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Bitte bestellen Sie per esther Mail oder Fax (0316/72 00 51). Greek! Georg Pichler / Heimo Halbrainer (Hg.) : Camaradas. Esther! Osterreicherinnen und Osterreicher im Spanischen Burgerkrieg 1936–1939. Clouds! 348 S. Esther Greenwood! u. William Essay! zahlr. Esther! Farbfotos und Dokumenten. Name Lucy! 80 Jahre nach Beginn des Spanischen Burgerkriegs unternimmt das Buch den Versuch, eine Leerstelle im sozialen Gedachtnis Osterreichs zu fullen und aus einer interdisziplinaren Perspektive uber die Teilnahme der rund 1.400 Osterreicher und Osterreicherinnen nachzudenken. Esther Greenwood! Neue Erkenntnisse in clouds der internationalen Aufarbeitung des Themenbereichs, die Offnung russischer Archive und die jungsten Forschungsergebnisse zur osterreichischen Geschichte der drei?iger und vierziger Jahre erlauben es, einen neuen Blick auf das Thema zu werfen. Greenwood! Im Rahmen der gedachtnispolitischen Debatte um den Stellenwert des Burgerkriegs in name lucy der spanischen und europaischen Geschichte werden Themenkomplexe wie die kunstlerische und literarische Verarbeitung, der Beitrag der Frauen, Ubersetzen und Dolmetschen, ideologische Aspekte innerhalb der Internationalen Brigaden oder die Teilnahme von Osterreichern auf Seiten der aufstandischen Generale behandelt. Mit Beitragen von Werner Abel, Benito Bermejo, Gunter Eisenhut, Linda Erker, Irene Filip, Joachim Gatterer, Andre Getreuer-Kostrouch, Erich Hackl, Heimo Halbrainer, Ernest Kostrouch, Christoph Kugler, Jakob Matscheko, Barry McLoughlin, Reinhard Muller, Georg Pichler, Karl Wimmler, Michaela Wolf. Esther! Frank Stern: Filmische Versionen. Clouds! Deutsch-osterreichisch-judische Metamorphosen im israelischen Kino (=Vorlesungen des Centrums fur Judische Studien. Greenwood! 11), Geb., 96 Seiten.
ISBN 978-3-902542-60-1, CLIO: Graz 2017. Of Thomas Jefferson Essay! Eine der ungeschriebenen Geschichten der zionistischen Migration und der Flucht aus dem Machtbereich der NS-Herrschaft ist die Entwicklung des judischen und israelischen Films seit den 1920er Jahren. Esther! Gab es seit dem Ersten Weltkrieg zahlreiche dokumentarische Versuche, den Aufbaus des Jishuvs, der judischen Ansiedlung in influences Palastina mit filmischen Mitteln festzuhalten und fur ein judisches und nichtjudisches Publikum in greenwood Europa und in quiet Nordamerika sichtbar zu machen, so wurden erst seit den 1930er Jahren Spielfilme produziert. Esther Greenwood! Lange vor der Grundung des Staates Israel gab es einen judischen, einen israelischen Film, der sich mit den Erfahrungen der Pioniere, den Problemen im Zusammenleben von Menschen unterschiedlicher Herkunft, mit dem Verhaltnis von Mensch und Natur, mit ethischen Fragen und den Erinnerungen der aus Europa Geflohenen befasste. Clouds! In diesen Filmproduktionen spielten hinter und vor der Kamera die Einwanderer aus Mitteleuropa, aus Deutschland und aus Osterreich eine besondere Rolle. In der formativen Periode des israelischen Films waren es vor allem die filmischen Erfahrungen, insbesondere der vertriebenen FilmkunstlerInnen, die dazu fuhrten, dass der Begriff Jeckenoa entstand – eine Verbindung von Jekkes, deutschsprachigen Juden, und Kolnoa – hebraisch fur Kino.
Karl Wimmler: Mein Graz. Esther! Ein Jahrhundert in walmart Bruchstucken. Greenwood! Geb. Not So Quiet Western! 256 Seiten, Karl Wimmler umkreist, was sein Graz ausmacht. Esther Greenwood! Ausgehend von Fund- und Bruchstucken zwischen 1913 und 2017 erzahlt er von einem so noch nicht beschriebenen Graz – von Schriftstellern, Kunstlerinnen, Verbrechern, Kriegern, Opfern; von Geehrten und Vergessenen, von ersten Autos und den ersten Politessen, von Einwanderinnen und Fluchtlingen, Medizin und Kultur, Widerstand und Anpassung.
Kurt Schubert : Erlebte Geschichte. The Death Man Summary! Mit Beitragen von Bernhard Dolna und Eva Schubert. Greenwood! Geb. 200 Seiten mit zahlreichen Abb. Mitchell: A Prominent Essay! Im Jahr 2000 brachte Kurt Schubert seine Erinnerungen zu Papier.
Geb. Esther! 156 Seiten. Influences On Learning! Gerda Eislers Erinnerungen spannen den Bogen von ihrer ersten Auswanderung nach Palastina 1933 bis in esther die jungste Vergangenheit. The Death Of A! So erlebt man aus der Perspektive der sechsjahrigen Gerda, wie sie 1933 mit ihren Eltern und ihrem Bruder von Graz nach Tel Aviv zieht und die Familie versucht, in esther der Fremde Fu? zu fassen. Als 1936 der arabische Aufstand beginnt und Gerdas Schule angegriffen wird, entschlie?t sich die Familie, wieder nach Graz zuruckzukehren. Biography Of Thomas Essay! Hier erlebt Gerda die Machtubernahme der Nazis. Esther Greenwood! Von den Nationalsozialisten zur Ausreise gezwungen, flieht Gerda mit ihren Eltern und ihrem Bruder 1939 erneut nach Palastina. Name Lucy! Andere Teile der Familie konnen in greenwood die USA, nach Schweden oder Gro?britannien fliehen. William Billy Essay! Einige Familienmitglieder wollen oder konnen Graz nicht verlassen und werden schlie?lich in esther die Vernichtungslager deportiert. In Palastina heiratet Gerda einen Grazer, dient im Unabhangigkeitskrieg und beginnt ein neues Leben, ehe sie mit ihrem Mann 1969 nach Deutschland zieht.
Immer wieder kehrt sie in of a man summary den folgenden Jahren nach Graz und Tel Aviv zuruck, zwei Orte, die ganz wesentlich ihr Leben bestimmten. Greenwood! Neben der autobiografischen Geschichte von Gerda Eisler werden auch die Geschichten der judischen Familien Engel, Silber und Eisler in influences Graz vom Beginn des 20. Esther Greenwood! Jahrhunderts bis zur Verfolgung, „Arisierung“, Vertreibung und Ermordung einzelner Familienangehoriger nachgezeichnet. Name Lucy! Richard Zach : Den anderen Weg gegangen. Esther Greenwood! Ausgewahlte Gedichte. Quiet On The Western Front! Hg. Greenwood! und mit einem Nachwort von Karl Wimmler. On Learning! Geb. 168 Seiten.
In einem aus der Haft geschmuggelten Kassiber schrieb der Grazer Lehrer und Autor Richard Zach im Janner 1942: Ich bin den anderen Weg gegangen. Esther! / Verzeiht – es tut mir gar nicht leid, /obwohl es elend steht zur Zeit. Influences! – / Wird keiner um sein Leben bangen, // der wei?, wozu er es verwendet, / bedachte, was sein Glaube wiegt. Esther! / Er hat am Ende doch gesiegt, / und wenn er auf der Richtstatt endet! Der 1919 in name lucy Graz geborene Richard Zach besuchte zwischen 1934 und 1938 die Bundeslehrerbildungsanstalt am Hasnerplatz. Esther! In diese Jahre fielen auch seine ersten literarischen Texte und Widerstandsaktivitaten. Walmart! Ab Herbst 1940 gab die Widerstandsgruppe um ihn die Flugschrift „Der Rote Sto?trupp“ heraus. Greenwood! Am 31. Oktober 1941 wurde er gemeinsam mit anderen „wegen Verdachts, kommunistische Parolen angeschmiert zu haben“ festgenommen und am 17. Of Thomas! August 1942 im Alter von nur 23 Jahren vom Reichskriegsgericht in greenwood Berlin zum Tode verurteilt. Greek Goddess Of Sun! In Haft verfasste Zach Hunderte Gedichte, die teilweise auf abenteuerliche Weise aus der Zelle geschmuggelt wurden. Esther Greenwood! 75 Jahre nach der Verurteilung zum Tode bringen wir ihn mit einer Auswahl an name lucy Gedichten wieder in greenwood Erinnerung. Not So Quiet! Richard Zachs Gedichte sind unerlasslich, weil sich in esther ihnen die Umrisse eines anderen Osterreich abzeichnen, eines tapferen, gro?herzigen, das um Zusammenschluss bemuht ist, nicht um Vereinzelung, wo auch Platz ist fur Verzweiflung, die sich nicht mit dem Gefuhl von Vergeblichkeit paart. Of A! Das ist auch der Grund, warum wir Richard Zachs Gedichte lesen sollen: uns zu starken, nicht aufzugeben.
Erich Hackl. Esther Greenwood! Heimo Halbrainer : Das kurze Leben des Karl Drews zwischen Kunst, Literatur und Politik. Not So Quiet Front! Geb., ca. Greenwood! 280 Seiten. Greek Goddess! Weitere Neuerscheinungen des CLIO Verlags. Esther Greenwood! Bitte bestellen Sie per influences Mail oder Fax (0316/72 00 51).
Ali Ozbas, Joachim Hainzl, Handan Ozbas (Hg.): 50 Jahre jugoslawische Gastarbeit in esther Osterreich . Quiet Western! CLIO: Graz 2016, 240 Seiten. Esther! Mit dem Anwerbeabkommen 1966 wurde damit begonnen, gezielt Arbeitskrafte aus Jugoslawien anzuwerben. Aristophanes Clouds! Das Buch dokumentiert diese Geschichte und bettet sie ein in esther historische Analysen. The Death Of A! Dabei werden Hintergrunde und Diskurse, Strukturen, Akteurinnen/Akteure und deren Motive ebenso behandelt wie noch heute wirksame Zuschreibungen und Reduktionen etwa im Balkanismus in greenwood der Popularmusik oder in influences on learning Ausstellungskonzepten. Esther Greenwood! Zudem gewahrt das Buch Einblicke in aristophanes die Arbeits- und Lebensbedingungen der jugoslawischen Arbeitsmigrantinnen und -migranten, wobei speziell die Migration von Frauen und die Schwierigkeiten bei der Betreuung und Bildung der Kinder behandelt wird. Esther! Indem dieses Buch einiges davon erzahlt, was war, ist es ein Beitrag zur Anerkennung der Realitaten ehemaliger „Gastarbeiter“ und „Gastarbeiterinnen“ als integrativer Teil der osterreichischen Nachkriegsgeschichte. Aristophanes Clouds! Alice Penkala : Schokolade fur das Afrika-Corps. Kommentiert und mit einer Einleitung von Nadine Dobler und einem biografischen Essay von Heimo Halbrainer. Esther Greenwood! Hrsg.: Heimo Halbrainer, Ursula Seeber, Veronika Zwerger.
272 S. Not So Quiet On The Western Front! geb., CLIO: Graz 2016. Esther Greenwood! Tanger: Internationale Zone. The Death Hired Man Summary! Seit 1923 war die marokkanische Hafenstadt neutrales Territorium, beruhmt-beruchtigt fur den freizugigen Umgang mit Geld, Sex und Drogen. Esther! Anfang der 1940er Jahre setzt die Romanhandlung ein. Vordergrundig handelt es sich um eine Schiebergeschichte, die Beschaffung eines riesigen Postens Schokolade fur das Deutsche Afrika-Corps, das an quiet on the western front den benachbarten Kriegsschauplatzen im Einsatz war. Esther Greenwood! Die Personen, die an of Thomas Jefferson Essay dem Coup „mitnaschen“ wollen, sind satirisch uberzeichnete Prototypen der damaligen Gesellschaft Tangers: der judisch-marokkanische Handler; der stumpfsinnnige deutsche Generalkonsul, der padophile preu?ische Beamte; die britische Konsulatssekretarin, die sich von einem polnischen Emigranten aushalten la?t; dessen nervige Mutter; der Geheimdienstoffizier, der selbst ein Geheimnis hat; der drogensuchtige spanische Informant; der franzosische Doppelagent; die schwedische Aussteigerin mit den zerplatzten Lebenstraumen. Esther! Mitten in aristophanes diesem Netzwerk aus Gier und Intrige steht ein Fluchtlingspaar aus Wien.
Die Geschichte entwickelt sich in esther greenwood 32 Momentaufnahmen, schwungvoll und ironisch erzahlt, sie bleibt bis zum Schlu? spannend. Of Thomas Jefferson Essay! Alice Penkala gelingt ein psychologisch scharf gearbeitetes Gesellschaftsportrat ihres Zufluchtslandes Marokko. Esther! Erstmals erscheint jetzt dieses Exilwerk als Buch. Mitchell: A Prominent Figure Of American! Ernst Fischer: Neue Kunst und neue Menschen. Esther Greenwood! Literarische und essayistische Texte aus seinen Grazer Jahren (1918–1927).
Hrsg. Name Lucy! und mit einem Nachwort von Jurgen Egyptien. 400 S., geb., CLIO: Graz 2016. Esther Greenwood! Der Band bietet eine Auswahl aus dem fruhen Schaffen des osterreichischen Politikers, Schriftstellers, Kultur- und Kunsttheoretikers Ernst Fischer (1899-1972) und stellt ihn als vielseitigen Autor vor, der sich in William Mitchell: Figure Aviation Essay seinen Anfangen sowohl als Erzahler, Dramatiker und Lyriker wie auch als Kunstkritiker, Kulturtheoretiker und politischer Publizist zu profilieren versuchte. Greenwood! Die Textbeispiele dokumentieren den Prozess von einem antiburgerlichen, anarchischen Aufbegehren gegen die geistige Enge der Provinz, das noch ganz im Zeichen einer nietzscheanisch inspirierten Revolte steht, bis hin zur Entwicklung einer bewussten politischen Parteinahme fur die Arbeiterklasse auf der Basis eines emphatisch interpretierten Marxismus. Name Lucy! Die literarischen Texte bilden zugleich ein interessantes Beispiel fur die spezifische Spielart eines osterreichischen Expressionismus beziehungsweise der Kombination expressionistischer Schreibverfahren mit anderen (nationalliterarischen) Traditionslinien.
Ein besonderer Stellenwert kommt dabei der Edition von umfangreichen Passagen aus Fischers ungedrucktem Drama Das Schwert des Attila und seinem von ihm selbst fur verschollen erklarten Roman So kann man nicht leben zu. Greenwood! Gerade letzterer besitzt einen erheblichen zeitgeschichtlichen Wert, da er in Billy Figure Essay hohem Ma?e als Schlusselroman uber das Graz der ersten Halfte der 1920er Jahre gelesen werden kann. Er liefert zum einen die Diagnose der politisch-moralischen Krise der Nachkriegszeit und unterzieht zum anderen die eigene antiburgerliche Attitude und das Milieu eines realitatsfernen Kunstlertums einer scharfen Selbstkritik.
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Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo. Latter-day Saints believe that monogamy—the marriage of one man and one woman—is the greenwood Lord’s standing law of marriage. 1 In biblical times, the hired man summary Lord commanded some of His people to practice plural marriage—the marriage of one man and more than one woman. 2 Some early members of esther The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also received and obeyed this commandment given through God’s prophets. After receiving a revelation commanding him to name lucy practice plural marriage, Joseph Smith married multiple wives and introduced the practice to close associates. This principle was among the most challenging aspects of the greenwood Restoration—for Joseph personally and for other Church members. Plural marriage tested faith and provoked controversy and opposition.
Few Latter-day Saints initially welcomed the restoration of on learning a biblical practice entirely foreign to their sensibilities. But many later testified of powerful spiritual experiences that helped them overcome their hesitation and gave them courage to accept this practice. Although the Lord commanded the adoption—and later the cessation—of plural marriage in the latter days, He did not give exact instructions on how to obey the commandment. Significant social and cultural changes often include misunderstandings and greenwood difficulties. Of A Hired Man Summary. Church leaders and greenwood members experienced these challenges as they heeded the command to practice plural marriage and again later as they worked to discontinue it after Church President Wilford Woodruff issued an inspired statement known as the name lucy Manifesto in 1890, which led to the end of plural marriage in the Church. Through it all, Church leaders and members sought to follow God’s will. Many details about the esther greenwood early practice of Billy Mitchell: Figure Essay plural marriage are unknown.
Plural marriage was introduced among the early Saints incrementally, and participants were asked to esther greenwood keep their actions confidential. They did not discuss their experiences publicly or in writing until after the walmart hr department Latter-day Saints had moved to Utah and Church leaders had publicly acknowledged the esther greenwood practice. The historical record of early plural marriage is therefore thin: few records of the time provide details, and later reminiscences are not always reliable. Some ambiguity will always accompany our knowledge about aristophanes this issue. Esther Greenwood. Like the participants, we “see through a glass, darkly” and are asked to walk by not so quiet on the faith. Esther. 3. The Beginnings of Plural Marriage in the Church. The revelation on plural marriage was not written down until 1843, but its early verses suggest that part of not so quiet front it emerged from esther Joseph Smith’s study of the name lucy Old Testament in 1831. People who knew Joseph well later stated he received the revelation about that time.
4 The revelation, recorded in Doctrine and Covenants 132, states that Joseph prayed to esther greenwood know why God justified Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, and Solomon in influences, having many wives. The Lord responded that He had commanded them to enter into the practice. 5. Latter-day Saints understood that they were living in the latter days, in what the revelations called the “dispensation of the esther greenwood fulness of times.” 6 Ancient principles—such as prophets, priesthood, and temples—would be restored to the earth. Walmart. Plural marriage was one of those ancient principles. Polygamy had been permitted for millennia in many cultures and religions, but, with few exceptions, was rejected in Western cultures. 7 In Joseph Smith’s time, monogamy was the only legal form of marriage in the United States. Joseph knew the greenwood practice of Of American Aviation Essay plural marriage would stir up public ire. After receiving the commandment, he taught a few associates about it, but he did not spread this teaching widely in the 1830s. 8.
When God commands a difficult task, He sometimes sends additional messengers to encourage His people to obey. Consistent with this pattern, Joseph told associates that an angel appeared to him three times between 1834 and 1842 and commanded him to proceed with plural marriage when he hesitated to move forward. During the third and final appearance, the angel came with a drawn sword, threatening Joseph with destruction unless he went forward and obeyed the commandment fully. 9. Fragmentary evidence suggests that Joseph Smith acted on esther the angel’s first command by aristophanes clouds marrying a plural wife, Fanny Alger, in Kirtland, Ohio, in esther, the mid-1830s. Several Latter-day Saints who had lived in Kirtland reported decades later that Joseph Smith had married Alger, who lived and worked in the Smith household, after he had obtained her consent and that of aristophanes her parents. 10 Little is known about this marriage, and nothing is known about the conversations between Joseph and esther Emma regarding Alger. After the marriage with Alger ended in separation, Joseph seems to have set the clouds subject of plural marriage aside until after the Church moved to esther Nauvoo, Illinois. Plural Marriage and Eternal Marriage.
The same revelation that taught of aristophanes clouds plural marriage was part of esther a larger revelation given to Joseph Smith—that marriage could last beyond death and that eternal marriage was essential to Mitchell: A Prominent inheriting the fulness that God desires for His children. Esther. As early as 1840, Joseph Smith privately taught Apostle Parley P. Pratt that the William Billy Figure Of American “heavenly order” allowed Pratt and his wife to be together “for time and esther greenwood all eternity.” 11 Joseph also taught that men like Pratt—who had remarried following the death of his first wife—could be married (or sealed) to A Prominent Of American Aviation their wives for eternity, under the proper conditions. 12. The sealing of husband and wife for eternity was made possible by esther greenwood the restoration of priesthood keys and ordinances. On April 3, 1836, the Old Testament prophet Elijah appeared to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery in the Kirtland Temple and restored the priesthood keys necessary to perform ordinances for the living and the dead, including sealing families together. 13 Marriages performed by priesthood authority could link loved ones to each other for eternity, on condition of righteousness; marriages performed without this authority would end at death. 14. Marriage performed by priesthood authority meant that the clouds procreation of esther greenwood children and perpetuation of families would continue into the eternities. Joseph Smith’s revelation on marriage declared that the “continuation of the seeds forever and ever” helped to fulfill God’s purposes for His children. 15 This promise was given to all couples who were married by priesthood authority and were faithful to their covenants.
For much of Western history, family “interest”—economic, political, and social considerations—dominated the choice of spouse. Parents had the Billy Mitchell: Of American power to arrange marriages or forestall unions of which they disapproved. By the late 1700s, romance and personal choice began to rival these traditional motives and practices. 16 By Joseph Smith’s time, many couples insisted on marrying for love, as he and Emma did when they eloped against esther her parents’ wishes. Latter-day Saints’ motives for plural marriage were often more religious than economic or romantic.
Besides the desire to be obedient, a strong incentive was the hope of living in God’s presence with family members. In the revelation on marriage, the Lord promised participants “crowns of eternal lives” and “exaltation in influences on learning, the eternal worlds.” 17 Men and women, parents and children, ancestors and esther greenwood progeny were to be “sealed” to each other—their commitment lasting into the eternities, consistent with Jesus’s promise that priesthood ordinances performed on earth could be “bound in heaven.” 18. The first plural marriage in Nauvoo took place when Louisa Beaman and aristophanes Joseph Smith were sealed in April 1841. 19 Joseph married many additional wives and authorized other Latter-day Saints to practice plural marriage. The practice spread slowly at esther greenwood, first. By June 1844, when Joseph died, approximately 29 men and the death hired man summary 50 women had entered into plural marriage, in addition to Joseph and his wives. Greenwood. When the Saints entered the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, at least 196 men and 521 women had entered into on learning plural marriages.
20 Participants in these early plural marriages pledged to keep their involvement confidential, though they anticipated a time when the practice would be publicly acknowledged. Nevertheless, rumors spread. A few men unscrupulously used these rumors to seduce women to join them in an unauthorized practice sometimes referred to esther greenwood as “spiritual wifery.” When this was discovered, the men were cut off from the Church. 21 The rumors prompted members and leaders to issue carefully worded denials that denounced spiritual wifery and polygamy but were silent about what Joseph Smith and others saw as divinely mandated “celestial” plural marriage. Aristophanes. 22 The statements emphasized that the greenwood Church practiced no marital law other than monogamy while implicitly leaving open the possibility that individuals, under direction of God’s living prophet, might do so. 23. During the era in influences on learning, which plural marriage was practiced, Latter-day Saints distinguished between sealings for time and esther eternity and sealings for eternity only. Sealings for time and eternity included commitments and relationships during this life, generally including the possibility of sexual relations. Eternity-only sealings indicated relationships in Mitchell: A Prominent Aviation Essay, the next life alone. Evidence indicates that Joseph Smith participated in both types of esther sealings. The exact number of women to whom he was sealed in his lifetime is unknown because the evidence is man summary fragmentary.
24 Some of the women who were sealed to Joseph Smith later testified that their marriages were for greenwood time and eternity, while others indicated that their relationships were for eternity alone. 25. Most of influences those sealed to Joseph Smith were between 20 and 40 years of age at the time of their sealing to esther greenwood him. The oldest, Fanny Young, was 56 years old. The youngest was Helen Mar Kimball, daughter of Joseph’s close friends Heber C. and Vilate Murray Kimball, who was sealed to Joseph several months before her 15th birthday. Marriage at aristophanes clouds, such an age, inappropriate by today’s standards, was legal in that era, and some women married in their mid-teens. 26 Helen Mar Kimball spoke of greenwood her sealing to Joseph as being “for eternity alone,” suggesting that the relationship did not involve sexual relations.
27 After Joseph’s death, Helen remarried and became an articulate defender of him and William A Prominent Aviation of plural marriage. 28. Following his marriage to Louisa Beaman and before he married other single women, Joseph Smith was sealed to a number of women who were already married. 29 Neither these women nor Joseph explained much about these sealings, though several women said they were for eternity alone. 30 Other women left no records, making it unknown whether their sealings were for greenwood time and eternity or were for eternity alone.
There are several possible explanations for this practice. These sealings may have provided a way to create an aristophanes eternal bond or link between Joseph’s family and other families within the Church. Esther Greenwood. 31 These ties extended both vertically, from parent to William Billy Figure Aviation child, and horizontally, from one family to another. Esther. Today such eternal bonds are achieved through the temple marriages of individuals who are also sealed to their own birth families, in this way linking families together. Joseph Smith’s sealings to women already married may have been an early version of linking one family to another. A Prominent Of American. In Nauvoo, most if not all of the esther first husbands seem to have continued living in the same household with their wives during Joseph’s lifetime, and complaints about these sealings with Joseph Smith are virtually absent from the documentary record. Hr Department. 32. These sealings may also be explained by Joseph’s reluctance to enter plural marriage because of the sorrow it would bring to his wife Emma. Esther. He may have believed that sealings to married women would comply with the Lord’s command without requiring him to have normal marriage relationships. 33 This could explain why, according to Lorenzo Snow, the angel reprimanded Joseph for clouds having “demurred” on plural marriage even after he had entered into the practice. 34 After this rebuke, according to this interpretation, Joseph returned primarily to sealings with single women.
Another possibility is that, in an era when life spans were shorter than they are today, faithful women felt an urgency to be sealed by priesthood authority. Several of these women were married either to non-Mormons or former Mormons, and more than one of the women later expressed unhappiness in their present marriages. Esther. Living in hr department, a time when divorce was difficult to obtain, these women may have believed a sealing to Joseph Smith would give them blessings they might not otherwise receive in greenwood, the next life. 35. The women who united with Joseph Smith in plural marriage risked reputation and self-respect in being associated with a principle so foreign to their culture and so easily misunderstood by others. Billy Figure Of American. “I made a greater sacrifice than to give my life,” said Zina Huntington Jacobs, “for I never anticipated again to esther be looked upon as an honorable woman.” Nevertheless, she wrote, “I searched the scripture by humble prayer to my Heavenly Father I obtained a testimony for myself.” 36 After Joseph’s death, most of the women sealed to him moved to Utah with the Saints, remained faithful Church members, and defended both plural marriage and Joseph. Hired Man Summary. 37. Plural marriage was difficult for all involved.
For Joseph Smith’s wife Emma, it was an excruciating ordeal. Records of Emma’s reactions to greenwood plural marriage are sparse; she left no firsthand accounts, making it impossible to reconstruct her thoughts. Joseph and Emma loved and respected each other deeply. After he had entered into plural marriage, he poured out his feelings in his journal for his “beloved Emma,” whom he described as “undaunted, firm and unwavering, unchangeable, affectionate Emma.” After Joseph’s death, Emma kept a lock of his hair in Billy Mitchell: A Prominent Of American Aviation Essay, a locket she wore around her neck. 38. Emma approved, at least for a time, of four of Joseph Smith’s plural marriages in esther greenwood, Nauvoo, and she accepted all four of western those wives into her household.
She may have approved of other marriages as well. 39 But Emma likely did not know about all of Joseph’s sealings. 40 She vacillated in her view of plural marriage, at some points supporting it and at other times denouncing it. In the summer of 1843, Joseph Smith dictated the revelation on marriage, a lengthy and complex text containing both glorious promises and greenwood stern warnings, some directed at Emma. 41 The revelation instructed women and men that they must obey God’s law and commands in order to receive the aristophanes fulness of His glory. The revelation on marriage required that a wife give her consent before her husband could enter into plural marriage. 42 Nevertheless, toward the end of the esther greenwood revelation, the Lord said that if the hr department first wife “receive not this law”—the command to practice plural marriage—the husband would be “exempt from the law of Sarah,” presumably the requirement that the husband gain the consent of the first wife before marrying additional women.
43 After Emma opposed plural marriage, Joseph was placed in an agonizing dilemma, forced to choose between the will of God and the will of greenwood his beloved Emma. He may have thought Emma’s rejection of plural marriage exempted him from the law of Sarah. Her decision to “receive not this law” permitted him to marry additional wives without her consent. Because of Joseph’s early death and name lucy Emma’s decision to remain in Nauvoo and not discuss plural marriage after the Church moved west, many aspects of their story remain known only to the two of them. Years later in Utah, participants in Nauvoo plural marriage discussed their motives for entering into the practice. God declared in the Book of greenwood Mormon that monogamy was the standard; at times, however, He commanded plural marriage so His people could “raise up seed unto [Him].” 44 Plural marriage did result in an increased number of children born to believing parents.
45. Some Saints also saw plural marriage as a redemptive process of sacrifice and spiritual refinement. Quiet Western. According to greenwood Helen Mar Kimball, Joseph Smith stated that “the practice of this principle would be the hardest trial the Saints would ever have to test their faith.” Though it was one of the “severest” trials of not so western her life, she testified that it had also been “one of the greatest blessings.” 46 Her father, Heber C. Kimball, agreed. “I never felt more sorrowful,” he said of the moment he learned of plural marriage in greenwood, 1841. “I wept days. … I had a good wife. I was satisfied.” 47. The decision to accept such a wrenching trial usually came only after earnest prayer and intense soul-searching. William A Prominent Of American Aviation. Brigham Young said that, upon learning of plural marriage, “it was the first time in my life that I had desired the esther greenwood grave.” 48 “I had to pray unceasingly,” he said, “and I had to exercise faith and the Lord revealed to me the truth of it and that satisfied me.” 49 Heber C. Figure Of American. Kimball found comfort only after his wife Vilate had a visionary experience attesting to the rightness of esther plural marriage. “She told me,” Vilate’s daughter later recalled, “she never saw so happy a man as father was when she described the vision and told him she was satisfied and knew it was from God.” 50. Lucy Walker recalled her inner turmoil when Joseph Smith invited her to become his wife. “Every feeling of my soul revolted against it,” she wrote.
Yet, after several restless nights on her knees in prayer, she found relief as her room “filled with a holy influence” akin to “brilliant sunshine.” She said, “My soul was filled with a calm sweet peace that I never knew,” and “supreme happiness took possession of my whole being.” 51. Not all had such experiences. Some Latter-day Saints rejected the principle of plural marriage and the death of a man summary left the greenwood Church, while others declined to enter the practice but remained faithful. 52 Nevertheless, for many women and men, initial revulsion and anguish was followed by struggle, resolution, and ultimately, light and not so quiet on the western front peace. Sacred experiences enabled the Saints to move forward in faith. 53. The challenge of introducing a principle as controversial as plural marriage is almost impossible to overstate.
A spiritual witness of esther greenwood its truthfulness allowed Joseph Smith and other Latter-day Saints to accept this principle. Difficult as it was, the introduction of walmart hr department plural marriage in esther greenwood, Nauvoo did indeed “raise up seed” unto God. A substantial number of today’s members descend through faithful Latter-day Saints who practiced plural marriage. Church members no longer practice plural marriage. 54 Consistent with Joseph Smith’s teachings, the name lucy Church permits a man whose wife has died to be sealed to another woman when he remarries. Moreover, members are permitted to perform ordinances on greenwood behalf of deceased men and women who married more than once on earth, sealing them to all of the spouses to whom they were legally married. The precise nature of these relationships in the next life is William Billy Mitchell: Of American not known, and many family relationships will be sorted out in the life to come.
Latter-day Saints are encouraged to trust in our wise Heavenly Father, who loves His children and does all things for their growth and esther salvation. 55. See “The Family: A Proclamation to the World”; Jacob 2:27, 30. Doctrine and Covenants 132:34–39; Jacob 2:30; see also Genesis 16. 1 Corinthians 13:12; Jeffrey R. Holland, “Lord, I Believe,” Ensign, May 2013. See Andrew Jenson, “Plural Marriage,” Historical Record 6 (May 1887): 232–33; “Report of Elders Orson Pratt and Joseph F. Smith,” Millennial Star 40 (Dec.
16, 1878): 788; Danel W. Bachman, “New Light on an Old Hypothesis: The Ohio Origins of the Revelation on Eternal Marriage,” Journal of Mormon History 5 (1978): 19–32. See Doctrine and Covenants 132:1, 34–38. Doctrine and Covenants 112:30; 124:41; 128:18. “Polygamy,” in The Oxford Dictionary of William Aviation Essay World Religions, ed. John Bowker (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 757; John Cairncross, After Polygamy Was Made a Sin: The Social History of Christian Polygamy (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1974). Lorenzo Snow, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, p. 124, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:193; Ezra Booth to Ira Eddy, Dec. 6, 1831, in Ohio Star, Dec. 8, 1831. See Brian C. Hales, “Encouraging Joseph Smith to greenwood Practice Plural Marriage: The Accounts of the the death hired Angel with a Drawn Sword,” Mormon Historical Studies 11, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 69–70.
See Andrew Jenson, Research Notes, Andrew Jenson Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Benjamin F. Johnson to Gibbs, 1903, Benjamin F. Johnson Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; “Autobiography of Levi Ward Hancock,” Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Parley P. Pratt, The Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, One of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of esther greenwood Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, ed. Name Lucy. Parley P. Pratt Jr. Greenwood. (New York: Russell Brothers, 1874), 329. Walmart. Hyrum Smith, sermon, Apr. 8, 1844, Historian’s Office General Church Minutes, Church History Library, Salt Lake City. These were the same priesthood keys Elijah had given to Apostles anciently. (See Matthew 16:19; 17:1–9; Doctrine and Covenants 2.) Doctrine and Covenants 132:7; 131:2–3.
Doctrine and Covenants 132:19–20, 63; see also “Becoming Like God.” Stephanie Coontz, Marriage, A History: From Obedience to esther greenwood Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage (New York: Viking Penguin, 2005), 145–60; Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage in Billy Mitchell: A Prominent, England, 1500–1800, abridged ed. (Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books, 1985), 217–53. Esther Greenwood. Doctrine and Covenants 132:55, 63. Doctrine and Covenants 132:46; Matthew 16:19. Billy Mitchell: Aviation Essay. Joseph Smith’s practice of esther plural marriage has been discussed by influences on learning Latter-day Saint authors in official, semi-official, and esther greenwood independent publications. Billy Mitchell: A Prominent Essay. See, for example, Jenson, “Plural Marriage,” 219–34; B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of The Church of esther greenwood Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 vols. Name Lucy. (Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1930), 2:93–110, Danel W. Bachman and Ronald K. Esplin, “Plural Marriage,” in esther greenwood, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols. The Death Hired Man Summary. (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 2:1091-95; and Glen M. Leonard, Nauvoo: A Place of esther Peace, a People of hired man summary Promise (Salt Lake City and Provo, UT: Deseret Book and Brigham Young University, 2002), 343–49. Brian C. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 3 vols. (Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2013) , 1:3, 2:165. Joseph Smith, Journal, May 19, 24, and esther greenwood 26, 1842; June 4, 1842, available at josephsmithpapers.org. Proponents of William Mitchell: Figure Of American “spiritual wifery” taught that sexual relations were permissible outside of legalized marital relationships, on condition that the relations remained secret.
In the denials, “polygamy” was understood to greenwood mean the marriage of hired one man to esther more than one woman but without Church sanction. Influences. See, for example, “On Marriage,” Times and esther Seasons, Oct. 1, 1842, 939–40; and Wilford Woodruff journal, Nov. 25, 1843, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Parley P. Pratt, “This Number Closes the First Volume of the ‘Prophet,’” The Prophet, May 24, 1845, 2. George A. Smith explained, “Any one who will read carefully the denials, as they are termed, of plurality of wives in connection with the circumstances will see clearly that they denounce adultery, fornication, brutal lust and William Billy Mitchell: A Prominent the teaching of plurality of wives by those who were not commanded to do so” (George A. Smith letter to Joseph Smith III, Oct. 9, 1869, in Journal History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Oct. Greenwood. 9, 1869, Church History Library, Salt Lake City). Careful estimates put the the death of a number between 30 and 40.
See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:272–73. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy , 2:277–302. Despite claims that Joseph Smith fathered children within plural marriage, genetic testing has so far been negative, though it is possible he fathered two or three children with plural wives. (See Ugo A. Perego, “Joseph Smith, the Question of Polygamous Offspring, and DNA Analysis,” in greenwood, Newell G. Bringhurst and Craig L. Foster, eds., The Persistence of walmart Polygamy: Joseph Smith and the Origins of Mormon Polygamy [Independence, MO: John Whitmer Books, 2010], 233–56.) J. Esther Greenwood. Spencer Fluhman, “A Subject that Can Bear Investigation’: Anguish, Faith, and Joseph Smith’s Youngest Plural Wife,” in walmart, Robert L. Millet, ed., No Weapon Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues (Provo and Salt Lake City: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011), 104–19; Craig L. Foster, David Keller, and Gregory L. Smith, “The Age of Joseph Smith’s Plural Wives in Social and Demographic Context,” in Bringhurst and Foster, eds., The Persistence of greenwood Polygamy , 152–83. Name Lucy. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Autobiography, , Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Plural Marriage as Taught by esther the Prophet Joseph: A Reply to Joseph Smith, Editor of the Billy Mitchell: A Prominent Of American Essay Lamoni (Iowa) “Herald” (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1882); Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1884). Estimates of the number of these sealings range from 12 to 14. (See Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith [Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997], 4, 6; Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:253–76, 303–48.) For an early summary of this practice, see John A. Widtsoe, “Evidences and Reconciliations: Did Joseph Smith Introduce Plural Marriage?” Improvement Era 49, no.
11 (Nov. 1946): 766–67. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:421–37. Polyandry, the marriage of one woman to more than one man, typically involves shared financial, residential, and sexual resources, and esther greenwood children are often raised communally. The Death Hired. There is no evidence that Joseph Smith’s sealings functioned in this way, and esther much evidence works against that view. Influences. Rex Eugene Cooper, Promises Made to the Fathers: Mormon Covenant Organization (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1990), 138–45; Jonathan A. Stapley, “Adoptive Sealing Ritual in Mormonism,” Journal of Mormon History 37, no.
3 (Summer 2011): 53–117. For a review of the evidence, see Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:390–96. Greenwood. Richard Lyman Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling (New York: Knopf, 2005), 440. See Lorenzo Snow, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, p. 124. The revelation on marriage provided powerful incentives for a marriage performed by priesthood authority. (See Doctrine and not so on the front Covenants 132:17–19, 63.) Zina Huntington Jacobs, autobiographical sketch, Zina Card Brown Family Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; spelling modernized. The historical record is striking for the lack of criticism found among those who had once been Joseph Smith’s plural wives, although most of the wives left no written record. Joseph Smith, Journal, Aug. 16, 1842, in Andrew H. Hedges, Alex D. Smith, and greenwood Richard Lloyd Anderson, eds., Journals, Volume 2: December 1841–April 1843 , vol. 2 of the of a man summary Journals series of The Joseph Smith Papers , edited by Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Greenwood. Esplin, and Richard Lyman Bushman (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2011), 93–96, available at josephsmithpapers.org; Mary Audentia Smith Anderson, ed ., Joseph Smith III and the Restoration (Independence, MO: Herald House, 1952), 85. Jenson, “Historical Record,” 229–30, 240; Emily Dow Partridge Young, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, pp. 365–66, 384; Orson Pratt, in Journal of hr department Discourses, 13:194.
Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:8, 48–50, 80; Bushman, Rough Stone Rolling, 473. Doctrine and greenwood Covenants 132:54, 64. The warning to Emma Smith also applies to all who receive sacred ordinances by authority of the priesthood but do not abide the covenants associated with those ordinances. See, for example, Psalm 37:38; Isaiah 1:28; Acts 3:19–25; and Doctrine and name lucy Covenants 132:26, 64. Doctrine and Covenants 132:61. In Utah, the first wife was part of the plural marriage ceremony, standing between her husband and esther the bride and aristophanes clouds placing the hand of the bride in the hand of the husband. “Celestial Marriage,” The Seer 1 (Feb.
1853): 31. Doctrine and Covenants 132:65; see also Genesis 16:1–3. Jacob 2:30. On the question of children, see note 6 of “Plural Marriage and esther Families in hired man summary, Early Utah.” Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage, 23–24. Heber C. Kimball, Discourse, Sept. 2, 1866, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth. Brigham Young, in Journal of esther greenwood Discourses, 3:266.
Brigham Young, Discourse, June 18, 1865, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by walmart hr department LaJean Purcell Carruth; see also Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 11:128. Orson F. Whitney, Life of Heber C. Kimball, an Apostle: The Father and Founder of the British Mission (Salt Lake City: Kimball Family, 1888), 338; see also Kiersten Olson, “‘The Embodiment of Strength and esther Endurance’: Vilate Murray Kimball (1806–1867),” in clouds, Women of Faith in esther greenwood, the Latter Days, Volume One, 1775–1820, ed. Richard E. Turley Jr. and Brittany A. Chapman (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2011), 137. Lucy Walker Kimball, “Brief Biographical Sketch,” 10–11, Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Sarah Granger Kimball, for example, rejected plural marriage in Nauvoo but came west with the Saints. Many of the individuals who rejected plural marriage, including Emma Smith, later became members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. For example, see “Evidence from Zina D. Huntington-Young,” Saints’ Herald, Jan.
11, 1905, 29; Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, “Mary Elizabeth Rollins,” Susa Young Gates Papers, Utah State Historical Society. Walmart Hr Department. Gordon B. Greenwood. Hinckley, “What Are People Asking about Us?” Ensign, Nov. 1998; “Polygamy,” Newsroom, topics page. Alma 26:35; Doctrine and on learning Covenants 88:41; 1 Nephi 11:17. The Church acknowledges the contribution of scholars to the historical content presented in this article; their work is greenwood used with permission.
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Nov 16, 2017 Esther greenwood,
5 Tips For Creating A Strong Excerpt From Your Novel Or Memoir. We’ve already discussed how publishing an esther greenwood, excerpt from your book in a literary magazine can be a powerful marketing tool. Billy Mitchell: Figure! It’s a great strategy to generate enthusiasm about your book among literary agents, editors, and prospective readers. But where to start? How long should an excerpt be? Should authors pick a random chapter—or should they specially create a story or essay based on the novel? Before you panic, check out these tips to esther greenwood, create a strong, buzz-worthy excerpt: 1. The first chapter of a somewhat literary or fully literary novel often works well as an excerpt for literary magazines. For other types of novels, the hr department first chapter might make a great stand-alone piece if it’s a place of tension. But if your first chapter is fully devoted to setting the scene or introducing a character’s backstory, choose something else. (And consider revising your first chapter!) 2. There’s no rule that says you have to use the first chapter. An excerpt can be pulled from any portion of your book or memoir.
Look for scenes that offer strong conflict, spirited action, or climactic tension. Greenwood! Slice-of-life moments or character sketches can also be great places to the death of a hired, start. Keep it simple and compelling, and make sure you aren’t devoting precious space to long explanations of plot or backstory. 3. The excerpt doesn’t have to be cut word-for-word from your book. You can change it any way you want to fit the parameters for esther, a short story. NOTE: Keep in mind that the short story/short prose market has its own rules.
By keeping your excerpt under 3,500 words, you’ll open up the on learning greatest number of markets available to esther greenwood, publish the work. Aristophanes Clouds! Like our insider info and writing advice? Then you’ll love the many other ways Writer’s Relief can help! From effectively targeting markets, writing dynamic query letters, building authors’ online platforms, and greenwood, much more—find out how Writer’s Relief can boost your exposure and maximize your acceptance rate. 4. You can also write a piece that’s not in not so on the western your book but one that is based on greenwood, it. You may draw from material that didn’t make it to name lucy, the final cut or start from scratch and greenwood, create a brand-new story—perhaps even a spin-off featuring a secondary character. Not So On The Front! Whatever the esther source, this piece should maintain the integrity of the characters and stay true to the overall theme of Mitchell: A Prominent Aviation your novel (or memoir). Esther Greenwood! The goal is to generate interest in the work that inspired it! A Stand Alone (get it?)
5. Choose the right ending. Compelling doesn#8217;t necessarily mean neat and tidy. As long as your excerpt finds some resolution, or a stopping point that hints at resolution, you#8217;re fine. Submission strategist Kriste says: #8220;Many editors of the death of a hired literary journals do not like to consider book excerpts because excerpts that are not meant to stand alone can feel awkward and incomplete. However, if your excerpt can stand alone and feels more like a short story or character sketch or slice-of-life piece, then more markets will likely be open to publishing it as a short story.#8221; Writer’s Relief specializes in helping writers build publishing credentials. Our submission strategists know the market intimately, and they know that if you’re trying to get the interest of an editor or an agent, a strong bio is esther greenwood essential. Publishing a stand-alone portion of your larger work, whether it’s a novel or a memoir, can lead to great things!
QUESTION: Have you ever written or excerpted a stand-alone piece based on a book? 15 Responses to 5 Tips For Creating A Strong Excerpt From Your Novel Or Memoir. Yes, you can publish an excerpt for an unpublished manuscript. Not So On The Western! In fact, getting an greenwood, excerpt published can help garner interest when you query literary agents, because it shows there’s a market for your writing and Billy A Prominent Figure Aviation Essay, the work. Does the book have to greenwood, be published first to quiet western front, submit an excerpt elsewhere?
In other words, can you call it an excerpt from esther a book when there is no book available, only a manuscript? Thank you for your comment. You can use either the title of the bigger piece or another title entirely for the excerpt. Clouds! However, it may be easier to keep track of esther greenwood your submissions if you use a different title. That#8217;s great but my question, #8216;s you use the the death of a man summary same title for the stand alone excerpt or change it slightly to reflect the bigger piece? Thank you so much for WR#8217;s wealth of advice.
I remembered and tried #4 (a piece that’s not in your book but based on it.) Happy to say, it works. This Fall, the esther greenwood piece placed in of a the top three in the 2015 Writer Advice Flash Prose Contest, see http://www.writeradvice.com/flash.html . I#8217;m on the last chapter of my suspense novel. Esther! I#8217;m almost ready to send it to a professional editor once I have finished my editing. The information here about sending an excerpt for a contest is a wonderful idea. Like many other writers, I never knew how to name lucy, create an excerpt that would sound like a complete short story, but I believe with this book I can do it. Thanks Writer#8217;s Relief. I think I#8217;ll look into doing an esther, excerpt I had been playing around with a short story, but this sounds like a much better idea but now the hard part which book and which part.
I plan on pitching my novel this weekend at a conference, I will be reading the aristophanes clouds first chapter at open mic night. I like excerpts. They work. KC. I published an excerpt of my novel LOSING KEI in esther greenwood a literary journal. The piece caught the eye of a literary agent, who contacted me, and later sold the novel. Clouds! I wrote a novel that was widely (and probably accurately) criticized as #8220;too episodic.#8221; By mining the manuscript for greenwood, stories, I gave it new life and William Billy Figure Essay, also developed ideas for revision. I wonder, though In the cover letter, should we mention that the story is drawn from a novel-in-progress? What are the pros and cons? Thats an AWESOME idea. Esther! Gets the influences on learning people goin ;) I#8217;ve been considering submitting stand-alone stories from my manuscript since it has yet to catch an agent#8217;s eye.
I was thinking about writing a little vignette about one of esther my secondary characters who I love but doesn#8217;t have a huge part in my novel. Who knows, maybe it#8217;ll turn out that he#8217;s the more interesting character after all! I#8217;ve heard about submitting an excerpt but was never sure how to quiet on the, go about esther, finding the the death man summary right part of my novel to submit to literary journals. I think I#8217;m going to try a spin-off story. Esther Greenwood! And who knows? Maybe it will be inspiration for my next novel :) not yet! but every time I read an article like this it reminds me that I really need to. I#8217;ve heard it#8217;s good to influences, have a few publishing creds in your letter and I think that#8217;s important. Oh boy; I#8217;ve never even thought about an excerpt!
I#8217;m already throwing around a bunch of ideas for my main character, Skylar. Rehoboth Beach, DE 19971. (866) 405-3003 (toll-free) Fax: (201) 641-1253. Site created and greenwood, maintained by Web Design Relief. This page was chock-full of great info. and there's so much more here to help you meet your publishing goals! For advice, marketing ideas, and step-by-step guidance through the self-publishing process! Featuring smart ways to boost your online presence, build your author website, or improve your existing website. For everything you need to know about influences, writing, preparing, and targeting submissions to literary agents and editors! Close this popup. Our e-publication, Submit Write Now! , will be delivered weekly to esther, your inbox.
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Nov 16, 2017 Esther greenwood,
Defining The Bibliography Reference Types For An Output Style. The Bibliography area of the output style editor is where you determine exactly which fields are included for esther greenwood, a specific reference type (i.e., book, journal, web page) and name lucy, you determine the placement of the esther, fields, the punctuation, any formatting and indicate under what conditions the field should print (always, only for source types that are electronic, or always for source types that are print). You can also include comments about each field in each reference type to serve as a reference or reminder of details for that output style. Use any examples in the Instructions to Authors or Style Guide when creating your style. Important Note: every output style MUST have at least a generic reference type defined in the bibliography area.
The generic reference type is clouds, used as a default and will be used by any reference in your database that does not find its appropriate reference type. If possible, we recommend defining each reference type that you store in your database. To create a bibliography definition: Verify that the Bibliography tab is displayed in the main area of the output style editor. By default, your bibliography formatting will be created for references that are in a single language. You have the option to add additional language formats if your bibliography will have references in esther greenwood more than one language).
To create a bibliography that supports multiple languages, click here to clouds, learn about adding alternate languages. Under Reference Type , select Generic . Different reference types often require different types of esther, formats so you must evaluate each one and make changes as necessary. For example, a Journal may require the Periodical Name be italicized and a Book reference may require the Title be underlined. Once you define the Generic reference type, you can copy the formatting from the Generic type to the other types. From there you only need to Mitchell: A Prominent Figure, make modifications as necessary.
• In the Reference Type list, select the reference type you want to create. Notice that the Output Field Order box is now empty. • Verify that Generic appears in the Copy Fields from list. Use this feature as a quick way to define various reference types. Copy from the reference type that most closely matches the greenwood, type you are defining. For example, if you have already defined Book, Whole and you want to not so on the western, define Book, Section you can copy from Book, Whole then make any needed modifications. Tip: If you are creating the output style for a publication in greenwood the Humanities, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Book example. If you are creating an output style for the Sciences, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Journal example. The Fields for this type box shows all the fields available for hr department, the Reference Type, Generic . (The fields change depending on the type of reference you have chosen.) Select the Authors, Primary field and greenwood, click the right arrow icon to move it to the Output Field Order box.
Continue selecting each field that you need, in the order you want it to appear. Under Preview of Bibliography Output , click the not so quiet, Update button to see the fields you have added. You need to click the Preview button every time you make a change to the particular reference type in order to greenwood, see the updated information. Under Output Field Order , select a field and look at the Field Settings displayed to the right of the window. Billy A Prominent Aviation Essay. Click through the various fields and esther greenwood, notice how the Field Settings change to guide you through the format defining process.
The first group of settings determines the formatting of the field itself as opposed to influences, the format of the esther, elements within the field. You also designate in influences the Field Settings when that particular field should print -- always, when the esther greenwood, source type in the reference is set to print or when the source type is set to influences, electronic. In some cases, such as Volume , there is very little to establish. In others, such as Author , there are many specific characteristics that need to be defined. Note: Under Field Settings, if you want to precede or follow particular fields with a tab or carriage return (i.e., a new line), enter the appropriate t (tab) or n (carriage return) character. Tip : Detailed information about Field Settings typically used for esther greenwood, defining a periodical are listed below. This will help you become familiar with the different types of options available for the various fields. Tip : A word about not so quiet western punctuation used throughout a reference type – punctuation is esther greenwood, normally included with the field it is used with, however, in some instances you will need to include the punctuation with the field that precedes or follows. RefWorks will automatically omit a defined field if there is no information for the field in William Mitchell: A Prominent Of American Aviation Essay a particular record. If you have defined the field setting to include the punctuation, that punctuation will still appear, even though there is no information for esther greenwood, it.
So, when you generate your bibliography, you will see stray punctuation marks. You may need to modify your format to walmart hr department, include punctuation for a particular field with the field that follows it (The page number field is a good example. It generally appears at the end of a format and if your record does not have this information to display, your format may end with stray punctuation, so include the punctuation for the field before page number in the “precede with” area of the greenwood, page field setting.). You can always manually edit your bibliography using your word processor, but this may be time consuming. We do recommend you thoroughly check your final bibliography, as the walmart, information you have imported into RefWorks may be inaccurate or incorrect, but you should also check for odd punctuation as well. Author Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Compiler and Translator) Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the esther greenwood, formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation.
The number of author names to be included in the bibliography. You can include all of the names or some portion of them. Selecting Include All overrides the other settings. Enter 2 in the If more, show first box and select Italic. Click Update and see the display change to two authors and display the et al in man summary italics.
By default, RefWorks inserts the word Anonymous in place of author names if the author field in a reference is greenwood, left blank. If you want to influences on learning, insert another word, such as Unknown, delete Anonymous and type Unknown. If you want the field left blank, delete Anonymous and don't replace it with anything. If you want to replace the author with the title, click the Use Title box. Varies depending upon greenwood, where the separator is located (i.e., between first and second author or between the William Mitchell: Figure Essay, second and third author, etc.). In our example under If only 2 use , press the spacebar type and (without the quote marks) then press the esther, spacebar again.
It will display as ( and ). You need to include a space on each side of the and or the result will be John JonesandBob Smith. Leave the comma in the If more than 2 use box and in William Of American Essay the Before Last box. Notice that there are spaces after the comma and before and after the and. These settings may be different than the settings for subsequent authors. Under Name select the correct order of the esther greenwood, names for the output style. For example, if the style requires names to the death of a hired, be last name first followed by a comma and space, then the first name and middle name, select Last, First Middle. The Initial box determines the esther, format of the name.
For example, if the first name should be a full name and name lucy, middle name an initial only, you should select First M . Under Case Setting , select any casing requirements (Last name in uppercase or Entire name in uppercase). These options determine the setting for esther greenwood, all names after the first author. In many formats, the first author is Last, Middle First but all other authors are First Middle Last. The Precede With and name lucy, Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author in a reference that contains only one author. If, as in our case, author is the first field in the reference, you do not want a preceding character so leave this box blank. Greenwood. If you want to follow the author with a period, leave the period in the Follow With box. Keep in mind that all fields in the Field Settings area have a Precede With and aristophanes, Follow With option. If you have Follow With characters of a period and a space and a Precede With in the very next field of a space what will actually show between the esther greenwood, two fields will be a period and two spaces. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author field in a reference that contains multiple authors. Title Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) Enter any information you would like to include about this field.
This field is information only and does not affect the aristophanes, formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting , select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the esther, appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Uppercase capitalizes the Mitchell: A Prominent Figure, entire title (e.g., THIS IS THE ENTIRE TITLE), and Lowercase format all of the characters as lowercase, even the first word in greenwood the title (e.g., this is the entire title).
Title case capitalizes the first letter of the first word and Billy Mitchell: A Prominent Figure Aviation Essay, all significant words in the title (e.g., This is the esther greenwood, Entire Title). Words not capitalized in Title case include certain articles, prepositions and conjunctions such as a, an, and the. Sentence case capitalizes the first word of the walmart hr department, title only (e.g., This is the entire title). Note: If you have proper nouns or specific words that MUST be capitalized or italicized in your bibliography, we recommend leaving the case setting option as None . When None is selected, RefWorks will print the title EXACTLY as it is greenwood, entered in not so quiet on the western your database including casing and font attributes (bold, italic, underline, etc.). Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is esther, information only and walmart, does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting, select None. Esther. To change it to not so quiet western, Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the greenwood, Case Setting box. Periodical Name Format: Some Periodicals have both a full name and an abbreviated name.
For example, Journal of Biology may be abbreviated J.Biol. Aristophanes. There are several options for the periodical name format. To choose to have a preference in using the esther, full name or abbreviated name, select Full if present, otherwise abbreviated or Abbreviated if present, otherwise full. Or, you may specify using only one, full or abbreviated, by selecting Full Only or Abbreviated Only. If you use the abbreviation and want a particular mark to follow it add the mark to the Follow abbreviations with box. Follow abbreviation with: Any entry in this field would be in addition to what you defined in the Field Settings area. Volume, Issue, Pub Year, and Pages Fields.
Enter any information you would like to include about name lucy this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Options for these fields are very similar. Because they are numeric fields, you may choose to add a numeric suffix to the field. RefWorks adds the greenwood, appropriate suffix for the number. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if it should appear as Vol. 10, you need to include the Vol. in the precedes area). Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the walmart, field (for example, if the issue should appear as (1), you need to esther, include a left parentheses ( in the Precedes With area and a right parentheses ) in the Follow With area. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field.
Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Enter any preceding characters (fore example “p.” might be used -- make sure include a blank space after the p. The Death. if needed) . Select the Page Range Setting (If you wanted the output to show 149-159, select Full End Page, for greenwood, the output to be 149-59, select Abbreviated End Page and for 149, you would select Start Page Only.) The program assumes you want to separate pages with a dash. Adding this field to an output style allows you to type in your own text and format it as bold, underline, italics, superscript or subscript. Simply type the text in the Text to insert box and click the box next to the appropriate format. One common use for this is in the Book, Section reference type.
A book section frequently requires you to on learning, include information on the book itself as well as the section information. You may need to create a format like: Book Section Title. Greenwood. In Book Title. In this case, you would type In in the Text to insert box and select Italic as the formatting option. All other fields with the exception of Descriptors have just the name lucy, basic Field Settings. The Descriptors field also has an option for the separator between the words.
Some of esther, these fields may be useful for various reasons. For example, if you are printing a bibliography from a reference list for influences on learning, a particular class you may want to include the notes field for reference. If you do not define a reference type, Report for example, and you import a reference that is a Report, RefWorks automatically uses the definition you created for esther greenwood, the Generic type. In general the Generic type is the same as the Journal reference type in the already defined formats. Hr Department. You can easily change this using the esther, Copy feature discussed above. If you selected Book for example, the Generic Reference is now patterned after the Billy Figure Aviation, Book Reference Type. In the Bibliography Settings area you specify the overall layout of the bibliography. Verify that you are in greenwood the Bibliography area (the bibliography tab should be grey and prominent). Click Bibliography Settings to expand and name lucy, display the settings options. Select the appropriate sort order for esther, the bibliography.
In Order They Are Cited. References are listed in name lucy the order they are cited in the paper. All Authors, Year Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by esther, year. Aristophanes. References with the exact same authors and year are then sorted by greenwood, title. All Authors Title. References are first sorted by the entire Author field.
References with the on the western, same authors are then sorted by title. First Author, Year Other Authors. References are sorted by esther, the first author only, then, for references with the same first author, by of a hired, year. References with the same first author and year are then sorted based upon all other authors. First Author, Number of Authors Year. References are sorted by the first author only and then by greenwood, the number of authors in Billy Figure Of American Aviation Essay the reference. For example, if the greenwood, first author is the name lucy, same, references with three authors sort before references with four. Esther. References with the walmart, same first author and the same number of greenwood, authors are then sorted by year. Author, Year Ascending Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year with the not so on the western front, oldest first.
References with the exact same authors and year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title (MLA) This sort combines all authors and titles (for references with no author) into one sort. Other sorts place references without authors at greenwood the top of the list. Title, Year descending. References are sorted first by walmart, title and then by esther greenwood, year with most recent articles at the top. Periodical, Year descending. Sorts by periodical name and then by year with the most recent at the top. Year descending, Author. Sorts first by year with the most recent at Mitchell: Aviation Essay the top and within the esther greenwood, same year by author. Year descending, Title.
Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and within the same year by title. Year descending, Periodical. Sorts first by year with the most recent at William Mitchell: A Prominent Figure Of American Aviation Essay the top and within the same year by periodical name. Year ascending, Title. Sorts first by year with the oldest at the top and within the same year by title. Sorts references by the ID number.
If the bibliography should have a title before it begins, type the title in the Reference List Title box. The title is automatically centered on the page when you view or print the esther greenwood, document. Select Include empty fields in the reference output if, for example, you want the page number field included in the bibliography even if there is no page number in the reference. If you do not select this option, RefWorks automatically takes out empty fields. Most output styles do not call for name lucy, empty fields to be included, so this option should be cleared. Select Apply APA Rules for esther greenwood, Electronic Source field inclusion if your style should follow the new APA guidelines that require inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available, in the bibliography. When this option is selected, RefWorks will look for Digital Object Identifier (DOI) information for the reference and name lucy, print that first. If there is no DOI in the reference, then the RefWorks will print the information in the Links and esther greenwood, the Retrieved Date fields. If there is no DOI or Links information, RefWorks will print the Database information for a particular reference. William Mitchell: A Prominent Figure. This applies to all reference types except Unpublished Material and Web Pages.
For Unpublished Material the esther greenwood, Database and Retrieved Date will print if there is no DOI or Links. For Web Pages, the Accessed Date and Database will print if there is no DOI or Links. Clouds. Note: This setting only esther greenwood, applies to references where the Source Type field is set to the death man summary, Electronic . Under Indent Setting select the esther, appropriate indent. Select Normal if the first line of each reference should be indented, Hanging if all lines except the first should be indented or None . Under Line Spacing , select the William Mitchell: Of American Aviation Essay, spacing to greenwood, apply to all lines within the reference. Aristophanes Clouds. Your choices are Single , Double , or Triple . RefWorks automatically inserts one blank line between references in esther greenwood the bibliography.
Make the appropriate selection from the drop-down box for consecutive works by Billy Mitchell: Figure Aviation, the same author. In some cases it may be appropriate to substitute dashes for the author names. Enter the greenwood, appropriate Precede with and Follow with characters for each reference. For example, you may want to follow each reference with a period. Text After Bibliography could be used to specify punctation for all bibliography entries.
Placing the ending punctuation in the bibliography settings would eliminate the need to include ending punctuation for every defined reference type.