, hotels and accommodations, view a video from the conference organizers and much more. In an e-mail on January 18, 2017, conference organizer Robert Rucker sent me the following update: 2017 Lecture Tour on the Shroud - With the conference on the Shroud of Turin (www.shroudconference2017.com) coming up July 19 to Against Justice Essay 22 in Pasco, Washington, Bob Rucker and Mark Antonacci are planning a lecture tour (mid-March to mid-April) to reach people at research facilities and population centers across 14 states. An outline of of Paternalism Bean Essay, this lecture tour is available at http://www.shroudconference2017.com/lecture-tour.html and at http://testtheshroudonline.com/shroud-2017-conference/. As specific locations, dates, and times are arranged, they will be made available on these sites.

Those interested in helping in this effort should contact Bob (H: 509-375-4770, C: 509-628-6894) or Mark (314-704-0537). Several new Shroud related books have been published in recent months. We are listing them here but have also permanently archived them all on the Shroud of Turin Booklist page (alphabetically by author). To make it easy to find the new additions, we have annotated each new listing with (Added 21 January 2017) so simply search for that phrase on the Booklist page. Valokuva Jeesuksesta. Torinon krinliina tieteen, historian ja Uuden testamentin valossa (A Photograph of Jesus. Shroud of on The of Cannabis, Turin in the Light of Science, History and the New Testament) by Juha Hiltunen (Finnish language) Since we included a Shroud News from Finland feature in this update, we wanted to The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal include the the song old mother latest Finnish language book on the Shroud, even though it is not yet available online. We will update this listing with the link as soon as it becomes available. The Comparison Of Paternalism? In the on The meantime, you can order the The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" and Animal Essay book directly from the publisher by taino religion, sending an e-mail to The Comparison of Paternalism Bean and Animal Dreams tilaukset@kirjapaja.fi . According to the author, this book is a completely revised edition in March 2017 (of his 2009 1st edition). John Keats Poem? It contains all the relevant new research data since 2009 and The Comparison and Animal Dreams Essay more visual material compared with the first edition.

And the question mark is now removed from the title, because all this new data (incl. dating of the of the old mother Shroud to the 1st C) confirms more precisely, I think, that it is The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" Essay, truly a photograph of Jesus. Paperback: ca. 400 pages. Publisher: Kirjapaja. Helsinki, Finland March 2017. Here is an ponyboy excerpt from the description of the book on the Amazon France website (Google translation): In 2015, over one million people came to The Comparison Bean Trees" Dreams Essay pray, or to simply pass an ancient linen cloth: the Shroud of Turin. The reason for its attraction is simple: it is deemed to have wrapped the body of Jesus of taino religion, Nazareth after his crucifixion in Jerusalem. The reputation of the In "The Bean Essay Turin shroud is old: it was at least in john keats poem existence during the second half of the fourteenth century, at Lirey in Champagne. And Animal Dreams? This book presents a rigorously consolidated statement and ponyboy curtis update of In "The Bean Trees" Dreams Essay, our knowledge on the shroud of proportional, Turin. It then assesses methodically different image forming hypotheses.

Tristan Casabianca was born in Bastia in 1982. A graduate in history of The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Dreams Essay, public law and political ideas as well as economic analysis of law (Universities of on The Miracles of Cannabis, Aix-Marseille, Hamburg, Rotterdam), Tristan Casabianca is particularly interested in its academic publications (the Heythrop Journal, New Blackfriars) scientific and philosophical consensus on the shroud. Relying on traditional historiographical criteria, he has proposed, in 2013, a new method for assessing the Shroud of Turin. Paperback: 110 pages. Publisher: Anima Corsa (2016) Recently Published Papers and Articles.

by Giovanni Fazio, Giuseppe Mandaglio and Antonio Anastasi. Included in this update are links to a number of papers and articles that were published recently. All have also been permanently archived on the Scientific Papers Articles page (alphabetically by title) and the Website Library page (alphabetically by author). Revisiting a pure stochastic mechanism to explain the body image formation on Bean Trees" and Animal Essay the Linen of Turin by Giovanni Fazio, Giuseppe Mandaglio and Antonio Anastasi , The Journal of The Textile Institute, Published online: 30 Nov 2016. Taino Religion? Here is the abstract: In this paper, we revisit a pure stochastic process as a possible mechanism of the Shroud body image formation. Successively, we make a comparison with another mechanism that uses the Dreams Essay Maillard reaction as source of a ‘stochastic-like effect’ image.

Both the mechanisms seem to be able to explain all the chemical and physical characteristics of the the song old mother Shroud image. However, an Bean and Animal Essay experimental confirm of the possible colouration by the Maillard reaction could be, easily, verified. On the contrary, for obtaining a pure stochastic effect, it is necessary to await the result of the on The experiment for The Comparison of Paternalism and Animal Dreams years or decades. Against 'Distributive Justice? Indeed, the latency times, for the two images’ formation are very different. Recently, we have pointed out that the distribution of the yellowed fibrils on the Shroud of Turin, well represented by a linear regression between the image intensity and the cloth-body distance, has a stochastic aspect. Of Paternalism Bean Trees" And Animal? In this paper, by a preliminary approach, we show that the the song chemical reaction between reducing sugar coming from the linen manufacturing procedure (mainly composed of crude starch and possibly also Saponaria officinalis) and some specific post-mortem gases like ammonia and/or diamines that could have been released by the corpse who was enveloped in the Shroud can yield a “stochastic-like effect” image. Moreover, we think the above reaction could also explain why the body image on the Shroud is a unicum. The Turin Shroud is traditionally considered the burial cloth of Jesus Christ, but carbon-14 analysis indicated a medieval date.

Here, a digital restoring of the hands’ region of the Turin Shroud image has allowed to The Comparison of Paternalism Dreams visualize anatomic details never seen before: the scrotum and part of the ponyboy and sodapop right hand's thumb. Additionally, the unnatural position of the right hand's thumb, adjacent to the palm of the hand, positioned below it and, consequently, almost fully hidden except for its protruding end, seems to The Comparison Bean and Animal Essay denote a stress, which could be consequent to crucifixion. These results shed new light on the long-lasting scientific debate about the authenticity of the relic since the absence of the thumbs has been considered as one of the most important indirect proof that the Turin Shroud wrapped the body of a man who was crucified alive. This study proposes an Nozick's Justice Essay alternative interpretation of the pollen grains found on the Christian relic of the Shroud of Turin, the majority of The Comparison Bean and Animal, which belong to entomogamous plants. The examination of the images in the literature and the observation of modern pollen under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the most abundant pollen on the relic may be attributed to the genus Helichrysum (Asteraceae family) instead of Gundelia tournefortii. The other most important pollen found belongs to the Cistaceae-Cistus spp.—the Apiaceae—probably Ferula spp.—and the Anacardianceae—the genus Pistacia. These pollen grains could have come from plants used to obtain expensive and valuable substances that would have been the basis for the oils of Helichrysum, ladanum and galbanum, as well as for the song old mother mastic and terebinth products; this fact has not been considered by previous authors. Ancient historical records give us references that could link the pollen traces to The Comparison Trees" Dreams a mixture of taino religion, balms and ointments employed for preparing the body for funeral and of Paternalism and Animal burial. Ponyboy And Sodapop? For this reason, the palynological study reveals coherency with these historical records about the rituals, as reported on by the important scientists Pliny the Elder and Dioscorides, dating back to The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" Essay the first century ad. Shroud of Turin and Sudarium of Oviedo, Possible Burial Fabrics at the Tomb of Jesus of Nazareth (English) - Sudario de Oviedo y Sindone de Turin, Posibles Linzos Sepulcrales de Jesus de Nazaret (en espanol) by Nozick's 'Distributive Justice Essay, Guillermo Heras Moreno , Vice-President of Research and Training, Spanish Center for Sindonology (Centro Espanol de Sindonologia - CES), August 2016. [Editor's Note: This is a summary of data compiled over the years by the CES, some of which has been previously published in papers at The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Dreams various conferences. Essay Miracles Of Cannabis? This is the most up-to-date and fully illustrated summary of their findings, available in both English and Spanish language versions].

Here is a brief excerpt from the introduction: Can we relate the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin as belonging to the same corpse? If so, is it reasonable to believe this may have been the corpse of Jesus of Nazareth? In other words: Are the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" and Animal Essay, Turin the Nozick's Justice Essay burial cloths mentioned in the Gospel texts as Shroud in the Synoptics and Sudarium in the Gospel of John? [Editor's Note: These next two articles are not directly about the Shroud of Turin but were suggested to me by Melanie Stallard , one of our website viewers. This is what she wrote regarding the first article]: I just wanted to mention to you an article I read in the September issue of Science magazine about a new technology to read extremely damaged artifacts, called, virtual unwrapping. I include the original article and citation below, but it occurred to me as I read the article to wonder if any application of virtual unwrapping could glean further information from the Shroud. Of Paternalism In "The Trees" Essay? Since the technology mentioned in the article is far beyond my expertise, I thought I would include the article here to see if it can stimulate any interest or response from The Argument Against Essay, Shroud scholars. The Comparison Bean Trees" Dreams? The first article is titled: From damage to discovery via virtual unwrapping: Reading the scroll from En-Gedi by ponyboy curtis, William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, Pnina Shor and Yosef Porath , Science Advances, 21 September 2016, Vol. 2, no. 9, e1601247.

A few weeks later Melanie sent me a follow up e-mail that said: I have happened across another article that describes a technology perhaps you already know about, terahertz imaging, which was used at MIT Media Lab to attempt to The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" Essay read multiple pages of an unopened book. They used: (1) a terahertz camera that emits very high radiation, (2) an algorithm to detect the reflection of the radiation bursts caused by each page and (3) computational imaging to detect the images of the Essay on The Miracles letters on each page. These efforts, as reported in this article, were much less successful than in the first article I sent you, Virtual Unwrapping. Of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" Dreams? I just thought if any scientist contacts you regarding the previous article, this one might also be mentioned. I found the video that accompanies the review very interesting regarding the reference to use of terahertz imaging to determine time-lapse information. Here is the plan link: Judging a book through its cover - New computational imaging method identifies letters printed on first nine pages of a stack of paper by Larry Hardesty , MIT News Office, September 9, 2016. The Comparison Of Paternalism Trees" And Animal Essay? [Editor's Note: It is highly unlikely that any technology that emits very high radiation could be considered non-destructive or would ever be appropriate for use on the Shroud]. Recently Released Videos and Audios. A number of new Shroud related videos have been released recently and ponyboy curtis we are including links to them here. The Comparison Of Paternalism Essay? The first is a new short film from award winning filmmaker David Rolfe and co-producer Pam Moon and is titled, When I Survey the Wondrous Cross . The video, inspired by the feature film Risen, is beautifully produced and john keats poem edited with an equally beautiful soundtrack performed by Tom Moon . This is The Comparison Bean and Animal Dreams Essay, a truly inspirational music video from the Nozick's Justice producer of the award winning 1978 film, The Silent Witness, the first ever documentary on In "The Bean Trees" and Animal Essay the Shroud of Turin. David has graciously posted the proportional plan definition 4 minute 20 second video on The Comparison Trees" and Animal Dreams Vimeo at the above link to share it with all of the song, us.

He has also made available a new Vimeo link to his superb 2016 film, A Grave Injustice (which we featured in a Special Update on March 19, 2016, in case you missed it). The Shroud of Turin as the The Comparison In "The Bean Burial Cloth of Jesus: Answers for Critics , is the title of a one hour twenty-three minute presentation made by Dr. John Johnson at an Apologetics Symposium held on October 16, 2016 at Miracles the Cedar Park Church, in Bothell, Washington. This is a YouTube video of his complete presentation. Dr. The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" And Animal Essay? Johnson has a PhD in Applied Math from the University of California at Berkeley.

He retired from curtis, Boeing after 31 years, mostly in Aerospace. Of Paternalism Dreams? He has studied and taught Bible archaeology since he was a Biblical Christian in 1980. Russ Breault: Could the Shroud be a Receipt? is the title of a 22 minute video of one of curtis, Russ' excellent Shroud Encounter presentations, which he just posted on YouTube. Here is what Russ wrote us in a recent e-mail: Some of you who have seen my Shroud Encounter presentation know that I end with the idea of the Shroud as a receipt, a proof of purchase. Bean And Animal Dreams? Could it be a record of the transaction between God and man? Could the Shroud be an itemized receipt documenting the price that was paid? Mark Antonacci: Test the Shroud - At the Atomic and the song of the Molecular Levels is the title of a recent audio only podcast interview with Mark on The Comparison Bean Dreams Essay The Mind Renewed.com . Here is an john keats poem excerpt from the description on their website: Arguing that new scientific tests might contest these findings and reveal the Shroud to be very probably the genuine burial cloth of Jesus Christ, Mark Antonacci proposes a scientifically-testable hypothesis that particle radiation emanating from the shroud-wrapped, crucified body may account for very many of the Shroud's features, such as full-length body images, still-red blood marks, erroneous carbon dating and The Comparison Bean and Animal Dreams Essay more. Our good friend Jim Bertrand reports that the john keats poem website for the recently formed American Confraternity of the Holy Shroud is now online.

Produced by Robert Siefker , the new website went online on December 28, 2016. According to the site, The possibility of strengthening faith, and potentially changing lives, is what prompted the founding of the American Confraternity of the Holy Shroud (ACHS). Dreams? The mission of the Confraternity is to develop ways that the Shroud, whether it is “authentic” or an iconic representation of Jesus’ passion and death, may illuminate and strengthen Christian faith. The Mysteries of the Shroud of Turin by Robin Barret is an ponyboy article that appeared on Bean and Animal December 16, 2016 in Newsminer.com , The Voice of Interior Alaska. Here is an excerpt: Some have called the Shroud of Turin an elaborate hoax; others have called it a miraculous artifact of the ponyboy and sodapop curtis passion, death and resurrection of The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" Dreams Essay, Jesus. It is either one or the other. On The Miracles Of Cannabis? What is the Bean Trees" Dreams Essay shroud and where does it come from? 2016 was another great year for The Argument Against 'Distributive Shroud.com web traffic, although we did not surpass our 2015 record of 1 million+ visitors. Of course, that year the Shroud was on public display and garnered considerable media attention which drove lots of extra traffic to our site. Our final total for 2016 was 895,995 visits and we averaged more than 2450 visitors per day or around 75,000 visitors per month. In 2016 our visitors generated over 15 million hits, viewed nearly 12 million files, viewed over 2.3 million pages and generated 704 GB of bandwidth!

You can see the details for yourself by clicking on the above graphic. We thank you, our loyal viewers, for your continued participation and support! Since viewers often write me asking where and when I might be giving Shroud presentations, I am again including my upcoming schedule in case I happen to The Comparison of Paternalism and Animal Dreams Essay be in Miracles of Cannabis your area. If so, please drop by and say hello. Also, please understand that as of this writing, the schedule is by no means complete and that many of the times and The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" and Animal venues are still not finalized and subject to change. I will do my best to update them prior to the events. March 8 - 9, 2017 - I will again be speaking at the University Series™ , an annual multi-parish adult education program held in Southern California each year during the Lenten season.

The University Series™, an event created and organized by my dear friend Fr. Dave Heney , offers 90+ seminars connecting faith with real life in areas such as current events, contemporary moral issues, evangelization, faith and of the old mother science, marriage and family, church history, scripture and prayer. The 2017 season runs from March 2 to April 7 at twelve different parishes in Los Angeles and Ventura counties. I will make three presentations, the first on In "The Bean and Animal Dreams Essay Wednesday, March 8th at 7:30-9:00 pm at the St. Mel Activity Center , the second on of the Thursday, March 9th at The Comparison Bean Trees" Dreams Essay 7:30-9:00 pm at St. Mary's Church in Whittier and the third, a special lecture (not part of the University Series) at 9:30 am on March 9th at Our Lady of Malibu church. If you wish to learn more you can visit the University Series Website where you can review each topic and of the old mother sign up for the sessions. The charge to attend is $8 per person, but you can bring a friend for free! March 24 through March 26, 2017 - I will be lecturing at Immaculate Conception Church , 2310 Robertson Ave., Norwood, Ohio (near Cincinnati). The event is the premiere of a new Shroud Speaker Series organized by the Shroud Project of Cincinnati . On Friday, March 24, 2017, I will make two presentations to students, parents and teachers at the parish school, Immaculate Conception Academy . I will give one public lecture on of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay Saturday, March 25, 2017 (starting at 10:00 am) and one public lecture on Sunday, March 26, 2017 (starting at 11:00 am).

You can register for any of the taino religion public lectures and see their complete 2017 speaker schedule on The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal Essay the special Signup.com website: Shroud Speaker Series Registration . I hope to see some of you there! April 4 through April 7, 2017 - I will once again be lecturing along with the Vancouver Shroud Association's Man of the Shroud Exhibit at St. Isidore Roman Catholic Church in Kanata, near Ottawa, Canada. The complete lecture and taino religion exhibit schedule and other details are also now available on St. Isidore's Man of the Shroud Exhibit website. I will be giving ten lectures over the four day schedule. May 2 through May 5, 2017 - I will again be teaching my Shroud of Turin course in the Masters of Science and Faith program at of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal the Ateneo Pontificio Regina Apostolorum in Rome. July 28 through 30, 2017 - I will once again be in England and speaking at the 51st Annual Jalsa Salana Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Convention in Hampshire.

Watch for an in-depth article about the plan event in our Fall Update in October. September 29 through October 1, 2017 - My dear friend Dr. Chuck Dietzen has invited me back to the Indianapolis, Indiana area to participate in the opening of his new Shroud exhibit. The details are still being finalized and I will post more information as soon as it becomes available. October 12 through 15, 2017 - My dear friend and In "The Bean and Animal Essay brother Pete Schumacher has invited me back to lecture at his Shroud Exhibit and proportional plan definition Museum (SEAM) in Alamogordo, New Mexico. I will give one lecture on Thursday, October 12, 2017 at The Comparison Bean Trees" and Animal 6:30 pm at the Flickinger Theatre , 1110 New York Ave., Alamogordo, New Mexico and taino religion another on Saturday, October 14, 2017 at 6:30 pm at the Silver City Convention Center in Silver City, New Mexico. December 1 - 2, 2017 - I have been invited to In "The Bean and Animal Dreams speak at a conference named The Real Presence: Eucharistic Miracles; the Holy Shroud; and Our Lady of Guadalupe, in New Braunfels, Texas, hosted by the Fullness of Truth Catholic Evangelization Ministries in Essay on The Miracles of Cannabis Texas. The event is being held at Sts.

Peter and Paul Catholic Church , 386 N. Castell Ave., New Braunfels, Texas 78130. Updated September 15, 2017. I don't have an exact date for the next update, but I do know it will occur in of Paternalism Trees" and Animal the Spring, probably sometime in The Argument Against 'Distributive Justice Essay May. A lot will depend on of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Essay my travel and lecture schedule, which is not yet finalized for this year. Although I don't know the exact date, I do know for sure that the next update will include more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News , the latest papers, books, articles and videos and taino religion of course, any breaking Shroud news. To be sure you don't miss any important Shroud information as it occurs, check our STERA, Inc. The Comparison Of Paternalism In "The Bean Dreams? Facebook page from time to time, since we now try and of the update it every week or so to keep you informed between our regular quarterly website updates. You can also join our Website Mailing List and receive an e-mail whenever the The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay site is updated or any important Shroud news breaks.

We hope you find this update interesting and proportional plan useful and The Comparison In "The Bean Essay look forward to seeing you in and sodapop the Spring! Thank you all again for being there! It is deeply appreciated.

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Aktuelle Nachrichten auf stuttgarter-nachrichten.de. The Comparison Of Paternalism In "The. Sie sind angemeldet als. Ponyboy And Sodapop. U-Boot-Mord in The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Danemark Peter Madsen: ein Mann ohne Stoppknopf. And Sodapop. Danemarks prominenter Erfinder Peter Madsen galt als hyperaktiv, streitlustig und genial. In "The And Animal. Nun steht er unter dem Verdacht, die Journalistin Kim Wall in seinem U-Boot ermordet zu haben. Plan Definition. Wer ist der Mann, den viele fruhere Mitarbeiter hassen? Kopenhagen - Der dänische Tüftler Peter Madsen ist eine schillernde Person.

Um das Wesen des jungenhaften 46-jährigen U-Boot- und Raketenbauers ranken sich unzählige Geschichten. The Comparison Of Paternalism Bean Trees" Dreams. Wer ist der Mann wirklich, der beschuldigt wird, die schwedische Journalistin Kim Wall (30) in proportional definition seinem U-Boot südlich von Kopenhagen ermordet, zerstückelt und mit Metallgewichten im Meer versenkt zu haben? Er selbst gab lediglich zu, sie nach einem angeblichen Unglück an Bord „im Meer bestattet“ zu haben. Stets galt der Erfinder mit abgebrochenem Ingenieursstudium den Dänen als verrückter, aber sympathischer Daniel Düsentrieb. Of Paternalism Trees". Den lud man gern zu Talkshows und gut bezahlten Vorträgen ein. Of The. Journalisten liebten es, ganze Seiten über ihn zu füllen, seine Biografie gibt es schon seit längerem. Of Paternalism Trees" Dreams Essay. Madsen war als Teenager ein Eigenbrötler und Nerd, der wenig Freunde hatte.

Madsen wuchs als Sohn eines Zimmermanns aus Seeland in The Argument Against 'Distributive Justice sehr bescheidenen Verhältnissen auf. The Comparison Of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" And Animal. Die Mutter verließ den Vater mit den älteren Brüdern. Madsen blieb zurück. Essay On The Miracles Of Cannabis. Als er Teenager war, war sein strenger und gefühlskalter Vater schon über 70. And Animal Essay. Er löste aber mit seinem Interesse für Handwerkliches, Schiffe und Kriegsflugzeuge Madsens brennende Liebe für alles Technische und Wissenschaftliche aus. Madsen brachte sich das meiste selbst in john keats poem endlosen Büchereisitzungen bei. Technisches Wissen war der einzige Weg, mit dem Vater in Verbindung zu treten und vermutlich auch eine Fluchtmöglichkeit aus seinem bedrückenden Alltag. In "The Bean Trees". „Die beiden redeten ausschließlich über Wissenschaft, nicht über Gefühle“, sagt Madsens Bruder Benny Langkjaer Egesö. Ponyboy And Sodapop. Madsen war ein Eigenbrötler und Nerd, der in The Comparison Trees" and Animal Essay der Schule wenig Freunde hatte. Das zog sich offenbar ins Erwachsenenalter fort. On The Miracles. „Du kannst mit ihm kein normales Gespräch führen, wenn du ihm aber eine schwarze Tafel zum Zeichnen in of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay die Hand drückst, kann er sich über Zeichnungen ausdrücken“, sagte sein Bruder Benny der Zeitung „Expressen“.

Andere beschrieben ihn als erwachsenes „ADHS-Kind auf Speed“. John Keats Poem. Er sei ständig „bis zum Platzen voll von rastloser Energie“, „ein Mann ohne Stoppknopf“. Bean Trees" And Animal Dreams. Für den kinderlosen Madsen sind laut seinem Biografen Thomas Djursing die Projekte, die U-Boote und Raketen, wie Kinder. Dennoch zeige er auch viel Mitgefühl für andere, sagte der Bruder. On The. Seine Leidenschaft für Technik hat Madsen weit gebracht. Trees" And Animal. Auch soll Madsen durchaus den Frauen zugetan sein. „Er hat Frauen sehr gern und hat Umgang mit vielen.

Aber er hat eine Frau, mit der er seit vielen Jahren verheiratet ist und mit der er zusammenlebt. On The Miracles Of Cannabis. Ich weiß, dass sie einander lieben, obwohl sie in The Comparison In "The Trees" Essay einer offenen Beziehung leben“, sagt Biograf Djursing. Of The. Seine Leidenschaft für Technik hat Madsen weit gebracht, auch materiell. In "The Trees" And Animal Essay. Jahrelang soll er unter Werkbänken genächtigt und aus Einkaufstüten gelebt haben. And Sodapop Curtis. Seinen Durchbruch hatte er 2008, als er mit der UC3 Nautilus sein drittes U-Boot vom Stapel ließ. Of Paternalism In "The And Animal Essay. „Peter ist manchmal mit dem U-Boot runter auf den Grund, um dort über Nacht zu schlafen und sein Gehirn auszulüften“, erzählt der Bruder.

Die äußerst komplizierte, vom Militär abgeschaute Konstruktion gilt als das größte privat zusammengebaute U-Boot der Welt. Proportional Plan. Doch Madsen reichte das nicht. The Comparison And Animal Dreams Essay. Er wollte unter dem Motto „Amateurs in Essay Space“ hundert Kilometer hoch ins Weltall und begann noch im gleichen Jahr mit seinen Raketenplänen, die ihm in Bean Trees" and Animal Essay Dänemark den liebevollen Spitznamen „Raketen-Madsen“ eingebracht haben. 2010 gelang es ihm, mit anderen Enthusiasten eine Rakete 8,5 Kilometer in john keats poem die Höhe zu schießen. The Comparison In "The Trees" And Animal. Das U-Boot, das Madsen nach dem Tod von Wall wohl absichtlich versenkte, sollte eigentlich die Rakete, mit der er ins All wollte, zum Abschussort bringen. Viele frühere Bekannte und Mitarbeiter hassen Madsen heute. Gerade auch wegen Madsens ehrgeizigen Plänen, die ihm soviel bedeuteten, erstaunt es viele, dass er nun vermutlich Kim Wall ermordet und zerstückelt hat. Miracles Of Cannabis. „Er hatte stets enormen Respekt vor der Küstenwache, dem Militär und überhaupt allen Behörden, mit denen er ja zusammenarbeitet.

Er ist mit seinen Raketenabschussplänen zutiefst abhängig von deren gutem Willen“, sagt Djursing und betont: „Er ist nicht gewalttätig, trinkt nicht und nimmt keine Drogen. Of Paternalism And Animal Essay. Er ist ein Mann mit gesunden Werten“, sagt der Biograf. Plan. Allerdings streite der Tüftler auch „mit Gott und jedermann“. Of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" And Animal Dreams. So zerstritt Madsen sich sowohl mit den Leuten, die an seinen U-Boot-Bauten beteiligt waren, als auch mit denen, die mit ihm im Raketenprojekt „Copenhagen Suborbitals“ werkelten. „Als ich die Biografie schrieb, wollten sich viele seiner früheren Bekannten überhaupt nicht über ihn äußern. Of The. Viele hassten ihn und wollten nichts mit ihm zu tun haben. The Comparison Trees" And Animal Dreams. Viele fühlten ganz klar, dass ihr Leben dadurch ruiniert wurde, dass er so viel mit ihnen zu tun hatte“, sagt Djursing. Of The Old Mother. Gleichzeitig hätte es immer wieder neue Leute geben, die sich stark von Madsens Charisma und seinen „Träumen von größeren Dingen“, wie den Reisen tief im Meer und oben im Weltall angezogen fühlten, sagt der Biograf, der glaubte, Madsen zu kennen.

Die Enthüllungen um den Tod von Kim Wall erfüllen ihn mit Erschrecken und Abscheu.

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Free Information Technology essays. 1.1 Problem Statement. Volume, variety and velocity of data is increasing day by of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" day, it leads to the generation of big data and by using existing techniques it is not easy to process such big volume of data and mine frequent patterns that exist in data . Perform Association Rule Mining and john keats poem, FP Growth on Big Data of The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" E-Commerce Market to find frequent patterns and association rules among item sets present in database by plan using reduced Apriori Algorithm and reduced FP Growth Algorithm on top of and Animal Dreams Mahout (an open source library or java API) built on Hadoop Map Reduce Framework. Big Data refers to ponyboy and sodapop curtis, datasets whose amount is away from the ability of The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean characteristic database software tools to analyze, store, manage and capture. Taino Religion? This explanation is The Comparison of Paternalism Bean and Animal Dreams Essay deliberately incorporates and taino religion, subjective, a good definition of The Comparison of Paternalism Bean and Animal how large a dataset needs to be in order to Miracles, be considered as big data i.e. we cannot define big data in terms of being big than a certain number of The Comparison Bean terabytes or thousands of gigabytes. We suppose that as technology advances with time the volume of datasets that would be eligible as big data will also rise. The Argument Nozick's 'Distributive Justice? The definition can differ from Bean Trees" and Animal, sector to sector; it is depending up on which kind of Essay on The of Cannabis software tools are normally present and what size of datasets are general in a particular industry. Of Paternalism And Animal? According to study, today big data in many sectors will range from a few dozen terabytes to thousands of terabytes. ' Velocity, Variety and Volume of data is growing day by day that is taino religion why it is not easy to manage large amount of The Comparison of Paternalism Essay data.

' According to study, 30 billion data or content shared on face book every month. Issues/Problems while analysing Big Data: ' According to analysis, every day more than one billion shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. ' According to analysis, every day Facebook saves two billion comments and taino religion, likes. ' According to analysis, every minute Foursquare manages more than two thousand Check-ins. ' According to analysis, every minute Trans Union makes nearly 70,000 update to credit files. ' According to analysis, every second Banks process more than ten thousand credit card transactions. We are producing data more rapidly than ever: ' According to study processes are more and more automated.

' According to study people are more and more interacting online. ' According to study systems are more and more interconnected. We are producing a variety of data including: ' Social network connections. ' Product rating comments. Big data[5][6] is the term for a collection of data sets so large and In "The Bean Trees" Dreams, complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications. Gartner, and now much of the industry, continue to use this 3Vs model for describing big data [7]. In 2012, Gartner updated its definition as follows: Big data is the term that can be defined as high velocity, volume and variety of of the old mother information assets that require new forms of The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams processing to john keats poem, enable enhanced result building, nearby discovery and process optimization [8]. Additionally, a new V Veracity is added by some organizations to describe it. Big data has evolved like a very important factor in The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Dreams Essay the economic and technology field, as Similar to other important factors of invention like hard-assets human-capital, high in numbers the present economic activity merely could n't take position exclusive of it.

We can say that by looking at current position of the departments in the US economic companies have minimum of 200TB data storage on an average if considered(as double as the size of proportional Wal-Mart's data warehouse of US-retailer in 1999) having one thousand workers approximately. In fact many departments have 1peta-byte 'PB' (in mean) data storage per organization. The growth of the big data will be continue to reach to Bean and Animal Dreams Essay, an high extent, due to Nozick's Justice, the modern technologies, platforms and their logical units and capabilities for handling large amount of data and also its large no. of upcoming users. Utilization of Big Data will turn Out to Be a Key base of Competition and The Comparison Dreams Essay, Growth for Individual Firms: Usage of big-data has become an important medium for the leading firms to get better in their data handling. If we consider an example of a retail company, the company can increase its operating margin by 60% approximately by embracing their big data. The chief retailers like UK's TESCO and many more use big-data to keep market revenue-share in proportional definition their pocket against from their local competitors. The emergence of big-data also has capability to evolutes new growth opportunities for The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Dreams Essay, those companies who have both combine and industry analyzing data. Even the companies who have their data at the mid-point of large info data about the objectives and demands of their users, services, buyers, products suppliers can be easily analyzed and captured using big-data.

The big-data usage in any firm or company can facilitate the proportional plan, healthy and more enhanced analyzing of data and its outcome, by deploying the big-data in Dreams Essay the firm there will be lower prices of product, higher quality and healthy match between the company and customer's need. We can say that the proportional plan, step forward towards the acceptance of big data can improve customer surplus and of Paternalism In "The Bean Essay, acceleration of performance along all the companies. Figure1.1: Types of data generated. Significance of Big Data: ' The administrator of the Obama has announced the idea of big-data Rd which is very useful to handle the several obstacles and problem which government is Against Nozick's 'Distributive facing now a days. Their idea comprised of 84 big-data programs with 6 different departments. ' Big data study played a big role for Obama's successful 2012 re-election campaign. ' Ebay.com uses two data warehouse that consists of 7.5 petabytes and 40 petabytes as well as 40 petabytes Hadoop cluster for merchandising, recommendations and search. ' Everyday, Amazon.com also handles large amount of data (in millions) and its related back-end operations as well as requested queries from third part sellers on an average of more than half million. ' More than 1Million consumer-transactions processes every hour in Walmart, that is The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" Dreams put into databases and estimation is done on data. ' Facebook also has 50 billion pictures of its user and process it very well.

' F.I.C.O. Taino Religion? that is 'Falcon Credit Card Fraud Detection System' handles and secure 2.1-billion active a/c worlds widely. ' According to estimation, the size of the data stored of business and companies is increasing to the double in every 1.2 years. ' Windermere Real Estate uses various 'GPS signals' from nearly 100 million drivers which help new home seekers to determine their critical times to from The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" Essay, work around the times. ' Hadoop is an open source that is called free software framework or technology for processing the taino religion, huge datasets for certain kinds of problems on the distributed system. ' Hadoop is an open source piece of software that mines or extracts the of Paternalism In "The Trees" Essay, sequential and non-sequential big-data for a company and then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. ' Hadoop works on the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the main work of the map-reduce is to on The of Cannabis, divide the input dataset into number of independent pieces which are then processed in the parallel-manner by the map tasks.

' The output generated by the map task will become input to the reduce task after performed sorting on the output by In "The Bean Dreams Essay framework. ' A file system is john keats poem used to store the input and of Paternalism In "The and Animal Essay, the output of the jobs. ' Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of monitoring the tasks, 're-executes' the taino religion, failed tasks and scheduling the tasks. History of Hadoop: ' The main or the very important organization from where the Bean and Animal, history of of the old mother Hadoop began is none other than best company of the world 'Google'. ' Google published two academic research papers on the technology called 'Google File-System' (GFS) and 'Map-Reduce' in the year 2003 and 2004.

' After some time these two technologies combined together and provided a good plat-form for The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams, processing huge amount of data in ponyboy well-organized or effective manner. ' Doug Cutting also played a very important role to develop Hadoop an The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Essay, open source framework that provides the 'implementations' of 'Map-Reduce' and 'Google File System'. ' Doug Cutting had been working on the elements of open source web search engine called 'Nutch' that completely resembles with the Essay on The Miracles of Cannabis, technologies 'Map-Reduce' and 'Google File System' published in the Google's research paper. ' In this way Hadoop was born but when it was developed first time, it was named as the 'subproject of Lucene'. ' After that Apache open source foundation did some changes in it and named as 'Apache's open source framework Hadoop' that can be used for processing Big Data in less time. ' Later Doug Cutting was hired by another big company that is yahoo. He and other employees of yahoo contributed a lot to Hadoop but after some time Doug Cutting moved to 'Cloudera' and The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" Dreams Essay, his other teams was hired by an organization called 'Hortonworks'. ' Still we can say that yahoo has the biggest contribution to develop Hadoop. What is Apache Mahout? ' Mahout is an API or we can say that it is the library of scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together.

' When the size of Essay of Cannabis data is too large then in such kind of circumstances Mahout is The Comparison In "The Bean and Animal used as the best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the outputs fast when used on top of Hadoop. History of Mahout: ' The life of Mahout was started in the year 2008, at the song, this time it was treated as the 'sub-project' of one of the major project of Apache named as 'Apache's Lucene Project'. ' The techniques like search, text-mining and 'information-retrievel' were implemented by Apache's Lucene project. ' Some of the members of the project Lucene were working on the same technology that is 'machine-learning' areas, so these members also contributed to mahout and a separate project named 'Mahout' was generated which works on the principle to predicts future on the basis of past.. ' The algorithms implemented in Mahout were not only implemented in of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay the conventional way but also implemented in taino religion such a way that Mahout Framework and algorithms could easily process the large amount of data while working on top of Hadoop using Mahout. Now in the next section I will present the brief introduction of each algorithm that has been implemented on Mahout. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the The Comparison Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, technique of filter out some important data from the and sodapop curtis, large amount of data which user browse, preference and rate, in other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the process of generating predictions on In "The Trees" Dreams Essay the basis of users past behavior or history and john keats poem, suggest or recommend users the The Comparison Dreams Essay, top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for user in his/her future decisions. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of user preferences database then suggest or generates the recommendations for user but like and dislike of user is not static so the recommendations generated using this technique is not so effective and bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is used these days to generate recommendations for a user because it removes the problem of bottleneck and it first finds the proportional plan, items having similar relationship that user has liked from large pool of items and then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on The Comparison of Paternalism Dreams Essay the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and proportional, dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of recommendations as compared to user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to find some rules on the basis of which the growth of an organization can be increased.

' There are number of algorithms on the basis of which we can find frequent patterns from the large of dataset, on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to Bean Trees", increase the turnover of an organization. Architecture of Map-Reduce: A paper on the idea named 'Map-reduce' was published by 'Google' in 2004 that was used as architecture. Map-reduce [9] named architectural framework is able to model the parallel processing and its implementation used to process the large amount of data stored. Using this technology, the requested query is Against 'Distributive splitted into sub queries and then distributed among several parallel sites and processed parallel which is The Comparison In "The Dreams Essay called the The Argument 'Distributive Essay, 'Map-step'. Then the results obtained are combined and delivered that is the reduce step.

This 'frame-work' was extremely successful; in fact the others wanted to of Paternalism Trees", make its replica. Therefore, Map Reduce framework's implementation named 'HADOOP' was adopted by Nozick's 'Distributive Justice an Apache open source project. Figure1.3: MAP-Reduce Flow. Existing Techniques and Technologies: The several technologies have been adapted and developed to manipulate, analyse, visualize and aggregate huge quantity of data. These technologies and techniques describe from numerous areas including computer science, applied mathematics, economics and statistics. A number of technologies and techniques were developed in the world having access to smaller variety and volumes in data but they have been effectively adapted so that they could be valid to The Comparison Bean and Animal Dreams Essay, very big sets or more dissimilar data. Big data needs outstanding technologies to resourcefully process large amount of data within sufficient intervened times. A 2011 report on and sodapop curtis big data suggests suitable Big Data techniques include:

A/B Testing: It is The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal a technique in on The of Cannabis which the comparison between control group and The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Essay, different test groups is done to obtain the of the old mother, answer that what changes can improve the aim of it. Association Rules: A set of these techniques is used find significant relationships that are association rules between identifiers of In "The Bean and Animal huge data storage. Numbers of john keats poem algorithms are present inside this technology to produce and test feasible rules. Classification: A technique which is mainly used to classify the items present in the dataset and usually used to predict the nature of a class using other attributes. For Example: Prediction of weather on the basis of previous day's weather. Cluster Analysis: It is the technique used to group the number of objects having similar properties into one cluster and other objects having similar properties with each other but dissimilar to other cluster group into one cluster. It is a type of 'unsupervised-learning' because training data are not used. This technique is in dissimilarity to classify a data mining technology called as 'supervised learning'.

Data combination and Data Integration: These are the techniques that gather the data from several locations then analyze the data for producing good understandings in such a way that is much effective and possibly more precise. Machine Learning: A branch or part of computer_science generally called artificial intelligence that is related with the design and The Comparison In "The Bean and Animal Dreams, improvement of algorithms, which allow computer systems to develop activities on the basis of realistic data. Natural language processing: NLP is the technique to process natural language using collection of techniques from the field of computer science which is named as AI linguistics also consists of plan number of algorithms to analyze human or natural language. Sentiment Analysis: This is an application of The Comparison In "The Trees" Essay natural-language-processing that is (NLP) and other critical techniques to taino religion, recognize and The Comparison of Paternalism Bean and Animal Dreams, mine the of the old mother, knowledge from inputs. Some important aspects of its examination comprises of identifying the of Paternalism Bean, product, aspect and feature. Big Data Technologies: There are emergent techniques that can be applicable to modify, analyze, aggregate read the big data. Big Table: Big table is the PDDS i.e. proprietary distributed-database-system built on the GFS i.e. Essay On The Miracles? 'Google-File-System' Encouragement for HBase. Business Intelligence (BI): A sort of application software builds to analyze, present and report data. Business Intelligence tools normally analyze data which is earlier stored in The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" Dreams 'data_mart' or 'data_warehouse'.

Cassandra: An open-source DBMS (database management system) specially aimed to the song old mother, handle large quantity of data on a distributed system. Dynamo: Amazon developed a private DDSS that is distributed data storage system developed called 'Dynamo'. Google File System: This is a private distributed file system developed by Google as a part of the motivation for The Comparison of Paternalism and Animal, Hadoop. HBASE: This is an open-source non-relational DDB that is distributed data base based on Big Table product of Google. The Argument 'Distributive Essay? This project was initially developed by The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay Power set but now it is managed by the Apache Software Foundation as part of the the song old mother, Hadoop. Map Reduce: This is a software framework developed by The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" the best company of the world that is 'Google' for handing out of Cannabis, large datasets for The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" Essay, specific kinds of requested queries on data stored at distributed sites. R: This is a software environment and The Argument Nozick's 'Distributive, an open source programming language for graphics and statistical computing.

Relational Database: This is a database formed up through a collection of tuples columns collectively stored in tabular form. RDBMS i.e. Relational Database Management Systems is the database system consists of The Comparison Bean Trees" Dreams structured-data and stored in form of tuples and columns. SQL is the best language for managing or maintaining relational databases. 1] A.Pradeepa, A.S.Thanamani. 'Hadoop File System And Fundamental Concept of Map Reduce Interior And Closure Rough Set Approximations [5]'. In this paper authors described that big data-mining and knowledge-discovery is the huge challenges because the volume or size of data is growing at of the, an unprecented approximation scale. Map-Reduce have been implemented to achieve many large-scale computations.

Recently introduced or presented Map-Reduce proficiency has received or gained much more consideration and attention from both the sides that is the In "The Bean and Animal Dreams, industry for its applicability and the scientific-community in plan big-data analysis .According to the authors of this paper, for mining and The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, finding some knowledge from big data, they presented an algorithm corresponding to the Map-Reduce based on abrasive theory, that are put forward to deal with the massive or large amount of data and also measured the performances on the large or big data sets to show that the proposed work can effectively or accurately processes the big data and find the results in less time. 2] Md.R.Karim1, A.Hossain, Md.M.Rashid. 'An Efficient Market Basket Analysis Technique with Improved Map Reduce Framework on curtis Hadoop [6]'. In this paper, authors described that market-basket analysis techniques are considerably important to every day's business decision because of its capability of mining customer's purchase rules by discovering that which items they are buying so frequently and together. The traditional single processor and main memory based computing is not proficient of handling ever growing huge transactional data. In this paper an effort has been taken to remove these limitations. First author will eliminate null transactions and rare items from the segmented dataset before applying their proposed HMBA algorithm using the of Paternalism In "The and Animal Dreams, ComMap-Reduce framework on of Cannabis Hadoop to generate the absolute set of maximal frequent item-sets. 3] J.W. Of Paternalism Bean Trees" Dreams? Woo, Yuhang Xu. 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with Map/Reduce of Cloud Computing [7]'.

In this paper, authors explained the Map-Reduce approach that has been very popular or effective, in order to compute or calculate enormous volumes of data, since google implemented its platform on john keats poem google distributed file systems that is called (G.D.F.S) and Amazon web service that is called (A.W.S), provides its services with a platform called Apache Hadoop. 4] J.W. Woo, S.Basopia, Yuhang Xu. 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with no-SQL DB HBase and Hadoop [8]'. In this paper authors presented a new schema that is The Comparison In "The and Animal called H-Base which is used to Nozick's, process transaction data for market basket analysis algorithm. Market basket analysis algorithm runs on apache Hadoop Map-Reduce and read data from HBase and HDFS, then the transaction data is converted and sorted into data set having (key and value pair) and after the completion of whole process, it stores the whole data to the H-Base or Hadoop distributed file system that is HDFS. 5] D.V.S.Shalini, M.Shashi and A.M.Sowjanya. 'Mining Frequent Patterns of Stock Data Using Hybrid Clustering[9]'. In this paper, authors described that the classification and patterns in the stock market or inventory data is The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Dreams Essay really significant or important for business-support and decision-making. The Song? They also proposed a new algo that is of Paternalism In "The Dreams Essay algorithm for taino religion, mining patterns from large amount of stock market data for guessing factors that are affecting or decreasing the product's sale. To improve the The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Dreams, execution time, the proposed system uses two efficient methods for john keats poem, clustering which includes PAM that is Partitioning Around Medoids and (BIRCH) that is Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies along with (M.F.P). The best well-organized iterative clustering approach that is called as PAM.

PAM is used initially or to start the clustering and In "The Bean Essay, after that PAM was combined with frequent pattern mining algorithm that is The Argument Nozick's 'Distributive Justice called FPM algorithm. 6] W.Wei, S.Yu, Q.Guo, W.Ding and In "The Trees" Dreams, L.Bian. 'An Effective Algorithm for definition, Simultaneously Mining Frequent Patterns and Trees" Dreams, Association Rules[10]'. According to the authors of this paper algorithms like Apriori and FP -Growth break the problem of mining association rules into two different sub problems then find frequent pattern and generate the required rules. To solve the problem we catch a deep insight of FP-Growth algorithm and propose an effective algorithm by Essay of Cannabis using the FP-tree called AR-Growth Association Rule Growth which can concurrently discover frequent item sets and association rules (AR) in a large database. 7] J.W.Woo. 'Apriori-Map/Reduce Algorithm [11]'.

In this paper, authors presented number of methods or techniques for converting many sequential algorithms to the corresponding or related Map-Reduce algorithms. They also described that Map-Reduce algorithm of the legacy Apriori algorithm which has been common or same to collect the item sets frequently, arose to compose association rules in In "The and Animal Dreams Essay data mining. Proportional Definition? Theoretically it shows that the proposed algorithm provides the The Comparison In "The Trees" Essay, high performance computing depending upon and sodapop curtis, the number of Map-Reduce nodes. 8] L.Hualei, L.Shukuan, Q.Jianzhong, Y.Ge, L.Kaifu. 'An Efficient Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithm for The Comparison Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, Data Stream [12]'. In this paper authors proposed or we can say presented a novel structure NC-Tree (New Compact Tree), which can re-code and plan definition, filter original data to compress dataset. At the same time, a new frequent pattern mining algorithm is also introduced on the bases of it, which can update and adjust the tree more efficiently. There are mostly two kinds of algorithms that is of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal Essay basically used to mine frequent item sets using frequent pattern mining approach. One is Apriori algorithm that is based on generating and testing and taino religion, the other one is FP-growth that is based on The Comparison of Paternalism and Animal dividing and conquering, which has been widely used in static data mining. For data stream, the frequent pattern mining algorithms must have strong ability of updating and adjusting to the song, further improve its efficiency. 9] S.K Vijayakumar, A. Bhargavi, U. Praseeda and Bean and Animal Dreams Essay, S. A. Ponyboy And Sodapop? Ahamed. In "The Bean Trees" Dreams? 'Optimizing Sequence Alignment in Cloud using Hadoop and ponyboy curtis, MPP Database'[Sequence Alignment].

In this paper authors discussed about sequential-alignment of The Comparison of Paternalism Bean and Animal Dreams bio-informatics big data. The size of data is growing day by day in the field of bio-informatics so it is not easy to process and find important sequences that are present in bio-informatics data using existing techniques. Authors of this paper basically discussed about the new technologies to curtis, store and process large amount of data that is 'Hadoop' and 'Green-plum'. The Comparison In "The Bean And Animal Dreams Essay? Green-plum is the massively parallel processing technique used to store petabytes of data. Hadoop is also used to taino religion, process huge amount of data because it is also based on parallel processing and generates results in very less time as compared to existing technologies to process the of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" and Animal Essay, huge amount of data. Authors also mentioned about the proposed algorithm for sequential-alignment that is 'FAST-A'.

10] S.Mishra, D.Mishra and S.K.Satapathy. 'Fuzzy Pattern Tree Approach for Mining Frequent Patterns from Gene Expression Data'[paper4]. In this paper the main focus of the authors on the 'frequent pattern mining of gene- expression data'. As we know that frequent pattern mining has become a more debatable and focused area in last few years. Definition? There are number of algorithms exist which can be used to frequent pattern from the Bean Trees" Dreams, data set. But in this paper authors applied the the song of the old mother, fuzzification technique on the data set and The Comparison of Paternalism Bean and Animal Essay, after that applied number of techniques to ponyboy and sodapop curtis, find more meaningful frequent patterns from data set. 11] L.Chen, W.Liu. In "The And Animal Dreams? 'An Algorithm for Mining Frequent Patterns in Biological Sequence' [paper7]. In this paper authors describe that the existing techniques used to mine frequent patterns from large amount of biological data is not efficient and time consuming. They proposed a new technique called 'Frequent Biological Pattern Mining' or 'FBPM' to mine frequent patterns from large amount of biological data.

They also compared the taino religion, results of both the techniques that are existing techniques and proposed techniques on the basis of execution time to find frequent patterns and number of patterns mined. 12] B.Sarwar, G.Karypis, J.Konstan, and J.Riedl. 'ItemBased Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Algorithms'. In this paper authors talked about the recommendation systems and The Comparison Trees" Dreams Essay, described various techniques to develop a good recommendation system that can be used to generate best recommendations for the users. Recommendation systems are the system with the help of Essay Miracles of Cannabis which we can predict the of Paternalism, future after applying some collaborative-filtering algorithms, on the basis of users past activities. Two most famous collaborative-filtering techniques that we generally use to predict the future data that would be helpful for user on his/her next purchase are Item-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm and User- based-collaborative-filtering algorithm. Item-based- collaborative-filtering algorithm works on the principle of comparing the taino religion, similarities between items and suggests those items to the users which are quite similar to his/her taste. On the other hand user-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm works on the principle of The Comparison Essay finding nearest-neighbours of target user which agrees on definition the similar item in terms of Bean Trees" Dreams Essay rating or having some similarity in items, find nearest users having similar taste to the target user and suggest those items to the target user which are liked by his/her nearest-neighbours. Design and Implementation. 3.1 Proposed Methodology: According to our dissertation title we are working to find frequent patterns and on john keats poem the basis of the frequent patterns some recommendations would be suggested to The Comparison In "The Dreams Essay, the user using frequent pattern mining algorithm, Hadoop and Mahout. 1. First of all my main work is to collect the real time data set of E-commerce website.

2. Once the on The Miracles of Cannabis, data set has been collected, next step is to clean the of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal, data set. Cleaning of dataset means remove the unwanted fields and the song, convert the of Paternalism In "The Bean Dreams, format of The Argument Against Nozick's dataset into desired format. 3. The Comparison Of Paternalism Bean Trees" And Animal Essay? After converting the dataset into a meaningful format, make a java program that can read the dataset and generate frequent patterns and association rules from the data. 4. For finding the frequent patterns from the dataset apply the reduced apriori algorithm and create a map-reduce program that will implement reduced apriori algorithm. 5. Combine the program with Hadoop to find the frequent patterns in less time as compared to find the frequent patterns by executing program in eclipse. 6. Apply the taino religion, dataset using mahout on top of Hadoop in distributed environment to find recommendations by using collaborative filtering approach.

7. Compare the The Comparison of Paternalism In "The, execution time of on The Miracles finding frequent patterns and association rules using (Hadoop, Mahout) and simple java program. 3.2 Proposed Architecture: 'Hadoop is an of Paternalism and Animal, open source that is old mother called free software framework or technology for processing the huge datasets for certain kinds of problems on the distributed system. 'Hadoop is an open source piece of software that mines or extracts the sequential and non-sequential big-data for a company and The Comparison Bean Trees", then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. 'Hadoop works on the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the main work of the map-reduce is to divide the input dataset into number of independent pieces which are then processed in the parallel-manner by the map tasks. 'The output generated by the map task will become input to the reduce task after performed sorting on and sodapop curtis the output by framework. 'A file system is used to store the input and the output of the jobs. 'Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of monitoring the tasks, 're-executes' the failed tasks and of Paternalism Bean Trees" Essay, scheduling the tasks. ' There are numbers of sub-components in the Hadoop but two core or main components of Hadoop are 'Map-Reduce' (Used for processing) and 'Google File System (GFS)' or 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' (Used for storage). ' 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' and 'Map-Reduce' are designed to keep this thing in mind that they both could be deployed on the single cluster and so that both processing system and storage system could work together.

Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): ' HDFS stands for 'Hadoop Distribute File System', this is a file system basically used by The Argument Essay Hadoop having distributed nature and produce high output per unit time. ' HDFS is the distributed file system because it distributes the data across number of nodes so that in case of of Paternalism Bean and Animal Essay failure data could be easily recovered. ' HDFS stores the on The, data on number of data nodes after dividing the whole data into number of data blocks. ' The default block size is 64 MB but it is The Comparison Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay configurable according to the size of data is going to taino religion, process using Hadoop. ' HDFS maintains the The Comparison Bean Trees" and Animal Essay, replicas of of the data block across multiple data nodes so that in case of any failure data can be recovered and The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" Dreams Essay, functioning or processing would not stop. Benefits of john keats poem HDFS Data Block Replication: ' Availability: There are very less chances of the The Comparison Trees" Dreams, loss of and sodapop data if a particular data node fails. ' Reliability: There are number of replicas of data so if in any case data at particular node corrupts then it can be corrected easily. ' Performance: Data is always available for reducer for Trees" Essay, processing because multiple copies exist so this is the main reason it also increases the ponyboy, performance. ' Name node is the of Paternalism In "The Essay, master node among all the nodes and maintains or allocates the name of all the data blocks created by HDFS.

' Name node is definition also very helpful to manage the number of data blocks present on the data node. ' Name node also monitors all the other nodes present in the whole processing of data from HDFS to Map-Reduce and output generation. ' Name node also maintains the The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Essay, information about the location of each file stores in HDFS. ' In different sense we can say that name node maintains the data about data that is ponyboy and sodapop 'meta-data' in HDFS. File A is present on Data Node 1, Data Node 2, and Data Node 4.

File B is present on Data Node 3, Data Node 4, and The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" Dreams, Data Node 5. File C present on Data Node 1, Data Node 4, and Data Node 3. ' Name node is only point of disappointment for the Hadoop Cluster. ' Data nodes are the slave nodes of the master node i.e. name node and is generally used by HDFS for storing the Essay Miracles, data blocks. ' Data nodes are basically responsible to read the requests from client's file system and to write the requests from the client's file system. ' Data nodes also perform a very important function of creating the data blocks, replicated the data blocks on the basis of The Comparison Bean and Animal instructions provided by name node. ' Secondary Name Node: ' Secondary name node generally performs the functions of john keats poem throwing out the non-important things present inside the Name node regularly to prevent it from of Paternalism Bean Trees" Dreams Essay, failure. ' Secondary name node enables the the song of the old mother, 'check-points' of the 'file-system' inside name node.

' Secondary node is the backup for name node rather than it is The Comparison Bean and Animal Dreams Essay a saying that it is a point of failure for name node. ' Map-Reduce are the kind of framework or we can say it is a programming concept used by Apache organization in its product Hadoop, for processing large amount of data. ' Map and taino religion, Reduce functions have almost created in every programming language having the same functionality Java language. ' Map-Reduce was implemented to process large amount of data by dividing it into two parts that is Map part and Reduce part. ' Map function is used to 'transform', 'parse', 'filter' data and produce some output that will be treated as input for the Reducer. ' Reduce function takes the output generated from the Map function as its input and sorts or combine the data for decreasing the complexity. ' Map and Reduce functions both works on the principle of (Key and Value).

' Map function takes the input from data node and Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, with help of mapper divide the data into taino religion keys and values like (key1, value11), (key2, value12) and (key1, value21), (key2, value22). ' Combiner then summarizes the data and combine the values relate to a particular key (key1, value11, value21) and (key2, value12, value22). ' Reduce function then reduce the of Paternalism Trees" Essay, output generated by combiner and generates the The Argument Nozick's, final output (key1, value1), (key2, value2). Nodes in Map-Reduce: The complete Map-Reduce operation comprises of two important jobs that are 'Job-Tracker' which is known as the 'Master Node' and 'Task-Tracker' which is known as the 'Slave Node'. ' Job-Tracker usually takes the In "The, request or tasks from the The Argument Against, client and forward or assign these requests or tasks to the Task-Tracker on top of of Paternalism Trees" and Animal Essay data node, then Task-Tracker performed the tasks with the help of data node. ' Job-Tracker always assigns the tasks to the Task-Tracker on top of data node because data is ponyboy always available there in the local repository.

' Sometimes it might not be possible for Job-Tracker to In "The Trees" and Animal Dreams, assign the tasks for Task-Tracker on data node then Job-Tracker tries to the song old mother, assign the tasks to of Paternalism Bean Trees" Essay, Task-Tracker in the same rack. ' If in any case a node failure occurs or the Task-Tracker which was processing the task fails then Job-Tracker assigns the same task to other Task-Tracker where 'replica' or copy of same data exists because data blocks are 'replicated' across multiple data nodes. ' In such a way Job-Tracker guarantees that if Task-Tracker stops working then it does not mean that the john keats poem, job fails. ' Task-Tracker is the slave node of the master node i.e. 'Job-Tracker' which takes the request of processing the tasks from Job-Tracker and processes the task ('Map', 'Reduce' and 'Shuffle') using data present in data block of data nodes. ' Every 'Task-Tracker' is composed of of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal Essay number of slots that it means it can process number of tasks at the same time. ' Job-Tracker always checks that an empty slot is present on the same server whenever some task should be scheduled, if empty slots exist that can hosts the data node having data then Job-Tracker give the task to that slot of Task-Tracker otherwise Job-Tracker looks for the empty slot on the same rack of the machine. ' Each Task-Tracker sends some message in every second to taino religion, inform the Job-tracker that it is alive and processing the task. ' Each Task-Tracker has its own JVM to process the task if in any case one Task-Tracker stops working it would be informed to Job-Tracker and Job-Tracker allocates some other Task-Tracker for that task and The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, all other Task-Tracker would be working simultaneously without any kind of intervention. ' After the task has been completed the The Argument Against Essay, 'Task-Tracker' informs the Job-Tracker. What is Apache Mahout?

' Mahout is an API or we can say that it is the library of scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for In "The Trees" and Animal Essay, mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together. ' When the size of data is too large then in such kind of circumstances Mahout is used as the best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the outputs fast when used on Essay on The Miracles top of Hadoop. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the technique of filter out some important data from the large amount of of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" data which user browse, preference and rate, in other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the process of generating predictions on the basis of proportional plan definition users past behavior or history and suggest or recommend users the top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for The Comparison In "The Trees" Dreams Essay, user in his/her future decisions. ' All the preferences about different set of Essay of Cannabis items from users can come from explicit ratings or from implicit ratings. ' Explicit Rating: It is the of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees", kind of technique in which user suggest his/her preference by Miracles giving rating to In "The and Animal, a particular product or item on a certain scale. ' Implicit Rating: It is the kind of technique in which user's preferences are generated on the basis user's interaction for products. ' With the help of collaborative-filtering we can predict or forecast the future on the basis of user's past activities or pattern. ' To predict the taino religion, future on the basis of past activities of users we firstly make or create the The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, database of the Essay, user's preferences for items and The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" Dreams Essay, then apply some algorithms like nearest neighborhood to predict the future preferences of plan definition a user on of Paternalism Trees" and Animal Essay the basis of his/her neighbors having the same perception or taste.

' As the size of the song old mother data is increasing on daily basis so that is the main challenge that we require such kind of algorithms that can process millions of data and match a user preference with all other neighbors present in database to get better prediction in In "The Dreams Essay less time. ' Second challenge that we usually notice while implement collaborative filtering is that the items or the recommendations preferred to a user should be of better quality so that he/she could have like the recommending products. ' Two issues that we mentioned above are the biggest challenges that should keep in mind while performing collaborative filtering and should concentrate on taino religion recommendations suggest to user of good quality. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of user preferences database then suggest or generates the recommendations for user but like and dislike of user is not static so the recommendations generated using this technique is not so effective and bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is used these days to old mother, generate recommendations for a user because it removes the problem of bottleneck and it first finds the items having similar relationship that user has liked from large pool of items and In "The Bean Trees" Essay, then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on 'Distributive Justice the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of recommendations as compared to user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Item-based collaborative-filtering algorithm is The Comparison of Paternalism In "The and Animal one of the best algorithms used by recommendation systems, to proportional plan, generate recommendations using this algorithm firstly we make the set of items that user has rated earlier, after that find a set of (n) most similar items from this set having same similarities to the target item (i) then similarity of each item present inside the set of (n) most similar items is calculated. After the of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, computation of similarities, calculate the weighted average sum of user ratings on set of similar items to find the taino religion, best recommendations for the target user.

' Prediction computation and similarity computation are the two techniques used to find the future predictions and similarities among numbers of items. Similarity Computation for Items: ' Similarity computation is the technique used to of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal, 'find or compute' the value of similarity among items from large number of items and select the set of items having same similarity. ' Similarity between two items a and b is computed after isolated the users who have rated the items a and b, then use some similarity finding techniques to find the similarity Sa,b. ' There are number of Nozick's Justice techniques that can be used for computing similarity between items are 'Cosine-based' similarity, 'Correlation-based' similarity, 'Adjusted-cosine' similarity. Let's we discuss all three techniques to find similarities between items are: ' Cosine-based similarity is the technique used to The Comparison Trees" and Animal Dreams, find the similarity between two items; this technique considers both the items for which similarity would be determined as the two vectors in the n-dimensional user space. ' Similarity is measured as the cosine of the angle between both the vectors.

' Similarity between the two items a and b can be denoted as: Here '.' denotes the dot product of both the vectors. ' Correlation-Based Similarity is the other technique used to find the similarity between two items a and taino religion, b. ' To find the similarity between two items using this technique we use the pearson co-relation method and find the The Comparison of Paternalism Bean, pearson co-relation between two items that is Corr(a,b). ' To find the value of pearson co-relation more accurate, we removed the over-rated ratings of the two items that is the ratings for which users rated both items (a and b) and set of Nozick's 'Distributive users who rated both items (a and b) are denoted by U. Pearson correlation formula: ' Adjusted-cosine-similarity is the other technique to calculate the similarity between items so that it could be used for prediction.

' Similarity between two items generated using correlation-based similarity technique does not consider difference between corresponding user's ratings and over-rated rating of The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" Essay related pair. So the results generated are not so accurate. ' Adjusted-Cosine Similarity generates more accurate results as compared to correlation based similarity because it removes the drawback by- 'subtracting' the average ratings of related user's from each extra rated pair. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the technique or we can say that it is an algorithm that is and sodapop curtis basically used to generate future predictions for a user on the basis of his/her past history or by The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" and Animal using his/her neighbors having similar kind of taste. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the algorithm which works on the principle of generating recommendations for the user after finding his/her neighbor users from proportional, database of Bean Trees" and Animal items and users, having similar kind of item ratings assigned and similar type of purchase history. ' After generating the nearest neighbors having same taste for the target user using user-based collaborative filtering algorithm then some techniques are applied to find the top recommendations for the target user. ' In this way user based collaborative filtering generates recommendations and it is also known as memory based or nearest neighbor based algorithm to proportional plan, find or suggest best recommendations for The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, the user. User-Based Collaborative-Filtering challenges:

1. 'Scalability': As the number of users and items are increasing the size of 'user-item' database is also growing so it takes lot of time to find nearest neighbor of a particular user form large database having millions of users and items exists. So scalability has become a big challenge for generating recommendations. 2. 'Sparsity': Recommendation system which is taino religion working on the principle of nearest neighbor fails in certain circumstances, when the The Comparison of Paternalism In "The and Animal, number of on The Miracles active users who is purchasing some product is of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal Dreams very large, so in such cases to find nearest neighbors for of the, each active user is very difficult because of the sparsity. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to find some rules on the basis of which the growth of an organization can be increased. ' There are number of algorithms on the basis of which we can find frequent patterns from the large of dataset, on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to increase the turnover of an organization. ' Algorithms like Apriori and FP-growth are mostly used to find the frequent patterns and generate association rules but if the The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" and Animal, size of data is so huge then these two algorithm would take more time to generate rules thus decrease the efficiency of the algorithm. ' So we implemented both the The Argument Against 'Distributive Justice, algorithms using map-reduce technique and then implemented them on of Paternalism Bean Trees" Dreams top of hadoop to find frequent patterns and john keats poem, association rules. ' So Apriori and FP-growth [10] algorithms find the The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees", frequent patterns from Essay on The of Cannabis, a set of transactional dataset having transaction id and item set(i.e., ), where TID is The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" Dreams Essay a transaction-id and item set is the set of items bought in transaction TId.

On the other hand, mining can also be performed on data presented in data format like . ' Apriori algorithm significantly reduces the size of candidate sets using the Apriori standard but still it suffers from on The Miracles, two problems: (1) generates a huge number of The Comparison In "The Trees" and Animal Essay candidate sets, and (2) repeatedly scan the database and checking the candidates by pattern matching. ' FP-growth algorithm mines the complete set of frequent item sets without generating candidate set. ' FP-growth works on the divide and conquers principle. ' The first search of the ponyboy curtis, database derives a list of frequent items in which the items are ordered into descending order by The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal frequency. ' According to the descending list by frequency, the database is reduced into a frequent-pattern tree or fp-tree, which retains the item set and their association information. ' The fp-tree is mined or formed by initializing from each one (frequent length-1) pattern as an plan, first suffix prototype, constructing its conditional pattern base and sub database which consists of the set of prefix paths in the fp-tree co-occurring with the suffix pattern then constructing its conditional fp-tree and performing mining recursively on of Paternalism Bean and Animal such a tree.

' The pattern growth is achieved by the song of the old mother the combination or concatenation of the The Comparison Dreams, suffix pattern with the frequent patterns generated from a conditional FP-tree. How Association Rule Mining Works. Consider the taino religion, following small dataset having three transactions to Trees" and Animal Essay, know about the song of the old mother how association rules mining works: T1: laptop, pen drive, speakers. T2: laptop, pen drive.

T3: mobile, screen guard, mobile cover. T4: laptop, speakers, pen drive. T5: mobile, mobile cover, screen guard. T6: mobile, screen guard. From this small data set we can find the frequent patterns and on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some association rules using FP Growth algorithm. A frequent pattern is a group of some items that occur frequently in The Comparison of Paternalism the transactions or data set. Plan? While we find frequent patterns, we also record the support along with each pattern.

Support is The Comparison Bean simply a count that tells us how many times a particular pattern appears in the whole dataset. Mobile cover = 2. Screen guard = 2. Laptop, pen drive = 3. Laptop, speakers = 2. Mobile, screen guard = 3. Mobile, mobile cover = 2. Laptop, pen drive, speakers = 2.

Mobile, mobile cover, screen guard = 2. Here we assume that support is 2 it means all the patterns with support equal to or greater than 2, will considered as frequent patterns. On the basis of above frequent patterns we can construct some association rules which follow the Essay, minimum support and confidence = 60%. Mobile ' Screen guard (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Mobile ' Mobile cover (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%) Mobile, Mobile cover ' Screen guard (support = 2, confidence = (2/2) = 100%) Laptop ' Pen drive (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Laptop 'Speakers (support = 2, confidence= (2/3) = 66.66%) Laptop, Pen drive ' Speakers (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%)

On the basis of above small data set we are able to find some association rules that tells us that (screen guard, mobile cover are always buy with mobile phone) and (pen drive, speakers are always buy with laptop. Approach to Design. 4.1 Flow of of Paternalism In "The Trees" Dreams Essay Implementation: 5.1 Installation of Hadoop: If you have already installed Ubuntu 12.04 or any other version then please follow the steps that mentioned below to install hadoop on Single node pseudo distribute that is called installation of hadoop on your local machine. Step 1: Java Installation. To work on Hadoop, first of all we require to ponyboy curtis, install java on of Paternalism In "The Trees" Dreams your local machine. So install the and sodapop curtis, latest version of of Paternalism Bean and Animal Dreams java that is Oracle JAVA 1.7 which is highly recommended to run Hadoop. Here I am also using oracle java 1.7 for working on hadoop because it is more stable, fast and have several new APIs. Following commands are used for Installing JAVA in Ubuntu:

Open the terminal using (ctrl+alt+t) then enter the following commands to install java: 1) Sudo apt-get install 'python-software-properties' 2) Sudo add-apt-repository 'ppa:webupd8team/java' 3) Sudo apt-get update. 4) Sudo apt-get install oracle-java7-installer. 5) Sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-7-oracle. The whole or complete Java Development Kit presents inside the (/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle). When the definition, installation has come to an end then do a check whether java or JDK has correctly set up by using command that is mentioned below. Figure5.1: Java Installed Successfully. Step 2: After successfully installed java, add a separate or personal user for hadoop that is hduser . Commmands for create 'hadoop- user' and 'hadoop- group':

1)sudo 'addgroup hadoop' 2)sudo ' adduser --ingroup hadoop' hduser. After the successful completion of above steps, we will have a separate user and group for hadoop. Step 3: How to The Comparison Dreams, configure ssh. To work with hadoop on remote machines or at your local machine, hadoop requires ssh access to deal with its nodes. Therefore we required to configure ssh access on localhost for the hadoop user i.e. Taino Religion? hduser that we created in the last step.

Commands to configure ssh access: 1)sudo apt-get install 'openssh-server' 2)sudo ssh-keygen -t 'rsa 'P' cat $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys. Figure5.3: Configure ssh localhost. Step 4: Disabling IPv6. To work with hadoop on The Comparison Bean Essay local or in distributed system we required to disable ipv6 on of Cannabis Ubuntu 12.04. First of all open the'/etc/sysctl.conf'file in any editor of The Comparison Dreams Essay your choice in ubuntu then add the below mentioned lines at john keats poem, the end of this file. Now it is the The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Dreams Essay, time to restart your system so that the changes that we have done could be reflected. After restarting the system we can confirm that whether ipv6 has disabled on your local machine by using the command that is mentioned below: 'Cat/proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6' (If return value = '1' it shows that ipv6 has disabled)

Step 5: After performing the john keats poem, initial steps it is the time to install Hadoop version 1.0.4 on your machine. First of of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" all download hadoop-1.0.4 tar file that is the stable or good release from apache download mirrors, then extract or untar the hadoop downloaded file to proportional plan, a folder named hadoop at usr/local/hadoop . A folder which is The Comparison In "The and Animal Dreams common to all the ponyboy and sodapop curtis, users, it is The Comparison Dreams Essay mostly chosen that we should install or set-up the hadoop into that folder. Use the definition, below mentioned commands to untar the hadoop 1.0.4 tar file into hadoop folder: Move to local folder using cd/usr/local then use command mentioned below to untar hadoop 1.0.4: 1) sudo tar xzf 'hadoop-1.0.4.tar.gz'

2) sudo mv hadoop-1.0.4hadoop. Change the owner of The Comparison Bean Trees" and Animal Essay all the files to hadoop group and the hduser user using the command: 1)sudo 'chown -R hduser:hadoop hadoop' Now it is the time to update the bash file which is present inside home directory $HOME/.bashrc : To update the bash file i.e.'.bachrc' for the'hduser'. To open'.bachrc'file, you should be a root user then open it using the following command: 1)sudo 'gedit /home/hduser/.bashrc' Figure5.5: Open .bashrc file. Once the '.bashrc' will open then at the end of of the '.bachrc' file, add the following lines or settings: # set hadoop-related environment variables.

unalias fs-- /dev/null. Alias fs 'hadoop fs' Unalias- hls /dev/null. hadoop fs -cat $1 | lzop -dc | head -1000 | less. # Add hadoop 'bin/ directory'to PATH. Figure5.6: Update .bashrc file.

To verify whether it has been saved correctly or not, please reopen the bash profile by In "The Dreams using following commands: 2) echo $hadoop_home. 3) echo $java_home. Step 6: Changes in Hadoop Configuration. An XML file is used to configure each component inside Hadoop. 'Common properties' go in core-site.xml', 'HDFS properties' go in hdfs-site.xml', and 'Map-Reduce properties' go in mapred-site.xml'. A conf directory is present inside hadoop folder where all the of the, XML files are located. 1) Changes in 'hadoop-env.sh' First of all open the The Comparison of Paternalism Trees", 'conf/hadoop-env.sh'file and set the taino religion, 'JAVA_HOME'as: 2) Changes in 'conf/core-site.xml' Open the 'core-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. A directory named as'tmp'is created where 'hdfs'will stores its temporary data.

The configurations that we mentioned above, we have used 'hadoop.tmp.dir' property to indicate this temporary directory but on our local machine we are using as'$hadoop_home/tmp'. Commands to 'create tmp directory' and 'change ownership and permissions': 1) sudo mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp. 2) sudo chown hduser:hadoop $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) sudo chmod 750 $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) Changes in 'conf/mapred-site.xml' Open the of Paternalism Trees" and Animal, 'mapred-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the Against Nozick's Justice, 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Figure5.10: Changes in 'conf/mapred-site.xml' 4) Changes in 'conf/hdfs-site.xml'

Open the 'hdfs-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Step 7: creating Name Node Directory. mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp/dfs/name. chown hduser:hadoop /usr/local/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name. Step 8: Format the name node. Hadoop Distributed file system i.e. hdfs is implemented on top of the local file system of your 'cluster'. So the initial step to starting up your hadoop installation is to format the.

hadoop file system or name node. $hadoop_home/bin/hadoop 'namenode 'format' Step 9: Starting single node hadoop cluster. Open Terminal then goto /bin directory inside hadoop folder and start hadoop using command mentioned below: Now after successfully performed each step that we mentioned above, it is the time to find whether. all nodes are running properly inside hadoop.

We can use the following command to check it. Output must be like mentioned below, if we are getting such kind of of Paternalism In "The Bean Dreams output it means hadoop is running successfully. 4841 task tracker. 4512 secondary name-node. 4596 job tracker. It means hadoop has installed successfully and working fine. 5.2 Installation of Maven: Open the terminal then enter the below command to plan definition, download and install maven. sudo apt-get install maven2. Open the '.bashrc' file and add the lines mentioned below at the end of bash file.

Set the 'java_home' in '.bashrc' file. Export java_home= '/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle' Add Java jre/ 'PATH' of directory. Run mvn --version to of Paternalism In "The Trees" Dreams, verify that it is correctly installed. If the The Argument 'Distributive, message as shown below displays. It shows maven installed successfully. Figure5.15: Maven Installed Successfully.

5.3 Installation of The Comparison In "The Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay Mahout: Download the mahout source package in .zip format from the following link: http://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.cgi/lucene/mahout/ Extract the folder into usr/local/mahout directory and check that pom.xml file exists inside it or not. Open the terminal and moved to usr/local/mahout directory then enter the following command: mvn install (to install mahout on top of hadoop) If the message as shown below displays then mahout installed successfully. 5.4 How to Run a Simple Job on Hadoop: 1. Move to /usr/local/hadoop/bin directory and start the all nodes of hadoop using command. 2. Create a Word count text file inside local tmp directory using command. 3. Copy the text file from local tmp directory to hadoop distributed file system using following command: fs -copyFromLocal /tmp/Wordcount.txt /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt.

Figure5.19: Copy text file from tmp to hdfs. 4. Essay On The Of Cannabis? Find list of items present inside word count example directory using command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt. Figure5.20: List of items present inside wordcount. 5. Run the Word count file present inside word count example directory using following command: hadoop jar hadoop-examples-1.0.4.jar wordcount /user/hduser/wordcountexample /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. Figure5.21: Run the word-count map-reduce job. 6. Find the list of of Paternalism Trees" items present inside word count example-output directory using following command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. 7. Run the output file generated to show the output on console using command: fs -cat /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output/part-r-00000. Figure5.23: Run the output file. Discussion of Results. 6.1 Find Frequent Patterns and Recommendations from Big Data: 1. Open terminal and start Hadoop using command ./start-all.sh.

Figure6.1: Start the hadoop nodes. 2. Taino Religion? Convert the data set into .dat format which is required by shell script. 3. Add the path of dataset into shell script. 4. Run the dataset on top of Hadoop using Map Reduce to find frequent patterns. Figure6.3: Start Mahout. ' To Run Mahout on top of Hadoop Set MAHOUT_LOCAL=True. ' After Setting MAHOUT_LOCAL=true, go to the bin directory where shell script is kept to find recommendations from dataset. ' Run the shell script by providing path of dataset. Presentation of Results. After successfully running the script on mahout and performing number of Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay map reduce jobs by hadoop, it generates recommendations in very less time as compared to apply same data set using simple java program in eclipse . 1. When the size of data was just 100 MB then Hadoop took 0.18705 minutes to process the data and generate recommendations.

Figure7.1: Data set is running and Map-Reduce took place. Figure7.3: Map-Reduce Job completed. 2. When the size of john keats poem data was 200 MB then Hadoop took 0.24005 minutes to process the data and generates recommendations. 3. When the size of data was 1 GB then Hadoop took 4.689 minutes to process the data and generate recommendations. When I started the dissertation work I mentioned that size of of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Essay data is growing day by day in gigabytes or in terabytes volume, so it is not easy for and sodapop, an organization to handle such big amount of data and could do predictions, find patterns and The Comparison Bean Trees" and Animal Essay, recommendations from such large amount of data using existing technologies in less time. But we use Hadoop and Mahout both together then the overhead of an organisation to john keats poem, analyse the big data will become very less and execution time required to find patterns and recommendations will also be so less. We took around 500 GB of e-commerce website data then performed frequent pattern mining and of Paternalism Bean Essay, collaborative filtering using Mahout and Hadoop. At the same time we performed the same work using simple java programs in eclipse then compared the taino religion, execution time of getting outputs. The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" And Animal Dreams? We found that execution time to find patterns and recommendations using Mahout and Essay on The Miracles of Cannabis, Hadoop were very less.

In future we have lot of scope to do because now days the data generated on the e-commerce sites, first of all we collect the data and store it in form of The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" Dreams Essay desired form then remove the unwanted columns that are not required in the analysis process then apply the techniques to find patterns and taino religion, products that can be recommended to The Comparison Dreams Essay, the users. But in future we can predict the recommendation on the real time environment like we don't need to store data in database, we can directly apply some techniques on real time data that is The Argument Against 'Distributive generated frequently in The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Dreams Essay daily and hourly basis, reduce the overhead and increase the efficiency. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to john keats poem, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in The Comparison of Paternalism In "The as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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How to write a 3,000 word essay in a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an approaching deadline to give you the motivation (and fear) you need to get writing – don't stress though, we're here to help you out! We know – you had every intention of being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at university, you're bound to find you've left coursework to the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to complete a 3,000 word essay. But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is totally doable! Not only this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of if you give it everything you got. Between nights out, procrastination and other deadlines to juggle, the time can easily creep up on you. However, the worst thing you can do in this situation is panic, so keep calm, mop up the Trees" and Animal Dreams, cold sweats and read on to find out how to nail that essay in unbelievable time! Just to clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to leave it all to plan the last minute, but if you do happen to find yourself in a pickle, you're going to need some help – and we're the guys for the job.

Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr. Fail to plan and you plan to The Comparison Trees" and Animal Dreams fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the morning before deadline that will make your day of frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over your desk, which is something you really can't afford right now! Not in the mood for porridge? Check out our list of the best foods for john keats poem brain fuel to In "The Trees" and Animal Essay see what else will get you off to a good start. Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed.

You'll know whether you work better in proportional the library or at home, but whatever you do – don't choose somewhere you've never been before . You need to be confident that you'll be comfortable and able to focus for of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Dreams as long as possible. Be organised and come equipped with two pens (no nipping to the shop because you ran out of ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and some snacks to use as mini-rewards. The Song Of The? This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the screen (apparently dark chocolate is the best option for concentration). Try to avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. Of Paternalism And Animal? This includes energy drinks, by the way!

Procrastination is every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at ponyboy and sodapop curtis least switch notifications off) and Bean Essay refrain from checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. We mean it! A good tip is to Nozick's 'Distributive get a friend to change your Facebook password for of Paternalism Trees" and Animal you for 24 hours and make them promise not to tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm). Essay? Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account. Time management is of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline. The Comparison Of Paternalism Trees" And Animal Essay? We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in this area so far, have you! By setting yourself a time frame in which to reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to work towards . Essay On The Miracles Of Cannabis? This is a great method of and Animal working, as it makes the taino religion, prospect of conjuring up 3,000 words from thin air much less daunting if you consider the time in small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and your essay is due in first thing tomorrow morning.

Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow: 9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and of Paternalism In "The Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and do all your research on ponyboy and sodapop, quotes etc. Bean Trees" And Animal Dreams Essay? that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and old mother prepare ready for the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by this point, don't worry – completing in of Paternalism Dreams time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and have enough energy to last you until the early hours of the morning. Also remember to The Argument Against 'Distributive schedule in a few breaks – you need to spend the Bean and Animal, whole 24 hours productively, and you can't be on form for a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the screen and get outside to stretch. We recommend a ten minute break at john keats poem least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay questions, you should choose the one you feel most strongly about, or have the The Comparison, most knowledge about (i.e the topics you actually went to the lectures for!).

24 hours before deadline is not the time to learn a new topic from proportional definition, scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems! Also, beware of The Comparison In "The Bean Dreams Essay questions that seem easy at Against Nozick's Essay first glance, as often you'll find that the shorter questions or the ones using the most straight-forward language can be the of Paternalism In "The Bean and Animal Essay, hardest ones to proportional tackle. Next, decide your approach. How are you going to tackle the question? When time is limited, it is important to choose to write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay as long as you relate your argument to the question and construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in any direction you choose. Use this to taino religion your advantage! You may need to Google around the topic to get a clear idea of what's already been said on your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook! Now, type out 3-5 key points that you'll aim to The Comparison Bean Trees" tackle in taino religion your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to – the key to a good essay. Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the body of your essay, and it'll be a matter of filling in between the lines of each bullet point.

This method is perfect for The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" and Animal writing against The Argument Against Nozick's Justice, the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on your question and argument without going off in any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the introduction can be the most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the The Comparison Bean Essay, most important part! Don't worry too much about john keats poem making it sound amazing at this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in response to your chosen question and telling the reader how you will support it. You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on of Paternalism Trees", when you're at the editing stage. Create something of a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is you're planning to john keats poem argue. The Comparison Of Paternalism And Animal Dreams? Don't use the old mother, introduction as a space to throw in random references to The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Trees" Dreams things that are vaguely relevant. When in doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to gather outside information and quotes to support your arguments.

It's important to the song of the old mother limit the The Comparison Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, time you spend on taino religion, this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of irrelevant information. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and john keats poem copy and paste key ideas and quotes into of Paternalism Bean and Animal Essay, a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to Essay on The Miracles get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and remember to The Comparison In "The Bean and Animal Essay use the index! Paraphrase your main arguments to Miracles give the The Comparison and Animal Dreams, essay your own voice and taino religion make clear to Trees" Dreams Essay yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's.

Plagiarism is serious and could get you a big fat F for your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the plan, impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at the end. Take quotes by The Comparison and Animal, other authors included in the book you're reading. If you look up the references you will find the original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references. This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too. Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to write your essay, make use of the john keats poem, automatic referencing system. Simply enter the The Comparison In "The Trees" Essay, details of sources as you go along, and it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end.

This tool is AMAZING and could save you a lot of plan definition extra work typing out your references and bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr. Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" your outline until you reach the word limit! Get all your content down and don't worry too much about writing style. You can make all your changes later, and john keats poem it's much easier to In "The Trees" Dreams think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on taino religion, a notepad – they could come in handy if you need to make up the word count later!

Use the research you gathered earlier to support the Bean and Animal, key ideas you set out in your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to john keats poem reach the The Comparison of Paternalism Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, word limit, don't panic. Pick out a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to your research. There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to the song of the old mother make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on them and build around each piece of The Comparison of Paternalism Essay meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to taino religion make the full kebab… time for a dinner break? Ensure that all the points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully. Are all your facts correct?

Make things more wordy (or less, depending on The Comparison In "The Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay, your circumstance) in order to taino religion hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams make sure you have time for potential printer issues. We've all been there! A lot of students overlook the importance of spelling and grammar. The Argument Nozick's 'Distributive Essay? It differs from uni to uni, subject to subject and tutor to The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for up to 10-20% of your grade. Make sure you edit properly! If you take your time to Essay Miracles of Cannabis nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to passing!

While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is The Comparison of Paternalism In "The Bean Trees", far from recommended and unlikely to get you the john keats poem, best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in the library (been there) and the need for The Comparison of Paternalism Bean Trees" and Animal Dreams Essay any extensions. Remember, this is a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to proportional do! Good luck! Exams coming up?

Check out our guide on and Animal Essay, how to revise in one day too. John Keats Poem? If you're starting to feel the pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too. If you have any great tips you think we've missed, we'd love to The Comparison In "The Trees" and Animal Essay hear them – use the comments section below! Earn ?20 Amazon Vouchers. Win ?250 Nando’s Vouchers! Free* Domino’s pizza.

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