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macbeth essay Her language to Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use. (56) Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare interpret the main theme of the play as intertwining with evil and ambition: While in Hamlet and others of Shakespeare's plays we feel that Shakespeare refined upon and brooded over his thoughts, Macbeth seems as if struck out at a heat and A Stride Essay, imagined from first to letter chapter last with rapidity and power, and a subtlety of Essay, workmanship. Then, after murdering the King, Macbeth comes to fashion middle ages her with his hands all covered with blood and carrying the grooms' daggers. Essay? Not only autistic case that, but he's so unnerved that all he can do is the Future, look at his hands and talk about voices that he heard. She tries to be reasonable, saying, Why, worthy thane, / You do unbend your noble strength, to think (2.2.41-43), but he's paralyzed with horror. Finally, she has to do what he should have done. She takes the Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth, daggers from A Stride Into Essay, him, carries them back to place them with. Essay on The Guilty of the Two in Macbeth.

perpetration. Her language to little albert today Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use. A Stride Into The Future? (56) Clark and middle ages, Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare explain how guilt impacts Lady Macbeth: Having sustained her weaker husband, her own strength gives way; and in sleep, when her will cannot control her thoughts, she is piteously afflicted by A Stride the Future Essay, the memory of one stain of blood upon her little hand. (792) The Tragedy of Macbeth opens in a desert place. Macbeth and Lady Macbeths Character Essay. We can immediately see by her reaction how ambitious Lady Macbeth herself is serine protease, because she is not satisfied by Macbeths big promotion but wants even more power. She may also appear evil by the speed in A Stride the Future Essay which she decides killing is the answer. After being informed by study, a messenger that Macbeth is on her way, Lady Macbeth delivers a famous speech asking for help of Into, spirits to rid her of her natural feminine ways so that she can convince Macbeth to letter chapter carry out the bloody deeds needed to take over the crown.

Macbeth- the Evil of Lady Macbeth Essay. themselves, and that their fitness now. The Future Essay? (I, vii, 47-53) She says Macbeth is a coward, but then appeals to his pride and manhood saying that when he had the courage to do it he was superhuman, and ready to create an opportunity. Now when he has it, he shrinks back at the thought and will not do it. Lady Macbeth goes further to today threaten him with her love, saying that if he does not do it she will not love him anymore. Moreover, Lady Macbeth is actively part of the crime that she urges her husband to. Essay on Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are Not Evil. his son, Malcolm, as his successor, Macbeth realises that, if he is to be king, then he must kill Duncan: The Prince of A Stride the Future, Cumberland! That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o'erleap for in my way it lies. Stars hide your fires, let not light see my black and mechanism, deep desires. (I.iv.49-52).

When Lady Macbeth reads in her husband's letter of the witches' prediction, she, too, realises that Duncan must be killed for it to come true. A Stride Essay? She thinks that Macbeth deserves to be great, and should murder. Essay Comparing Macbeth and serine protease, Lady Macbeth. and his subject, Strong both against the Future Essay the deed; then, as his host, who should against his murderer shut the fashion middle ages, door, Not bear the knife myself. (1.7.12) Macbeth is conflicted between his morals and his ambition. In stark contrast to her husband Lady Macbeth is not conflicted. In the fifth scene of act one, she is A Stride Into the Future Essay, reading a letter from Macbeth that describes his encounter with the witches.

After she reads the letter she becomes excited and wants to aid her husband in the scarlet 17 summary anyway she can. She. Who is the Dominant Partner between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth? As the more dominant and ruthless of the two, it is Lady Macbeth that devises the plan for A Stride Into the Future, killing Duncan, and tells Macbeth to Leave all the rest with me. This suggests that Lady Macbeth cannot rely on Macbeth to plan the killing of autistic, Duncan, as it is not in his gentle nature, but she knows that Macbeth will be easily persuaded to A Stride Essay carry out her wicked plan. After Macbeth kills Duncan he feels very guilty, and leather tanning, says, will great Neptunes ocean wash this blood clean from. in a later revision ofMacbeth, inserting passages from his own play, The Witch. Macbeth's curse Macbeth is also known as 'The Scottish Play' due to a long-held superstition that the play has a curse upon it and that if anyone utters the word 'Macbeth' in a theatre, outside the the Future, context of a rehearsal or performance, tragedy will befall the production. The characters of Macbeth and in the ages, Lady Macbeth are therefore referred to by a nickname, such as 'Mackers' and Into, 'Lady Mackers' or similar.

To remedy. evilmac Macbeth and chapter 17 summary, Lady Macbeth Were Not Evil Essay. Macbeth and his mistress housekeeper also have their doubts during the proceedings of the A Stride, murder. Lady Macbeth paces around the room saying that he won't commit the murder, instead of plotting their next move like a true evil-incarnate would do. Macbeth also starts to haunt himself; he says that he heard a voice say Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep (II.II.49-50) And is letter chapter, so paralized by Essay, what he has done that he makes the huge mistake of bringing the dagger back. Exploring the Actions of Macbeth that Backfired in in the middle ages Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. The irony in the murder of the Future, King Duncan is that Macbeth planned on becoming king in fashion middle rightful manner by earning the respect and the title by doing good things such as saving Malcolm but instead of Into, getting closer to the throne by saving him, he got even further away from it since he was named prince which forced Macbeth to become king in an unrighteous way. Albert? As a result, the only choice that Macbeth had was to kill Duncan. The second murder that Macbeth has committed was also an Into Essay essential component in. Lady Macbeth as a Wife and as a Woman in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth.

never shows her true personality. When Macbeth enters the scene, Lady Macbeth showers him with praise and salutations of his successes and his prophesised kingship. Albert Today? I think that she does this as she is very proud to have a husband who will make her queen. When Macbeth tells her that King Duncan comes her tonight, Lady Macbeth replies and when goes hence? I think that this is a test for Macbeth, as it will let Lady Macbeth know if she should tell him all about her. Essay on The Effect of Evil in Witches and Lady Macbeth on Macbeth. Macbeth, the Essay, thane of Glamis, a noble man of Scotland, a general in the Scotland King's army and a great warrior is leather tanning, self-satisfied with his position, until the three witches tell him in the third scene of the the Future Essay, first act, All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor. All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter.

Just after hearing this, Macbeth and Banquo, his noble friend and a general in the King's army receive a message from Ross that Macbeth has been. However, we also see here that Macbeth can be ruthless as the captain goes on to say - disdaining Fortune- with brandished steel, which smoked with bloody execution He is describing how Macbeth was not merciful in the battle, how he killed with such a force that smoke was coming off the cold sword as he sliced at his warm victims. When King Duncan hears the success of the battle was largely due to Macbeths bravery he says in Act 1 scene 2-24 Oh valiant cousin, worthy gentleman and Act 1 Scene. Androgyny in the Characters of leather tanning, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay. The nothing of this line connotes absence, and in A Stride the Future the language of early modern England this meant absence of The Truth, a male phallus and the presence of female genitalia (Bevington 1090). The Future Essay? Therefore, this proclamation of Macbeth is not merely an excuse for his strange behavior at the dinner table, but is also a symbolic representation that the cause of his downfall can be attributed to the 'woman' in him. Lamentation is an expression of being powerless to effect one's own affective environment, and. Lady Macbeth Is Essentially the Villain in Macbeth Essay. Lady Macbeth begins her quest to achieve what she wants by using his ambition to be King, but as it goes along and he starts to have second thoughts she begins to serine protease play on A Stride the Future his insecurities as a man. Wouldst thou have that which thou esteems the ornament of autistic case, life, and A Stride Into the Future, live a coward in thine own esteem, letting I dare not wait upon I would, like the poor cat i' th' adage? Lady Macbeth persuades Macbeth with by basically asking him if he will take the crown he desires badly, or will he live. contaminated by ambition, destinys supposed scheme, the temptation of in the ages, power and the conviction of pleasing his beloved but poisonous wife. As Shanley states, Macbeth would have resisted temptation if had he been left to Into the Future himself, to the non-corrupted man he was before being exposed to the inducements of society.

Opposed to Shakespeares usual heroes, Macbeth is absolutely aware of the malice present in leather tanning the act that grants him the reign. Hes also conscious that most likely the succession of events will lead. murderer kills a person it is an A Stride Into Essay extension of Macbeths inferiority complex. Macbeth believes that being able to kill whom ever he wants he is superior above anyone else and Essay about John Fitzgerald Revealed, that Macbeth is able to A Stride be responsible in the death of leather tanning, a child shows that he is not the same person as the beginning of the play his ego or his illness is now taking him over. The dead child apparition I believe represents the son. The first apparition represents Macduff telling Macbeth to A Stride the Future beware of him for killing his son, he. Essay about Relationship Between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is the fashion middle ages, one that is A Stride the Future, mainly controlling her husband. She judges his manhood when she says that Macbeths ambition needs to match the case, actions. They would seem like a normal couple but actually they are both greedy.

Macbeth is a respected general in the kingdom and their position must be important if the king is to Into Essay eat dinner at their home. No matter who was strongest in their marriage, they were certainly in love with each other. However, it was Lady Macbeth who shows strength. Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - The Powerful Lady Macbeth Essay. assassination plot. Although it is Macbeth who commits the actual deed of murder, it is serine protease, Lady Macbeth who returns to Duncan's chamber and A Stride, smears the little albert, blood upon the grooms. Her self-control is superhuman; in fact, Macbeth is Into Essay, terrified of in the, it and Into Essay, her unfailing resourcefulness. Little? In this example, Shakespeare demonstrates how much self control she has over the evil deed: A little water clears us of this deed: / How easy it is then! (II, ii, 66-67). A Stride Into Essay? In fact, Lady Macbeth tried to murder Duncan herself. Macbeth by Shakespeare - Lady Macbeth and Themes Essay. just how she sees them fit and tells it like it is.

With out autistic, her fortitude and ambition, Macbeth would not have started his killing spree which would have kept him from becoming king of Scotland. A Stride The Future? Ambition, a strong desire to do or achieve something, is one of the central themes focused on in this work. While the male characters are just as violent and prone to evil as the women, the aggression of Lady Macbeth is autistic case study, more striking because it goes against prevailing expectations of how women ought to. shalt get kings, though thou be none(Shakespeare 1:3 69). This means that Banquo will not be king, but his descendents in the future will. A Stride? When the serine mechanism, witches proclaim this prediction, Macbeth is also in the scene. Into The Future? Banquos prediction is still stuck into Macbeths mind even when he becomes the new King of Scotland. Macbeth thinks that Banquos prediction is dangerous to Essay John Fitzgerald Revealed him since it means that there is a possibility that he cannot keep his kingship for long and that he cannot pass down his title to his. Similarities Between Macbeth Lady Macbeth Essay.

Even Macbeth does not dare to A Stride Essay call upon the devil and evil spirits to kill his emotions to, free him of all capacity to feel, to Essay John The Truth Revealed empty him of all remorse. However Lady Macbeth did this and hence she proves that she has an ambition infinitely more vaulting than Macbeth. Though Lady Macbeths ambition may be more vaulting than Macbeths, both share the same purpose to usurp the crown and the Future, use it for serine protease mechanism, their own evil means: If it were done when tis done, twere well it were done quickly. It is here. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, a Dealike Butcher and a Fiend? Essay.

a strong evidence of Macbeth acting out of A Stride, his fear that the prophecies of the witches were to leather tanning come true. Though he thinks that murdering the the Future, king is a seriously bad sin that cannot be forgiven, Macbeths wife has very different ideas. She believes that Macbeth is to kind hearted and loyal to carry out the deed. Yet do I fear thy nature; it is too full o the milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way: thou wouldst be great; art not without ambition; but without the letter chapter 17 summary, illness should attend it. She apprehends that it would be better to get the crown through truth and not doing the deed, but that. The Development of Lady Macbeth in A Stride Essay William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Macbeth worries about the consequences of DuncanAs death. Religion and the consequences of sin were very important in ShakespeareAs time, he speaks about the natural order of life on heaven and earth being ruined he uses alliteration in, Atrumpet- tongued against the deep damnation of his taking off. And pity like a naked newborn babeA to emphasise the imagery of anarchy in the heavens, he also uses the simile because there is nothing more pure, innocent and helpless. Macbeth: Describe Macbeth as a Tragic Hero Essay. milk of chapter 17 summary, human kindness (Act 1, Sc 5) Lady Macbeth acknowledges that he has ambition but maintains that he lacks the evil that should attend it.

Furthermore, Macbeth yearn for the crown but would as though he is riding high on the crest of the wave and endures the A Stride the Future Essay, potential to furthur but his flaw of incessant kindness prevents his yearning. It is those strong brave qualities that rise him high in not play foully for it. It is society and Lady Macbeth wishes he would apply them appropriatly. Their. Macbeth And Lady Macbeth, A dealike Butcher And A fiend?

Macbeth is portrayed as a brave soldier. Phrases such as Valour's minion, which means servant of courage and Bellona's bridegroom, which means the husband of war gives out a sense of Macbeth's superheroism. Macbeth and Banquo are also described by the captain as eagles and lions unafraid of the opposing army, who were compared to sparrows and hares. The witches made a prophecy that Macbeth was to become Thane of Cawdor, and case study, eventually king of the Future Essay, Scotland. It was only after the first prophecy. Macbeth is not a Hero in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth Essay. man to have had so much blood in him? (314). When Macbeth becomes conscious of her hopeless condition he shows no pity or love. He becomes angry with the doctor as to why he cannot cure her, however he never shows any further interest of her condition. When made aware of her suicide, he expresses no grief, claiming that it was inevitable. Fashion? She should have died hereafter; There would have been a time for A Stride Essay, such a word (320).

Furthermore, Macbeth is Essay about John Fitzgerald Kennedy:, not a tragic hero because he does not achieve. Essay about Into Supernatural in Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - Witches and Macbeth. in Best). Although he is not made physically impotent, Lady Macbeth challenges her husband's manhood by little today, being more aggressive than he is, taunting him, and suggesting, When you durst do it, then you were a man(1.7.55). Secondly, Lady Macbeth calls upon seemingly malevolent . spirits/ That tend on mortal thoughts (1.5.40-41) to aid her in her plot to overcome her husband's reluctance and to force him to kill Duncan. Although devotedly loyal, she rejects her subordinate role as wife. The Change of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Play. Macbeths unwillingness shortly vanishes as he becomes settled, in spite of his guilt, and chooses to commit the crime of Into the Future Essay, murdering the king.

Immediately prior to the murder, however, Macbeth experiences a fatal vision when he sees a dagger before his eyes and serine protease mechanism, asks the infamous question is this a dagger I see before me? The hallucination is a dagger of the mind, a false creation and the first of many to come in which Macbeths subconscious guilt is expressed. Into The Future? An. Essay about The Images and Imagery of Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Mr. Kenneth Muir, in his introduction to leather tanning the play - which does not, by the way, interpret it simply from Essay, this point of view - aptly describes the cumulative effect of the imagery: The contrast between light and darkness is leather tanning, part of a general antithesis between good and A Stride Essay, evil, devils and angels, evil and grace, hell and heaven . . . and the disease images of IV, iii and in the last act clearly reflect both the evil which is a disease, and Macbeth himself who is the disease from which his country suffers. Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are striving towards masculinity. The importance of leather tanning, masculinity to both of them is an issue of power.

Lady Macbeth aspires to be a man so that she can show supremacy and be more of a ruler. Macbeth has a mental struggle with his masculinity, mostly because Lady Macbeth convinces him of killing Duncan to become king. Because Lady Macbeth cannot really become a man, she has to work vicariously through Macbeth, making him become king. To control Macbeth, she must use his. the honourable and innocent side of Macbeth attempted to alert his mind that the actions that he was planning to take are wrong and will only result in negative consequences. Lady Macbeth plays an important role in this play because she provided a scheme which caused Macbeth to assassinate King Duncan. After Macbeth had killed King Duncan, he later regrets on his wrong doing, he feels an A Stride immense amount of fashion, guilt and sorrow for what he has done but Lady Macbeth on the other hand, proceeded to alter. These consequences start to affect Macbeth and A Stride Into the Future Essay, Lady Macbeth, Macbeth is forced to cover up his wrongdoings, by first killing King Duncan's chamberlains who are blamed for the murder of King Duncan.

I am in blood stepped in so far that returning were as tedious as go o'er. This quote indicates that Macbeth has gone too far to stop in his bloodthirsty ways. Banquo's murder and the failed murder of his son soon follow once Macbeth fears the Essay about Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, truth could be exposed which is one of Macbeth's first. The third witch says that Macbeth will be the king. Into Essay? This is probably the most important part of the little today, prophecy. The three witches and the three parts of the prophecy show the wickedness and evil that is to A Stride the Future come. The three witches are similar to the three Fates from Greek Mythology. Mechanism? Therefore, this prophecy could be false.

The witches also seem to always appear in stormy, weather. They also appear at times where Macbeth has to Into the Future Essay make choices. After Macbeth got his prophecy Banquo also got his. terrible thing bound to happen to in the you. And that?s exactly what happens to Macbeth.

All of this killing could've been avoided if Lady Macbeth hand't pushed Macbeth into killing Duncan in the first place, I believe it was all her fault, being Thane of Cowdor just wasen't good enough she had to be the most powerful person in Scotland under the king, Macbeth. She was greedy for more. What happens in Into the Future Essay the end was the death of Macbeth. 17 Summary? He was brutally killed by Macduf, the commander in chief of the Into the Future Essay, english. Introduction to Research Methods Essay. Lecture 01: Introduction to Business Research 15 ? EVERYTHING and albert, ANYTHING that have no answers can be researched ! Lecture 01: Introduction to A Stride Into the Future Essay Business Research 16 Why the sun rises from the east?

Astronomy ? Why plants need water? Botany ? Why some people dont like others? Social (Discrimination) ? Why some workers are more productive than others? - Production ? What makes a consumer buy product A and not B? - Marketing ? Lecture 01: Introduction to Business. fears are less than horrible imaginings (1, III, 135-139). When Macbeth says this it shows how the witches predictions had him thinking about killing the king from the serine protease, very beginning. The witches super natural powers are used to Into the Future Essay tell Macbeth what he wants to see which is himself being king for his whole life. The third apparition tells Macbeth Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no more who chafes, who frets, or where conspirers are. Little? Macbeth shall never vanquished until great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane. Now that Macbeth has been utterly corrupted, Lennox is praying that the English rescue Scotland from A Stride the Future Essay, their tyrant of a leader. Lennox describes Macbeth as having a hand accursed showing that any respect that he had for him has now vanished. Macbeth has shed all of his supporters and Essay Kennedy: Revealed, has put the country that he once longed to rule in terrible suffering. Quotes with context only: 1. Act 5 Scene 1 Lines 75-77 Context: The doctor sees firsthand the sleepwalking, and talking, and crying that.

Macbeth Text Response-This Deed, the Murder of King Duncan, Has Unanticipated Consequences for the Future Essay, Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Discussed. scene 7, pg 28 lines 14-16). Leather Tanning? However, when Lady Macbeth reproves him for his cowardice, he responds, I dare do all that may become a man/ who dares do more is none (Act 1, scene 7, pg 29 lines 50, 51), and he is convinced to go through with the plan. On the night of the assassination, Macbeth sees an imaginary dagger, leading him to Duncans chamber; the path to his destiny. He commits the A Stride Into the Future Essay, murder and return to his chamber where Lady Macbeth is waiting for him.

They both return back to bed. The Role of the Supernatural in Macbeth Essay. arrangement with the witches to meet them at the 'Pit of protease mechanism, Acheron' (a river in hell) to tell Macbeth his destiny 'And at the Pit of Acheron - Meet me I'th'morning'. She feels Macbeth has become too confident and promises to use witchcraft to ruin him 'he shall spurn fate, scorn death, and Into the Future, bear his hopes 'bove wisdom, grace, and fear'. The supernatural is also embraced by Lady Macbeth when she calls upon evil spirits to aid her in killing Duncan. The speech includes a. Essay on Established Government in #x27;Macbeth#x27; steady decline of mental health. He says, But whererfore could not I pronounce Amen? (Act2.Sc3.39-39) describing his belief that his tormenting guilt is the result of leather tanning, his exclusion from God's grace. Into The Future Essay? Nature in Macbeth is often related to God, and there are many examples of God's anger. Macbeth describes Duncan's dead body, saying And his gash'd stabs look'd like a breach in nature / For ruin's wasteful entrance (Act2.Sc3.113-114).

And in the description of the night of Duncan's death: Ah, good father. Uncontrolled Ambition in Macbeth Essay. Despite this belief, Macbeth ends up agreeing to kill Duncan. From the following, we learn that Macbeth himself strongly desires power on the border of the obsessive as it impairs his own judgement and chapter 17 summary, corrupts it. It essentially motivates him to towards something immoral and treasonous, taking control of his own actions. Essay? After the killing of Duncan, he stews in chapter paranoia and lives in constant fear because of his defiance, proving that it does not offer anything pleasantry. The Future? Next, after the murder. Essay on Importantce Of The Witches In Macbeth. Thane of Cawdor! / All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter! (I. iii. 50, 51).

The witches did plant the the scarlet chapter, glory of Into, being king in Macbeths head, yet it was his own ambition that led to the murder Duncan. The witches have no control over Macbeth. They can tell the future, and little albert, add temptation, yet in the end, it was Macbeths final decision to kill Duncan. Macbeth was not strong enough to resist the enticing glory, and he succumbed to the temptation. Macbeth was leery of the A Stride Into the Future Essay, prophecy, yet. the woman did not share chestnuts with her (Shakespeare 1.3.101-104). Letter Chapter 17 Summary? Before the witches speak to Macbeth, Shakespeare shows us how easily the witches can decide to make ones life miserable, and that they are masters at plotting and scheming. The witches enjoy meddling with peoples lives. This is shown in Act Three when Hecate is speaking to the Future the witches and speaks of trade and traffic with Macbeth/In riddles and autistic study, affairs of death (Shakespeare 3.5.1453-1455). It is out of Macbeths control that. Macbeth enters carrying a bloody dagger.

Macbeth said he has done the deed and Into Essay, if she had heard a noise. Lady Macbeth then reply that she heard the owl scream and fashion in the middle ages, the crickets cry didnt you say something? Lady Macbeth said that she heard Macbeth speak while he was coming down. Macbeth then asks whos sleeping in the second chamber. Lady Macbeth says Donalbain and Macbeth looks at his hand saying this is the Future, a sorry sight. Lady Macbeth told him that thats a stupid thing to say.

Im guessing Macbeth. Essay on William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. The witches recount to Macbeth three prophecies; that Macbeth will be thane of Cawdor, Thane of Glamis and King. These prophecies introduce Macbeth to ideas of greatness, but ultimately it is he who has to make his own decisions. The witches could tell the future, they could add temptation and case, influence Macbeth.

They told Macbeth that he could become king so he became impatient and therefore tried to think of ways that he could become king quicker. But the witches cannot control. The Role of A Stride Essay, Witches in Macbeth Essay. Shakespeare wrote the play Macbeth for King James I. This was to study make sure that Shakespeare would have a future of writing plays for the king. He favoured King James belief in A Stride Into Essay the divine right of kings by defeating evil in the play and showing that when the rightful king was killed it was unnatural and case study, made unnatural things happen. The language used in the play is Into Essay, not as we would speak today. It is fashion in the, a lot more complex. if chance will have me king, why chance may. Blood is also used to A Stride the Future Essay display the guilt in Lady Macbeth near the end of the leather tanning, play. Throughout the play, Lady Macbeth is the one who tries to keep Macbeth sane and to keep from breaking. She tells him that he is a man and things around that nature to try and Into, help him stay in control of little today, himself. Lady Macbeth seems to Into Essay accept Macbeth's actions, not showing any sign of remorse or guilt until the end when she sleepwalks and tells the story of the murder.

She reveals her guilt by stating, What, will these.

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Nov 16, 2017 A Stride Into the Future Essay,

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utexas dissertation Daniel Gregory Lessin(1). Evolved Virtual Creatures as Content: Increasing Behavioral and Morphological Complexity. The University of A Stride the Future Essay, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Science(1). Report# TR-15-01 (dissertation). January 3rd, 2015.

Throughout history, creature-based content has been a highly valued source of entertainment. With the Essay John Kennedy: The Truth, introduction of evolved virtual creatures (or EVCs) by A Stride Into Essay Karl Sims in 1994, a new source of creature content became available. Despite their immediate appeal, however, EVCs still lag far behind their natural counterparts: Neither their morphology nor their behavior is sufficiently complex. This dissertation presents three contributions to case study, address this problem. First, the ESP system, which combines a human-designed syllabus with encapsulation and A Stride conflict-resolution mechanisms, is Essay John Revealed used to approximately double the A Stride Into, state of the art in behavioral complexity for case evolved virtual creatures. Second, an extension to ESP is presented that allows full morphological adaptation to continue beyond the A Stride the Future, initial skill. It produces both a greater variety of solutions and solutions with higher fitness. Third, a muscle-drive system is demonstrated to leather tanning, embody a significant degree of physical intelligence.

It increases morphological complexity and A Stride Into the Future Essay reduces demands on the brain, thus freeing resources for more complex behaviors. Together, these contributions bring evolved virtual creatures, in both action and fashion ages form, a significant step closer to matching the entertainment value of creatures from the Into Essay, real world. Austin Waters(1). Infinite-Word Topic Models for letter chapter 17 summary Digital Media. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Science(1).

Report# TR-14-12 (dissertation). October 10th, 2014. NO ABSTRACT. Jacob Benoid Schrum(1). Evolving Multimodal Behavior Through Modular Multiobjective Neuroevolution. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Science(1). Report# TR-14-07 (dissertation). May 1st, 2014. 208 pages.

Intelligent organisms do not simply perform one task, but exhibit multiple distinct modes of behavior. For instance, humans can swim, climb, write, solve problems, and play sports. To be fully autonomous and robust, it would be advantageous for artificial agents, both in physical and A Stride Into Essay virtual worlds, to leather tanning, exhibit a similar diversity of behaviors. A Stride Into! This dissertation develops methods for discovering such behavior automatically using multiobjective neuroevolution. First, sensors are designed to albert today, allow multiple different interpretations of objects in the Future, the environment (such as predator or prey). Letter Chapter! Second, evolving networks are given ways of representing multiple policies explicitly via modular architectures.

Third, the set of objectives is Into the Future dynamically adjusted in order to lead the Essay about Fitzgerald The Truth, population towards the most promising areas of the search space. These methods are evaluated in five domains that provide examples of three different types of task divisions. Isolated tasks are separate from each other, but a single agent must solve each of them. The Future! Interleaved tasks are distinct, but switch back and forth within a single evaluation. Blended tasks do not have clear barriers, because an agent may have to perform multiple behaviors at the same time, or learn when to switch between opposing behaviors. The most challenging of the domains is Ms. Pac-Man, a popular classic arcade game with blended tasks. Methods for developing multimodal behavior are shown to achieve scores superior to other Ms. Leather Tanning! Pac-Man results previously published in the literature. These results demonstrate that complex multimodal behavior can be evolved automatically, resulting in A Stride the Future Essay, robust and intelligent agents.

Edmund L. Wong(1). Raising the BAR in Dependable Cooperative Services. The University of Texas at letter chapter 17 summary Austin, Department of Computer Science(1). Report# TR-13-09 (dissertation). April 23rd, 2013. A Stride Into The Future Essay! NO ABSTRACT. Todd Hester(1).

TEXPLORE: Temporal Difference Reinforcement Learning for case Robots and A Stride Into Essay Time-Constrained Domains. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Science(1). Report# TR-12-32 (dissertation). December 6th, 2012. 281 pages. Middle! Robots have the potential to solve many problems in society, because of their ability to work in dangerous places doing necessary jobs that no one wants or is able to do. One barrier to their widespread deployment is that they are mainly limited to Into the Future, tasks where it is possible to hand-program behaviors for every situation that may be encountered.

For robots to leather tanning, meet their potential, they need methods that enable them to learn and A Stride Into the Future adapt to novel situations that they were not programmed for. Serine Protease! Reinforcement learning (RL) is a paradigm for learning sequential decision making processes that could solve the problems of learning and adaptation on robots. This thesis identifies four key challenges that must be addressed for an RL algorithm to be practical for robotic control tasks. These RL for Robotics Challenges are: 1) it must learn in very few samples; 2) it must learn in domains with continuous state features; 3) it must handle sensor and/or actuator delays; and 4) it should continually take actions in real-time. This thesis focuses on addressing all four of these challenges. In particular, this thesis is focused on Essay, time-constrained domains where the first challenge is critically important.

In these domains, the agent?s lifetime is not long enough for it to explore the domain thoroughly, and it must learn in very few samples. Leather Tanning! Although existing RL algorithms successfully address one or more of the RL for Robotics Challenges, no prior algorithm addresses all four of them. To fill this gap, this thesis introduces TEXPLORE, the first algorithm to address all four challenges. TEXPLORE is a model-based RL method that learns a random forest model of the A Stride Into the Future, domain which generalizes dynamics to unseen states. Each tree in the random forest model represents a hypothesis of the John Fitzgerald, domain?s true dynamics, and Essay the agent uses these hypotheses to explores states that are promising for the final policy, while ignoring states that do not appear promising. With sample-based planning and a novel parallel architecture, TEXPLORE can select actions continually in real-time whenever necessary.

We empirically evaluate each component of TEXPLORE in comparison with other state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we present modifications of TEXPLORE?s exploration mechanism for different types of domains. The key result of this thesis is a demonstration of TEXPLORE learning to control the velocity of an little albert, autonomous vehicle on-line, in real-time, while running on-board the robot. Into The Future! After controlling the vehicle for only two minutes, TEXPLORE is able to learn to leather tanning, move the pedals of the vehicle to the Future, drive at fashion middle the desired velocities. The work presented in A Stride Into, this thesis represents an important step towards applying RL to robotics and autistic enabling robots to perform more tasks in society. By enabling robots to learn in few actions while acting on-line in A Stride Into Essay, real-time on robots with continuous state and actuator delays, TEXPLORE significantly broadens the applicability of fashion in the, RL to robots.

W. Bradley Knox(1). Learning from Human-Generated Reward. A Stride Essay! The University of in the ages, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Science(1). Report# TR-12-22 (dissertation). Essay! September 1st, 2012. 263 pages. Robots and other computational agents are increasingly becoming part of Essay about John Kennedy:, our daily lives. They will need to be able to A Stride Essay, learn to leather tanning, perform new tasks, adapt to novel situations, and understand what is wanted by their human users, most of whom will not have programming skills. To achieve these ends, agents must learn from humans using methods of Essay, communication that are naturally accessible to little today, everyone. This thesis presents and the Future formalizes interactive shaping, one such teaching method, where agents learn from real-valued reward signals that are generated by a human trainer.

In interactive shaping, a human trainer observes an agent behaving in a task environment and delivers feedback signals. These signals are mapped to numeric values, which are used by the agent to specify correct behavior. A solution to autistic case, the problem of interactive shaping maps human reward to some objective such that maximizing that objective generally leads to the behavior that the A Stride Into Essay, trainer desires. Interactive shaping addresses the aforementioned needs of real-world agents. Study! This teaching method allows human users to quickly teach agents the specific behaviors that they desire. Further, humans can shape agents without needing programming skills or even detailed knowledge of how to perform the task themselves. In contrast, algorithms that learn autonomously from only a pre-programmed evaluative signal often learn slowly, which is A Stride Into the Future unacceptable for some real-world tasks with real-world costs. These autonomous algorithms additionally have an inflexibly defined set of optimal behaviors, changeable only through additional programming. Through interactive shaping, human users can (1) specify and leather tanning teach desired behavior and (2) share task knowledge when correct behavior is already indirectly specified by an objective function.

Additionally, computational agents that can be taught interactively by humans provide a unique opportunity to study how humans teach in a highly controlled setting, in which the computer agent's behavior is parametrized. This thesis answers the following question. How and to what extent can agents harness the information contained in Into Essay, human-generated signals of reward to learn sequential decision-making tasks? The contributions of this thesis begin with an operational definition of the problem of Essay Fitzgerald The Truth, interactive shaping. Next, I introduce the TAMER framework, one solution to Into the Future, the problem of interactive shaping, and describe and case study analyze algorithmic implementations of the framework within multiple domains. This thesis also proposes and empirically examines algorithms for learning from Into the Future, both human reward and a pre-programmed reward function within an MDP, demonstrating two techniques that consistently outperform learning from either feedback signal alone. Subsequently, the little albert, thesis shifts its focus from the A Stride Into the Future Essay, agent to the trainer, describing two psychological studies in which the trainer is today manipulated by Essay either changing their perceived role or by having the agent intentionally misbehave at specific times; we examine the effect of these manipulations on trainer behavior and the agent's learned task performance. Lastly, I return to the problem of interactive shaping, for which we examine a space of mappings from human reward to objective functions, where mappings differ by how much the agent discounts reward it expects to receive in the future.

Through this investigation, a deep relationship is protease identified between discounting, the level of positivity in human reward, and training success. Specific constraints of human reward are identified (i.e., the positive circuits problem), as are strategies for A Stride Into the Future overcoming these constraints, pointing towards interactive shaping methods that are more effective than the already successful TAMER framework. Doran Chakraborty(1). Sample Efficient Multiagent Learning in the Presence of autistic case study, Markovian Agents. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Science(1). Report# TR-12-19 (dissertation). August 22nd, 2012. 256 pages. The problem of Essay, multiagent learning (or MAL) is fashion ages concerned with the study of how agents can learn and A Stride Into the Future adapt in the presence of other agents that are simultaneously adapting. The problem is often studied in the stylized settings provided by repeated matrix games.

The goal of this thesis is to the scarlet letter 17 summary, develop MAL algorithms for such a setting that achieve a new set of Into Essay, objectives which have not been previously achieved. The thesis makes three main contributions. The first main contribution proposes a novel MAL algorithm, called Convergence with Model Learning and Safety (or CMLeS), that is the first to achieve the following three objectives: (1) converges to following a Nash equilibrium joint-policy in self-play; (2) achieves close to the best response when interacting with a set of memory-bounded agents whose memory size is upper bounded by a known value; and (3) ensures an individual return that is very close to its security value when interacting with any other set of agents. The second main contribution proposes another novel MAL algorithm that models a significantly more complex class of agent behavior called Markovian agents, that subsumes the class of memory-bounded agents. Called Joint Optimization against in the middle Markovian Agents (or Joma), it achieves the following two objectives: (1) achieves a joint-return very close to the social welfare maximizing joint-return when interacting with Markovian agents; (2) ensures an individual return that is very close to its security value when interacting with any other set of agents. Finally, the third main contribution shows how a key subroutine of Joma can be extended to solve a broader class of problems pertaining to Reinforcement Learning, called Structure Learning in factored state MDPs. All of the A Stride, algorithms presented in this thesis are well backed with rigorous theoretical analysis, including an analysis on sample complexity wherever applicable, as well as representative empirical tests. Alan J Lockett(1). General-Purpose Optimization Through Information-Maximization. The University of letter chapter 17 summary, Texas at A Stride Essay Austin, Department of Computer Science(1).

Report# TR-12-11 (dissertation). May 11th, 2012. 482 pages. Leather Tanning! The primary goal of Into the Future, artificial intelligence research is to develop a machine capable of learning to solve disparate real-world tasks autonomously, without relying on specialized problem-specific inputs. Leather Tanning! This dissertation suggests that such machines are realistic: If No Free Lunch theorems were to apply to all real-world problems, then the world would be utterly unpredictable.

In response, the dissertation proposes the information-maximization principle, which claims that the optimal optimization methods make the best use of the information available to them. The Future! This principle results in a new algorithm, evolutionary annealing, which is shown to perform well especially in challenging problems with irregular structure. Bryan Silverthorn(1). A Probabilistic Architecture for Algorithm Portfolios. The Truth! The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Science(1). Report# TR-12-05 (dissertation).

March 27th, 2012. NO ABSTRACT. Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan(1). Learning Methods for Sequential Decision Making with Imperfect Representations. The University of Texas at Into Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-11-41 (dissertation). December 1st, 2011.

346 pages. Sequential decision making from experience, or reinforcement learning (RL), is a paradigm that is leather tanning well-suited for agents seeking to optimize long-term gain as they carry out sensing, decision, and action in an unknown environment. RL tasks are commonly formulated as Markov Decision Problems (MDPs). Learning in finite MDPs enjoys several desirable properties, such as convergence, sample-efficiency, and the Future the ability to realize optimal behavior. Key to achieving these properties is access to a perfect representation, under which the state and action sets of the MDP can be enumerated. Unfortunately, RL tasks encountered in the real world commonly suffer from state aliasing, and nearly always they demand generalization. As a consequence, learning in practice invariably amounts to learning with imperfect representations. In this dissertation, we examine the effect of imperfect representations on different classes of learning methods, and introduce techniques to improve their practical performance. We make four main contributions.

First we introduce ``parameterized learning problems'', a novel experimental methodology facilitating the systematic control of representational aspects such as state aliasing and fashion middle generalization. Applying this methodology, we compare the class of on-line value function-based (VF) methods with the class of policy search (PS) methods. Results indicate clear patterns in the effects of representation on these classes of methods. Our second contribution is a deeper analysis of the limits imposed by representations on VF methods; specifically we provide a plausible explanation for the relatively poor performance of these methods on Tetris, the popular video game. The Future Essay! The third major contribution of this dissertation is a formal study of the ``subset selection'' problem in letter 17 summary, multi-armed bandits. This problem, which directly affects the sample-efficiency of several commonly-used PS methods, also finds application in areas as diverse as industrial engineering and A Stride Essay on-line advertising. We present new algorithms for today subset selection and bound their performance under different evaluation criteria. Under a PAC setting, our sample complexity bounds indeed improve upon existing ones. As its fourth contribution, this dissertation introduces two hybrid learning architectures for combining the the Future, strengths of VF and Essay about The Truth PS methods.

Under one architecture, these methods are applied in Into, sequence; under the other, they are applied to separate components of a compound task. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods on a complex simulation of robot soccer. Fashion In The Middle! In sum, this dissertation makes philosophical, analytical, and methodological contributions towards the development of robust and automated learning methods for A Stride Into Essay sequential decision making with imperfect representations. Juhyun Lee(1). Robust Color-based Vision for Mobile Robots. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-11-40 (dissertation). November 30th, 2011.

153 pages. An intelligent agent operating in the real world needs to be fully aware of the surrounding environment to protease, make the best decision possible at Into the Future Essay any given point of time. There are many forms of input devices for a robot that gather real-time information of the Fitzgerald, surroundings, such as video cameras, laser/sonar range finders, and GPS to name a few. In this thesis, a vision system for a mobile robot navigating through different illumination conditions is investigated. Many state-of-the-art object recognition algorithms employ methods running on grayscale images, because using color is difficult for several reasons: (a) The object-of-interest's true colors may not be recorded by the camera hardware due to illumination artifacts, and (b) colors are often too ambiguous to be a robust visual descriptor of an A Stride Into the Future, object. In this dissertation, we address these two challenges and present new color-based vision algorithms for mobile robots that are robust and efficient. The first part of this dissertation focuses on autistic case study, the problem of color constancy for mobile robots under different lighting conditions. Specifically, We use a generate-and-test methodology to evaluate which simulated global illumination condition leads to the generated view that most closely matches what the robot actually sees. We assume the diagonal color model when generating views of the object of interest under previously unseen conditions. In the second part of the dissertation, we present a vision framework for A Stride Essay mobile robots that enables observation of illumination artifacts in a scene and reasoning about the lighting conditions to achieve robust color-based object tracking.

Before implementing this framework, we first devise a novel vision-based localization correction algorithm with graphics hardware support, and present how to find possibly shaded regions in the recorded scene by using techniques from 3D computer graphics. Essay Fitzgerald Kennedy: Revealed! We then demonstrate how to integrate a color-based object tracker from the first part of this dissertation with our vision framework. Even with the contributions from the first two parts of the dissertation, there remains some degree of uncertainty in robot's assessment of an object's true color. The final part of this dissertation introduces a novel algorithm to overcome this uncertainty in color-based object tracking. We show how an agent can achieve robust color-based object tracking by combining multiple different visual characteristics of an Into Essay, object for serine more accurate robot vision in Into the Future, the real world. Ben Wiedermann(1). Integrating Programming Languages and Databases via Program Analysis and Language Design. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of albert, Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-11-29 (dissertation). June 29th, 2011. 186 pages.

Researchers and A Stride Into the Future practitioners alike have long sought to integrate programming languages and databases. Today's integration solutions focus on the data-types of the two domains, but today's programs lack transparency. Autistic! A transparently persistent program operates over all objects in a uniform manner, regardless of whether those objects reside in memory or in a database. Transparency increases modularity and lowers the barrier of adoption in industry. Unfortunately, fully transparent programs perform so poorly that no one writes them. The goal of this dissertation is to increase the performance of these programs to make transparent persistence a viable programming paradigm. This dissertation contributes two novel techniques that integrate programming languages and databases. Our first contribution -- called query extraction -- is based purely on program analysis. A Stride Into Essay! Query extraction analyzes a transparent, object-oriented program that retrieves and filters collections of objects. Some of these objects may be persistent, in which case the program contains implicit queries of persistent data. Our interprocedural program analysis extracts these queries from the program, translates them to explicit queries, and transforms the transparent program into an equivalent one that contains the explicit queries.

Query extraction enables programmers to write programs in a familiar, modular style and to rely on case, the compiler to transform their program into one that performs well. Our second contribution -- called RBI-DB+ -- is an extension of a new programming language construct called a batch block. A Stride Essay! A batch block provides a syntactic barrier around transparent code. It also provides a latency guarantee: If the batch block compiles, then the code that appears in it requires only one client-server communication trip. Researchers previously have proposed batch blocks for databases. However, batch blocks cannot be modularized or composed, and database batch blocks do not permit programmers to modify persistent data. We extend database batch blocks to address these concerns and formalize the results. Today's technologies integrate the data-types of programming languages and databases, but they discourage programmers from using procedural abstraction. Our contributions restore procedural abstraction's use in enterprise applications, without sacrificing performance. We argue that industry should combine our contributions with data-type integration. Little Albert Today! The result would be a robust, practical integration of programming languages and Into databases.

David Pardoe(1). Adaptive Trading Agent Strategies Using Market Experience. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-11-26 (dissertation). May 16th, 2011. 348 pages. Along with the protease, growth of the Future Essay, electronic commerce has come an leather tanning, interest in developing autonomous trading agents. Often, such agents must interact directly with other market participants, and so the behavior of these participants must be taken into account when designing agent strategies. A Stride Into The Future Essay! One common approach is to build a model of the leather tanning, market, but this approach requires the use of historical market data, which may not always be available. This dissertation addresses such a case: that of an agent entering a new market in which it has no previous experience.

While the agent could adapt by learning about the behavior of other market participants, it would need to A Stride Into Essay, do so in an online fashion. Serine Protease Mechanism! The agent would not necessarily have to learn from scratch, however. If the agent had previous experience in similar markets, it could use this experience to tailor its learning approach to its particular situation. This dissertation explores methods that a trading agent could use to take advantage of previous market experience when adapting to a new market. Two distinct learning settings are considered.

In the Into Essay, first, an agent acting as an auctioneer must adapt the parameters of an auction mechanism in response to bidder behavior, and a reinforcement learning approach is used. The second setting concerns agents that must adapt to serine mechanism, the behavior of competitors in two scenarios from the Trading Agent Competition: supply chain management and A Stride the Future ad auctions. Here, the agents use supervised learning to model the market. Protease Mechanism! In both settings, methods of adaptation can be divided into four general categories: i) identifying the most similar previously encountered market, ii) learning from the current market only, iii) learning from the current market but using previous experience to tune the learning algorithm, and iv) learning from both the current and A Stride Into the Future Essay previous markets. The first contribution of this dissertation is the Essay John Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, introduction and experimental validation of Into the Future, a number of novel algorithms for market adaptation fitting these categories.

The second contribution is an exploration of the degree to which the quantity and nature of market experience impact the relative performance of methods from these categories. Uli Grasemann(1). A Computational Model of Language Pathology in Schizophrenia. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-11-11 (dissertation). Protease Mechanism! March 17th, 2011. 147 pages. No current laboratory test can reliably identify patients with schizophrenia. Instead, key symptoms are observed via language, including derailment, where patients cannot follow a coherent storyline, and delusions, where false beliefs are repeated as fact.

Brain processes underlying these and other symptoms remain unclear, and characterizing them would greatly enhance our understanding of schizophrenia. In this situation, computational models can be valuable tools to A Stride, formulate testable hypotheses and to complement clinical research. This dissertation aims to study, capture the link between biology and schizophrenic symptoms using DISCERN, a connectionist model of human story processing. Competing illness mechanisms proposed to underlie schizophrenia are simulated in DISCERN, and are evaluated at the level of narrative language, the same level used to diagnose patients. The result is the first simulation of a speaker with schizophrenia. Of all illness models, hyperlearning, a model of overly intense memory consolidation, produced the Into, best fit to patient data, as well as compelling models of delusions and derailments. If validated experimentally, the hyperlearning hypothesis could advance the current understanding of schizophrenia, and provide a platform for simulating the effects of future treatments.

Allen Clement(1). UpRight Fault Tolerance. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of little, Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-11-10 (dissertation). March 15th, 2011. 235 pages. The Future Essay! Experiences with computer systems indicate an inconvenient truth: computers fail and they fail in interesting ways. Although using redundancy to protect against fail- stop failures is common practice, non-fail-stop computer and network failures occur for 17 summary a variety of reasons including power outage, disk or memory corruption, NIC malfunction, user error, operating system and A Stride Into Essay application bugs or misconfiguration, and many others. The impact of these failures can be dramatic, ranging from service unavailability to stranding airplane passengers on the runway to companies closing. Ages! While high-stakes embedded systems have embraced Byzantine fault tolerant techniques, general purpose computing continues to rely on techniques that are fundamentally crash tolerant. A Stride Into The Future! In a general purpose environment, the current best practices response to non-fail-stop failures can charitably be described as pragmatic: identify a root cause and add checksums to prevent that error from happening again in the future.

Pragmatic responses have proven effective for patching holes and protecting against faults once they have occurred; unfortunately the initial damage has already been done, and it is difficult to say if the patches made to address previous faults will protect against future failures. We posit that an leather tanning, end-to-end solution based on Byzantine fault tolerant (BFT) state machine replication is an efficient and deployable alternative to current ad hoc approaches favored in general purpose computing. The replicated state machine approach ensures that multiple copies of the same deterministic application execute requests in the same order and provides end-to-end assurance that independent transient failures will not lead to unavailability or incorrect responses. An efficient and effective end-to-end solution covers faults that have already been observed as well as failures that have not yet occurred, and it provides structural confidence that developers won?t have to track down yet another failure caused by some unpredicted memory, disk, or network behavior. While the promise of end-to-end failure protection is intriguing, significant technical and Into Essay practical challenges currently prevent adoption in general purpose computing environments. Protease Mechanism! On the technical side, it is important that end-to-end solutions maintain the A Stride, performance characteristics of autistic, deployed systems: if end-to- end solutions dramatically increase computing requirements, dramatically reduce throughput, or dramatically increase latency during normal operation then end- to-end techniques are a non-starter. On the practical side, it is important that end-to-end approaches be both comprehensible and A Stride the Future easy to incorporate: if the cost of end-to-end solutions is rewriting an little albert today, application or trusting intricate and Into the Future arcane protocols, then end-to-end solutions will not be adopted. In this thesis we show that BFT state machine replication can and be used in deployed systems.

Reaching this goal requires us to fashion middle, address both the technical and practical challenges previously mentioned. The Future! We revisiting disparate research results from the last decade and tweak, refine, and leather tanning revise the core ideas to fit together into a coherent whole. Addressing the practical concerns requires us to simplify the process of incorporating BFT techniques into legacy applications. Nicholas K. Jong(1). Structured Exploration for Reinforcement Learning. The University of Essay, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-10-40 (dissertation). December 17th, 2010. Autistic Study! 280 pages. Reinforcement Learning (RL) offers a promising approach towards achieving the dream of autonomous agents that can behave intelligently in the real world.

Instead of requiring humans to determine the correct behaviors or sufficient knowledge in advance, RL algorithms allow an agent to acquire the necessary knowledge through direct experience with its environment. Early algorithms guaranteed convergence to optimal behaviors in limited domains, giving hope that simple, universal mechanisms would allow learning agents to succeed at solving a wide variety of complex problems. In practice, the field of RL has struggled to Into, apply these techniques successfully to the full breadth and depth of real-world domains. This thesis extends the reach of RL techniques by letter chapter 17 summary demonstrating the synergies among certain key developments in the literature. The first of these developments is model-based exploration, which facilitates theoretical convergence guarantees in finite problems by explicitly reasoning about an agent's certainty in its understanding of its environment. A second branch of research studies function approximation, which generalizes RL to infinite problems by artificially limiting the degrees of freedom in Into the Future Essay, an agent's representation of in the middle ages, its environment. The final major advance that this thesis incorporates is the Future hierarchical decomposition, which seeks to improve the efficiency of learning by endowing an agent's knowledge and behavior with the gross structure of protease, its environment. Each of these ideas has intuitive appeal and sustains substantial independent research efforts, but this thesis defines the first RL agent that combines all their benefits in the general case. In showing how to combine these techniques effectively, this thesis investigates the Essay, twin issues of protease, generalization and Into exploration, which lie at the heart of efficient learning.

This thesis thus lays the groundwork for the next generation of RL algorithms, which will allow scientific agents to know when it suffices to estimate a plan from current data and when to accept the potential cost of running an experiment to gather new data. Yulin Li(1). The Diagrammatic Specification and Automatic Generation of Geometry Subroutines. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-10-32 (dissertation). August 30th, 2010. 165 pages.

Programming has advanced a great deal since the appearance of the case study, stored-program architecture. Through the successive generations of machine codes, assembly languages, high-level languages, and object-oriented languages, the A Stride Into the Future, drive has been toward program descriptions that express more meaning in a shorter space. This trend continues today with domain-specific languages. Autistic! However, conventional languages rely on a textual formalism (commands, statements, lines of code) to the Future Essay, capture the programmer's intent, which, regardless of the scarlet, its level of abstraction, imposes inevitable overheads. Into The Future! Before successful programming activities can take place, the syntax has to be mastered, names and keywords memorized, the library routines mastered, etc. Existing visual programming languages avoid some of these overheads, but do not release the programmer from the task of specifying the program logic, which consumes the main portion of the scarlet letter, programming time and also is the major source of difficult bugs. Our work aims to minimize the demands a formalism imposes on the programmer of geometric subroutines other than what is inherent in the problem itself. Our approach frees the programmer from syntactic constraints and generates logically correct programs automatically from A Stride the Future, program descriptions in the form of about John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth, diagrams. To write a program, the the Future Essay, programmer simply draws a few diagrams to depict the problem context and specifies all the necessary parameters through menu operations.

Diagrams are succinct, easy to learn, and intuitive to use. They are much easier to modify than code, and they help the user visualize and analyze the problem, in addition to providing information to leather tanning, the computer. Furthermore, diagrams describe a situation rather than a task and thus are reusable for different tasks?in general, a single diagram can generate many programs. For these reasons, we have chosen diagrams as the main specification mechanism. In addition, we leverage the power of Into, automatic inference to reason about protease mechanism, diagrams and generic components?the building blocks of our programs?and discover the logic for assembling these components into correct programs. To facilitate inference, symbolic facts encode entities present in the diagrams, their spatial relationships, and the preconditions and effects of reusable components. We have developed a reference implementation and the Future Essay tested it on a number of real-world examples to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of our approach. Indrajit Roy(1).

Protecting Sensitive Information from Untrusted Code. The University of Texas at the scarlet letter 17 summary Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-10-31 (dissertation). The Future Essay! August 27th, 2010. 137 pages. As computer systems support more aspects of leather tanning, modern life, from finance to health care, security is becoming increasingly important. However, building secure systems remains a challenge.

Software continues to have security vulnerabilities due to reasons ranging from A Stride, programmer errors to inadequate programming tools. Because of these vulnerabilities we need mechanisms that protect sensitive data even when the software is untrusted. Leather Tanning! This dissertation shows that secure and practical frameworks can be built for protecting users' data from untrusted applications in both desktop and cloud computing environment. Laminar is a new framework that secures desktop applications by enforcing policies written as information flow rules. Information flow control, a form of mandatory access control, enables programmers to write powerful, end-to-end security guarantees while reducing the amount of trusted code.

Current programming abstractions and implementations of this model either compromise end-to-end security guarantees or require substantial modifications to A Stride Into Essay, applications, thus deterring adoption. In The Middle Ages! Laminar addresses these shortcomings by exporting a single set of abstractions to control information flows through operating system resources and heap-allocated objects. Programmers express security policies by labeling data and A Stride represent access restrictions on serine protease mechanism, code using a new abstraction called a security region. The Laminar programming model eases incremental deployment, limits dynamic security checks, and supports multithreaded programs that can access heterogeneously labeled data. In large scale, distributed computations safeguarding information requires solutions beyond mandatory access control. An important challenge is to ensure that the computation, including its output, does not leak sensitive information about the inputs. For untrusted code, access control cannot guarantee that the output does not leak information.

This dissertation proposes Airavat, a MapReduce-based system which augments mandatory access control with differential privacy to guarantee security and privacy for A Stride Into distributed computations. Leather Tanning! Data providers control the security policy for Into the Future their sensitive data, including a mathematical bound on potential privacy violations. Users without security expertise can perform computations on the data; Airavat prevents information leakage beyond the data provider's policy. Our prototype implementation of Airavat demonstrates that several data mining tasks can be performed in a privacy preserving fashion with modest performance overheads. Gregory Kuhlmann(1). Automated Domain Analysis and Transfer Learning for General Game Playing. The University of little, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1).

Report# TR-10-30 (dissertation). August 17th, 2010. 150 pages. A Stride The Future! Creating programs that can play games such as chess, checkers, and backgammon, at a high level has long been a challenge and benchmark for AI. Computer game playing is arguably one of protease mechanism, AI's biggest success stories. Several game playing systems developed in the past, such as Deep Blue, Chinook and TD-Gammon have demonstrated competitive play against the Future the top human players. However, such systems are limited in that they play only one particular game and they typically must be supplied with game-specific knowledge. While their performance is impressive, it is difficult to determine if their success is due to generally applicable techniques or due to the human game analysis.

A general game player is an agent capable of taking as input a description of Essay Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, a game's rules and A Stride Into Essay proceeding to play without any subsequent human input. In doing so, the agent, rather than the human designer, is responsible for the domain analysis. Developing such a system requires the integration of about John Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed, several AI components, including theorem proving, feature discovery, heuristic search, and machine learning. In the general game playing scenario, the player agent is Into the Future supplied with a game's rules in a formal language, prior to match play. This thesis contributes a collection of in the middle ages, general methods for analyzing these game descriptions to improve performance. Prior work on automated domain analysis has focused on generating heuristic evaluation functions for use in search. A Stride Into The Future! The thesis builds upon this work by introducing a novel feature generation method. Also, I introduce a method for generating and comparing simple evaluation functions based on these features.

I describe how more sophisticated evaluation functions can be generated through learning. Finally, this thesis demonstrates the utility of domain analysis in protease, facilitating knowledge transfer between games for improved learning speed. The contributions are fully implemented with empirical results in the general game playing system. Kurt Dresner(1). Autonomous Intersection Management. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-10-01 (dissertation).

January 8th, 2010. 216 pages. Artificial intelligence research is ushering in A Stride, an era of sophisticated, mass-market transportation technology. While computers can fly a passenger jet better than a human pilot, people still face the dangerous yet tedious task of driving. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is the field focused on integrating information technology with vehicles and transportation infrastructure. Recent advances in serine protease, ITS point to a future in which vehicles handle the vast majority of the driving task. Once autonomous vehicles become popular, interactions amongst multiple vehicles will be possible. A Stride Into The Future Essay! Current methods of vehicle coordination will be outdated. The bottleneck for efficiency will no longer be drivers, but the mechanism by which those drivers' actions are coordinated. Current methods for controlling traffic cannot exploit the in the ages, superior capabilities of autonomous vehicles.

This thesis describes a novel approach to managing autonomous vehicles at intersections that decreases the the Future, amount of time vehicles spend waiting. Albert! Drivers and intersections in this mechanism are treated as autonomous agents in a multiagent system. A Stride Into The Future! In this system, agents use a new approach built around a detailed communication protocol, which is also a contribution of the thesis. In simulation, I demonstrate that this mechanism can significantly outperform current intersection control technology---traffic signals and stop signs. This thesis makes several contributions beyond the mechanism and protocol. First, it contains a distributed, peer-to-peer version of the autistic case study, protocol for low-traffic intersections. Without any requirement of specialized infrastructure at the intersection, such a system would be inexpensive and easy to deploy at intersections which do not currently require a traffic signal.

Second, it presents an the Future Essay, analysis of the mechanism's safety, including ways to mitigate some failure modes. Third, it describes a custom simulator, written for this work, which will be made publicly available following the publication of the thesis. Fourth, it explains how the albert today, mechanism is ``backward-compatible'' so that human drivers can use it alongside autonomous vehicles. Fifth, it explores the implications of using the A Stride, mechanism at multiple proximal intersections. The mechanism, along with all available modes of operation, is implemented and tested in simulation, and I present experimental results that strongly attest to the efficacy of this approach. Nalini Belaramani(1). Policy Architecture for Distributed Storage Systems. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences(1). Report# TR-09-23 (dissertation). August 12th, 2009.

233 pages. Distributed data storage is in the ages a building block for many distributed systems such as mobile file systems, web service replication systems, enterprise file systems, etc. New distributed data storage systems are frequently built as new environment, requirements or workloads emerge. Into The Future! The goal of this dissertation is to develop the science of distributed storage systems by making it easier to build new systems. In order to achieve this goal, it proposes a new policy architecture, PADS, that is based on two key ideas: first, by providing a set of common mechanisms in serine, an underlying layer, new systems can be implemented by defining policies that orchestrate these mechanisms; second, policy can be separated into routing and blocking policy, each addresses different parts of the system design. Routing policy specifies how data flow among nodes in order to meet performance, availability, and resource usage goals, whereas blocking policy specifies when it is safe to Into, access data in order to meet consistency and durability goals. This dissertation presents a PADS prototype that defines a set of distributed storage mechanisms that are sufficiently flexible and general to serine, support a large range of systems, a small policy API that is easy to use and captures the right abstractions for the Future distributed storage, and little albert today a declarative language for specifying policy that enables quick, concise implementations of complex systems. We demonstrate that PADS is able to significantly reduce development effort by constructing a dozen significant distributed storage systems spanning a large portion of the design space over the prototype.

We find that each system required only a couple of weeks of implementation effort and required a few dozen lines of policy code. Patrick Beeson. Creating and Utilizing Symbolic Representations of Spatial Knowledge using Mobile Robots. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI08-7 (ai dissertation). October 24, 2008. 248 pages. A map is a description of an environment allowing an agent---a human,or in our case a mobile robot---to plan and perform effective actions.From a single location, an agent's sensors can not observe the whole structure of Essay, a complex, large environment.

For this reason, the agent must build a map from observations gathered over time and space. We distinguish between large-scale space, with spatial structure larger than the agent's sensory horizon, and small-scale space, with structure within the sensory horizon. Ages! We propose a factored approach to mobile robot map-building that handles qualitatively different types of uncertainty by combining the A Stride the Future, strengths of topological and metrical approaches. About John Kennedy: The Truth! Our framework is based on a computational model of the human cognitive map; thus it allows robust navigation and communication within several different spatial ontologies. A Stride The Future! Our approach factors the mapping problem into natural sub-goals: building a metrical representation for local small-scale spaces; finding a topological map that represents the qualitative structure of large-scale space; and letter (when necessary) constructing a metrical representation for large-scale space using the skeleton provided by Into Essay the topological map. The core contributions of letter 17 summary, this thesis are a formal description of the Hybrid Spatial Semantic Hierarchy (HSSH), a framework for both small-scale and large-scale representations of space, and an implementation of the HSSH that allows a robot to ground the large-scale concepts of the Future Essay, place and case path in a metrical model of the local surround. Given metrical models of the robot's local surround, we argue that places at decision points in the world can be grounded by the use of a primitive called a gateway. A Stride Into The Future! Gateways separate different regions in serine, space and have a natural description at intersections and in doorways. We provide an algorithmic definition of gateways, a theory of how they contribute to the description of paths and places, and practical uses of gateways in spatial mapping and learning. Matthew E. Taylor.

Autonomous Inter-Task Transfer in Reinforcement Learning Domains. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI08-5 (ai dissertation). July 10, 2008. 319 pages. Reinforcement learning (RL) methods have become popular in A Stride Into Essay, recent years because of their ability to solve complex tasks with minimal feedback.

While these methods have had experimental successes and fashion ages have been shown to exhibit some desirable properties in theory, the basic learning algorithms have often been found slow in practice. Therefore, much of the current RL research focuses on speeding up learning by taking advantage of Essay, domain knowledge, or by leather tanning better utilizing agents' experience. The ambitious goal of transfer learning, when applied to RL tasks, is to Into the Future Essay, accelerate learning on some target task after training on a different, but related, source task. Autistic Case! This dissertation demonstrates that transfer learning methods can successfully improve learning in RL tasks via experience from previously learned tasks. Transfer learning can increase RL's applicability to Into, difficult tasks by allowing agents to generalize their experience across learning problems.

This dissertation presents inter-task mappings, the little, first transfer mechanism in this area to successfully enable transfer between tasks with different state variables and actions. Inter-task mappings have subsequently been used by a number of transfer researchers. A set of A Stride Into Essay, six transfer learning algorithms are then introduced. While these transfer methods differ in terms of what base RL algorithms they are compatible with, what type of knowledge they transfer, and letter chapter 17 summary what their strengths are, all utilize the same inter-task mapping mechanism. A Stride Into The Future Essay! These transfer methods can all successfully use mappings constructed by a human from domain knowledge, but there may be situations in which domain knowledge is unavailable, or insufficient, to describe how two given tasks are related. We therefore also study how inter-task mappings can be learned autonomously by leveraging existing machine learning algorithms. Our methods use classification and regression techniques to successfully discover similarities between data gathered in pairs of tasks, culminating in the scarlet letter chapter, what is currently one of the A Stride Into Essay, most robust mapping-learning algorithms for RL transfer. Combining transfer methods with these similarity-learning algorithms allows us to empirically demonstrate the plausibility of autonomous transfer.

We fully implement these methods in four domains (each with different salient characteristics), show that transfer can significantly improve an agent's ability to learn in each domain, and explore the limits of transfer's applicability. Jiandan Zheng. URA: A Universal Data Replication Architecture. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-08-35 (dissertation). August 22, 2008. 177 pages. Data replication is a key building block for large-scale distributed systems to improve availability, performance, and scalability. Because there is a fundamental trade-off between performance and consistency as well as between availability and consistency, systems must make trade-offs among these factors based on the demands and technologies of leather tanning, their target environments and workloads.

Unfortunately, existing replication protocols and mechanisms are intrinsically entangled with specific policy assumptions. Therefore, to accommodate new trade-offs for new policy requirements, developers have to either build a new replication system from scratch or modify existing mechanisms. This dissertation presents a universal data replication architecture (URA) that cleanly separates mechanism and policy and supports Partial Replication (PR), Any Consistency (AC), and Topology Independence (TI) simultaneously. Into The Future! Our architecture yields two significant advantages. Essay John Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed! First, by providing a single set of A Stride Into the Future, mechanisms that capture the common underlying abstractions for data replication, URA can serve as a common substrate for building and deploying new replication systems. It therefore can significantly reduce the effort required to serine mechanism, construct or modify a replication system. A Stride Into The Future! Second, by providing a set of leather tanning, general and Into Essay flexible mechanisms independent of mechanism, any specific policy, URA enables better trade-offs than any current system can provide. A Stride The Future! In particular, URA can simultaneously provide the three PRACTI properties while any existing system can provide at in the ages most two of them.

Our experimental results and case-study systems confirm that universal data replication architecture is a way to Essay, build better replication systems and albert a better way to build replication systems. Alden, Matthew E. MARLEDA: Effective Distribution Estimation Through Markov Random Fields. The University of Texas at Austin, Departments of Computer Sciences. Report# AI07-349 (dissertation). September 24, 2007.

138 pages. Many problems within the A Stride Into Essay, biological sciences, such as DNA sequencing, protein structure prediction, and molecular docking, are being approached computationally. These problems require sophisticated solution methods that understand the complex natures of biological domains. Fashion! Traditionally, such solution methods are problem specific, but recent advances in generic problem-solvers furnish hope for a new breed of computational tools. Essay! The challenge is to develop methods that can automatically learn or acquire an understanding of a complex problem domain. Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) are generic search methods that use statistical models to learn the structure of a problem domain. EDAs have been successfully applied to autistic, many difficult search problems, such as circuit design, optimizing Ising spin glasses, and various scheduling tasks. However, current EDAs contain ad hoc limitations that reduce their capacity to solve hard problems. This dissertation presents a new EDA method, the the Future, Markovian Learning Estimation of leather tanning, Distribution Algorithm (MARLEDA), that employs a Markov random field model. The model is learned in a novel way that overcomes previous ad hoc limitations. A Stride Essay! MARLEDA is shown to perform well on standard benchmark search tasks.

A multiobjective extension of leather tanning, MARLEDA is developed for use in predicting the secondary structure of A Stride Essay, RNA molecules. The extension is shown to produce high-quality predictions in comparison with several contemporary methods, laying the groundwork for a new computational tool for RNA researchers. De Paula, Judah B. Modeling the self-organization of color selectivity in the visual cortex. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI07-347 (dissertation). August 21, 2007. 146 pages.

How does the visual cortex represent and process color? Experimental evidence from macaque monkey suggests that cells selective for color are organized into small, spatially separated blobs in V1, and stripes in V2. This organization is strikingly different from that of orientation and fashion in the ages ocular dominance maps, which consist of large, spatially contiguous patterns. In this dissertation, a self-organizing model of the early visual cortex is constructed using natural color image input. The modeled V1 develops realistic color-selective receptive fields, ocular dominance stripes, orientation maps, and color-selective regions, while the modeled V2 also creates realistic color-selective and orientation-selective neurons. V1 color-selective regions are generally located in the center of ocular dominance stripes as they are in biological maps; the model predicts that color-selective regions become more widespread in the Future, both cortical regions when the amount of color in the training images is increased. The model also predicts that in V1 there are three types of color-selective regions (red-selective, green-selective, and blue-selective), and that a unique cortical activation pattern exists for each of the leather tanning, HSV colors. In both V1 and V2, when regions of different color-selectivity are located nearby, bands of color form with gradually changing color preferences.

The model also develops lateral connections between cells that are selective for A Stride similar orientations, matching previous experimental results, and predicts that cells selective for color primarily connect to other cells with similar chromatic preferences. Thus the in the ages, model replicates the known data on the organization of color preferences in A Stride Into the Future Essay, V1 and V2, provides a detailed explanation for how this structure develops and leather tanning functions, and leads to concrete predictions to test in future experiments. Kate, Rohit J. Learning for Semantic Parsing with Kernels under Various Forms of Supervision. A Stride! The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI07-346 (dissertation). August 21, 2007. 174 pages. Semantic parsing involves deep semantic analysis that maps natural language sentences to their formal executable meaning representations. This is a challenging problem and is critical for developing computing systems that understand natural language input.

This thesis presents a new machine learning approach for semantic parsing based on string-kernel-based classification. It takes natural language sentences paired with their formal meaning representations as training data. Case! For every production in the formal language grammar, a Support-Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is trained using string similarity as the Into the Future, kernel. Meaning representations for novel natural language sentences are obtained by finding the most probable semantic parse using these classifiers. This method does not use any hard-matching rules and unlike previous and other recent methods, does not use grammar rules for Essay about John Fitzgerald natural language, probabilistic or otherwise, which makes it more robust to noisy input. Besides being robust, this approach is also flexible and able to learn under a wide range of supervision, from extra to weaker forms of supervision. It can easily utilize extra supervision given in the form of syntactic parse trees for natural language sentences by using a syntactic tree kernel instead of a string kernel. Its learning algorithm can also take advantage of detailed supervision provided in the form of semantically augmented parse trees.

A simple extension using transductive SVMs enables the system to do semi-supervised learning and improve its performance utilizing unannotated sentences which are usually easily available. Another extension involving EM-like retraining makes the system capable of learning under ambiguous supervision in Essay, which the correct meaning representation for each sentence is not explicitly given, but instead a set of possible meaning representations is given. This weaker and more general form of supervision is better representative of letter, a natural training environment for a language-learning system requiring minimal human supervision. For a semantic parser to Into the Future Essay, work well, conformity between natural language and meaning representation grammar is necessary. However meaning representation grammars are typically designed to best suit the application which will use the meaning representations with little consideration for how well they correspond to leather tanning, natural language semantics. We present approaches to A Stride Essay, automatically transform meaning representation grammars to case study, make them more compatible with natural language semantics and hence more suitable for learning semantic parsers. Finally, we also show that ensembles of different semantic parser learning systems can obtain the best overall performance. Bunescu, Razvan Constantin. Learning for Information Extraction: From Named Entity Recognition and Disambiguation To Relation Extraction.

The University of A Stride, Texas at Austin, Department of Fitzgerald The Truth, Computer Sciences. Report# AI07-345 (dissertation). The Future! August 17, 2007. 168 pages. Essay About John Kennedy: The Truth! Information Extraction, the task of locating textual mentions of specific types of entities and their relationships, aims at representing the information contained in text documents in a structured format that is more amenable to applications in data mining, question answering, or the semantic web. The goal of Into the Future, our research is to design information extraction models that obtain improved performance by autistic study exploiting types of evidence that have not been explored in previous approaches. Since designing an extraction system through introspection by A Stride Into Essay a domain expert is a laborious and time consuming process, the focus of this thesis will be on methods that automatically induce an extraction model by leather tanning training on a dataset of manually labeled examples. The Future Essay! Named Entity Recognition is an today, information extraction task that is concerned with finding textual mentions of entities that belong to a predefined set of categories. We approach this task as a phrase classification problem, in which candidate phrases from the same document are collectively classified.

Global correlations between candidate entities are captured in a model built using the A Stride the Future, expressive framework of Relational Markov Networks. Additionally, we propose a novel tractable approach to phrase classification for named entity recognition based on a special Junction Tree representation. Leather Tanning! Classifying entity mentions into A Stride Into the Future a predefined set of categories achieves only a partial disambiguation of the names. This is further refined in the task of Named Entity Disambiguation, where names need to be linked to their actual denotations. In our research, we use Wikipedia as a repository of named entities and leather tanning propose a ranking approach to disambiguation that exploits learned correlations between words from the name context and categories from the Wikipedia taxonomy. Relation Extraction refers to finding relevant relationships between entities mentioned in text documents. Our approaches to this information extraction task differ in the type and the amount of supervision required. We first propose two relation extraction methods that are trained on documents in which sentences are manually annotated for Into Essay the required relationships. In the first method, the leather tanning, extraction patterns correspond to sequences of words and word classes anchored at two entity names occurring in the same sentence.

These are used as implicit features in A Stride Into the Future Essay, a generalized subsequence kernel, with weights computed through training of Support Vector Machines. In the second approach, the implicit extraction features are focused on the shortest path between the two entities in the word-word dependency graph of the sentence. Finally, in fashion, a significant departure from previous learning approaches to relation extraction, we propose reducing the amount of required supervision to only a handful of pairs of entities known to Into Essay, exhibit or not exhibit the desired relationship. Each pair is associated with a bag of serine protease, sentences extracted automatically from a very large corpus. We extend the subsequence kernel to handle this weaker form of supervision, and describe a method for weighting features in order to focus on those correlated with the Into Essay, target relation rather than with the individual entities. The resulting Multiple Instance Learning approach offers a competitive alternative to previous relation extraction methods, at a significantly reduced cost in human supervision. Provost, Jefferson. Reinforcement Learning in High-Diameter, Continuous Environments. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of the scarlet chapter, Computer Sciences. Report# AI07-344 (dissertation).

August 17, 2007. 116 pages. Many important real-world robotic tasks have high diameter, that is, their solution requires a large number of primitive actions by the robot. For example, they may require navigating to distant locations using primitive motor control commands. In addition, modern robots are endowed with rich, high-dimensional sensory systems, providing measurements of a continuous environment. Reinforcement learning (RL) has shown promise as a method for automatic learning of robot behavior, but current methods work best on low-diameter, low-dimensional tasks.

Because of this problem, the success of RL on real-world tasks still depends on human analysis of the A Stride Essay, robot, environment, and task to provide a useful set of perceptual features and an appropriate decomposition of the task into subtasks. This thesis presents Self-Organizing Distinctive-state Abstraction (SODA) as a solution to this problem. Using SODA a robot with little prior knowledge of its sensorimotor system, environment, and task can automatically reduce the serine mechanism, effective diameter of its tasks. Into! First it uses a self-organizing feature map to learn higher level perceptual features while exploring using primitive, local actions. Then, using the learned features as input, it learns a set of John Fitzgerald, high-level actions that carry the robot between perceptually distinctive states in the environment. Experiments in two robot navigation environments demonstrate that SODA learns useful features and high-level actions, that using these new actions dramatically speeds up learning for high-diameter navigation tasks, and that the method scales to the Future, large (building-sized) robot environments. These experiments demonstrate SODAs effectiveness as a generic learning agent for mobile robot navigation, pointing the serine protease, way toward developmental robots that learn to understand themselves and their environments through experience in the world, reducing the need for human engineering for A Stride Into Essay each new robotic application. Wong, Yuk Wah. Learning for Semantic Parsing and Natural Language Generation Using Statistical Machine Translation Techniques.

The University of leather tanning, Texas at Austin, Department of A Stride the Future, Computer Sciences. Ages! Report# AI07-343 (dissertation). August 10, 2007. 203 pages. One of the main goals of natural language processing (NLP) is to build automated systems that can understand and the Future Essay generate human lanugages. This goal has so far remained elusive.

Existing hand-crafted systems can provide in-depth analysis of domain sub-languages, but are often notoriously fragile and costly to middle, build. Into Essay! Existing machine-learned systems are considerably more robust, but are limited to relatively shallow NLP tasks. In this thesis, we present novel statistical methods for robust natural language understanding and generation. We focus on two important sub-tasks, semantic parsing and tactical generation. The key idea is that both tasks can be treated as the translation between natural languages and formal meaning representation languages, and fashion in the middle therefore, can be performed using state-of-the-art statistical machine translation techniques. Specifically, we use a technique called synchronous parsing, which has been extensively used in Into the Future Essay, syntax-based machine translation, as the unifying framework for semantic parsing and tactical generation. The parsing and generation algorithms learn all of their linguistic knowledge from annotated corpora, and can handle natural-language sentences that are conceptually complex. A nice feature of our algorithms is today that the semantic parsers and tactical generators share the same learned synchronous grammars. Moreover, charts are used as the unifying language-processing architecture for efficient parsing and generation.

Therefore, the generators are said to be the Into the Future Essay, inverse of the parsers, an elegant property that has been widely advocated. Furthermore, we show that our parsers and generators can handle formal meaning representation languages containing logical variables, including predicate logic. Our basic semantic parsing algorithm is called WASP. Most of the other parsing and generation algorithms presented in this thesis are extensions of WASP or its inverse. We demonstrate the study, effectiveness of A Stride, our parsing and generation algorithms by performing experiments in two real-world, restricted domains. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more robust and accurate than the currently best systems that require similar supervision. Our work is also the first attempt to use the same automatically-learned grammar for both parsing and generation. Unlike previous systems that require manually-constructed grammars and lexicons, our systems require much less knowledge engineering and can be easily ported to other languages and domains. Ramamoorthy, Subramanian. Task Encoding, Motion Planning and Intelligent Control using Qualitative Models. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# AI07-342 (dissertation (ph.d., advisor: prof. ben kuipers)). July 10, 2007. 179 pages. Ages! This dissertation addresses the problem of trajectory generation for dynamical robots operating in unstructured environments in the absence of detailed models of the dynamics of the A Stride the Future Essay, environment or of the robot itself. We factor this problem into the subproblem of task variation, and the subproblem of imprecision in models of dynamics. The problem of task variation is handled by defining task level control strategies in terms of qualitative models that support structurally stable phase space trajectories. Such models define low-dimensional spaces within which it is possible to select trajectories that constitute plans for achieving a desired goal. The second problem, that of serine mechanism, model imprecision, arises when embedding the resulting trajectories in the phase space of the more complex higher-dimensional system that actually performs the task of A Stride Into the Future Essay, interest. Trajectories in the high-dimensional phase space that are compatible with the low-dimensional plan are restricted to lie on a manifold. In the absence of analytical models of the high-dimensional dynamics, this manifold may be approximated using observed data generated by a randomized exploration of the state space.

Approximations driven by such an imperfect set of observations can lead to spurious trajectories, but this problem is solved by regularizing the approximation using the low-dimensional model. This methodology is developed through a sequence of design problems. First, basic notions regarding control with qualitative models are clarified through the leather tanning, design of a global controller for the inverted pendulum and cart-pole systems. This is followed by the more challenging problem of dynamic bipedal walking on the Future, irregular terrain, which is the primary motivating problem for The Truth Revealed this dissertation. Our solution to the dynamic walking problem advances the state of the A Stride the Future, art by simultaneously achieving several important properties. Fashion! Our algorithm generates trajectories to walk on irregular terrain, with only a qualitative model of the dynamics of the robot, and with energy usage comparable with actuated walkers utilizing passive dynamic principles. Although the definition of A Stride Into Essay, tasks in terms of structurally stable orbits and manifolds is very natural when talking about physical systems, this representation yields benefits in more artificial domains as well. This is demonstrated through the example of spatiotemporal control of polygonal shapes, such as in serine mechanism, a robot collective. Hanson, Heather. Coordinated Power, Energy, and Temperature Management. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-07-29 (dissertation). June 18, 2007. Into Essay! NO ABSTRACT. Ge, Ruifang. Learning Semantic Parsers Using Statistical Syntactic Parsing Techniques.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of fashion in the ages, Computer Sciences. Report# AI06-327 (doctoral dissertation proposal). February 13, 2006. 41 pages. Most recent work on semantic analysis of the Future, natural language has focused on shallow'' semantics such as word-sense disambiguation and letter 17 summary semantic role labeling.

Our work addresses a more ambitious task we call semantic parsing where natural language sentences are mapped to complete formal meaning representations. We present our system Scissor based on a statistical parser that generates a semantically-augmented parse tree (SAPT), in which each internal node has both a syntactic and semantic label. A compositional-semantics procedure is then used to map the augmented parse tree into a final meaning representation. Training the A Stride Into Essay, system requires sentences annotated with augmented parse trees. We evaluate the system in two domains, a natural-language database interface and an interpreter for coaching instructions in robotic soccer. We present experimental results demonstrating that Scissor produces more accurate semantic representations than several previous approaches on long sentences.

In the future, we intend to pursue several directions in developing more accurate semantic parsing algorithms and automating the in the ages, annotation process. This work will involve exploring alternative tree representations for Into the Future better generalization in parsing. We also plan to apply discriminative reranking methods to semantic parsing, which allows exploring arbitrary, potentially correlated features not usable by the baseline learner. About John! We also propose to design a method for automating the A Stride Into the Future Essay, SAPT-generation process to alleviate the extra annotation work currently required for training Scissor. Finally, we will investigate the serine protease mechanism, impact of different statistical syntactic parsers on semantic parsing using the automated SAPT-generation process.

Martin, Jean-Philippe. Byzantine Fault-Tolerance and Into the Future Essay Beyond. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-06-66 (ph.d. dissertation). December 6, 2006. 291 pages. Byzantine fault-tolerance techniques are useful because they tolerate arbitrary faults regardless of cause: bugs, hardware glitches, even hackers. These techniques have recently gained popularity after it was shown that they could be made practical. Most of the leather tanning, dissertation builds on A Stride the Future, Byzantine fault-tolerance (BFT) and extends it with new results for Byzantine fault-tolerance for both quorum systems and state machine replication.

Our contributions include proving new lower bounds, finding new protocols that meet these bounds, and providing new functionality at lower cost through a new architecture for state machine replication. The second part of the dissertation goes beyond Byzantine fault-tolerance. We show that BFT techniques are not sufficient for networks that span multiple administrative domains, propose the new BAR model to autistic case study, describe these environments, and show how to build BAR-Tolerant protocols through our example of a BAR-Tolerant terminating reliable broadcast protocol. Bientinesi, Paolo. Mechanical Derivation and Systematic Analysis of Into, Correct Linear Algebra Algorithms.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-06-46 (phd dissertation). September 29, 2006. 149 pages. In The! We consider the problem of developing formally correct dense linear algebra libraries. The problem would be solved convincingly if, starting from the mathematical specification of a target operation, it were possible to generate, implement and analyze a family of correct algorithms that compute the operation.

This thesis presents evidence that for the Future Essay a class of dense linear operations, systematic and autistic case study mechanical development of algorithms is within reach. It describes and demonstrates an approach for deriving and implementing, systematically and A Stride Into the Future Essay even mechanically, proven correct algorithms. It also introduces a systematic procedure to analyze, in a modular fashion, numerical properties of the generated algorithms. Lopez-Herrejon, Roberto Erick. Albert! Understanding Feature Modularity. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Into, Computer Sciences. Autistic Case Study! Report# TR-06-45 (phd dissertation). September 28, 2006. 145 pages. Features are increments in program functionality.

Feature abstraction, the process of abstracting programs into their constituent features, is A Stride Into the Future a relatively common yet informal practice in software design. It is common because it simplifies program understanding. It is also important for software product lines whose essence is the systematic and efficient creation of software products from a shared set of assets or features, where each product exhibits common functionality with other products but also has unique functionalities. Thus, it seems natural to modularize feature abstractions and use such modules as building blocks of programs and leather tanning product lines. Essay! Unfortunately, conventional modularization approaches such as methods, classes and packages are not geared for supporting feature modules. They present two recurrent problems. First, a typical feature implementation is spread over several conventional modules.

Second, features are usually more than source code artifacts as they can modularize many different program representations (makefiles, documentation, performance models). An undesirable consequence is that developers must lower their abstractions from features to those provided by the underlying implementation languages, a process that is far from simple let alone amenable to significant automation. The conceptual gap created between feature abstractions and their modularization hinders program understanding and product line development. The root of the problem is the fact that feature modularity is not well understood and thus not well supported in conventional programming languages, modularization mechanisms, and design techniques. In this dissertation, we explore language and modularity support for features founded on an algebraic model geared for program synthesis.

Our model integrates ideas from little, collaboration-based designs, mixin layers, aspect oriented programming, multi-dimensional separation of concerns, and generative programming. We assess our model with an implementation of a non-trivial product line case study, and evaluate feature support in emerging modularization technologies. Kate, Rohit J. A Kernel-based Approach to Learning Semantic Parsers. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI05-326 (doctoral dissertation proposal). November 22, 2005. 34 pages. Semantic parsing involves deep semantic analysis that m.pdf natural language sentences to their formal executable meaning representations. This is a challenging problem and is critical for developing user-friendly natural language interfaces to A Stride the Future, computing systems. Most of the study, research in natural language understanding, however, has mainly focused on shallow semantic analysis like case-role analysis or word sense disambiguation.

The existing work in semantic parsing either lack the robustness of statistical methods or are applicable only to simple domains where semantic analysis is equivalent to filling a single semantic frame. In this proposal, we present a new approach to semantic parsing based on string-kernel-based classification. Our system takes natural language sentences paired with their formal meaning representations as training data. For every production in the formal language grammar, a Support-Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is trained using string similarity as the Essay, kernel. Each classifier then gives the probability of the production covering any given natural language string of the scarlet chapter, words. These classifiers are further refined using EM-type iterations based on their performance on the training data. Meaning representations for novel natural language sentences are obtained by finding the most probable semantic parse using these classifiers.

Our experiments on two real-world data sets that have deep meaning representations show that this approach compares favorably to other existing systems in terms of accuracy and coverage. For future work, we propose to Into, extend this approach so that it will also exploit the knowledge of today, natural language syntax by using the A Stride Into, existing syntactic parsers. Autistic Study! We also intend to broaden the scope of application domains, for example, domains where the sentences are noisy as typical in speech, or domains where corpora available for training do not have natural language sentences aligned with their unique meaning representations. We aim to test our system on Into Essay, the task of complex relation extraction as well. Finally, we also plan to investigate ways to The Truth Revealed, combine our semantic parser with some recently developed semantic parsers to form committees in order to get the best overall performance.

Melville, Prem. Creating Diverse Ensemble Classifiers to Reduce Supervision. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of A Stride Into, Computer Sciences. Report# TR-05-49 (dissertation). December 13, 2005. 157 pages. Ensemble methods like Bagging and Boosting which combine the protease, decisions of multiple hypotheses are some of the strongest existing machine learning methods. The diversity of the Into Essay, members of an ensemble is known to be an important factor in determining its generalization error. In this thesis, we present a new method for generating ensembles, DECORATE (Diverse Ensemble Creation by Oppositional Relabeling of Artificial Training Examples), that directly constructs diverse hypotheses using additional artificially-generated training examples. The technique is a simple, general meta-learner that can use any strong learner as a base classifier to build diverse committees. The diverse ensembles produced by DECORATE are very effective for reducing the amount of supervision required for protease building accurate models.

The first task we demonstrate this on is classification given a fixed training set. A Stride Into Essay! Experimental results using decision-tree induction as a base learner demonstrate that our approach consistently achieves higher predictive accuracy than the base classifier, Bagging and Random Forests. Also, DECORATE attains higher accuracy than Boosting on small training sets, and autistic case achieves comparable performance on Into Essay, larger training sets. Additional experiments demonstrate DECORATE's resilience to imperfections in data, in the form of missing features, classification noise, and feature noise. Leather Tanning! DECORATE ensembles can also be used to reduce supervision through active learning, in which the Into, learner selects the most informative examples from a pool of unlabeled examples, such that acquiring their labels will increase the leather tanning, accuracy of the classifier. Query by Committee is A Stride Into one effective approach to active learning in which disagreement within the about John Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, ensemble of hypotheses is used to select examples for labeling. Query by Bagging and the Future Essay Query by Boosting are two practical implementations of this approach that use Bagging and Boosting respectively, to build the Essay about Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, committees. For efficient active learning it is critical that the committee be made up of consistent hypotheses that are very different from each other.

Since DECORATE explicitly builds such committees, it is well-suited for Essay this task. Case! We introduce a new algorithm, Active-DECORATE, which uses DECORATE committees to select good training examples. A Stride The Future! Experimental results demonstrate that Active-DECORATE typically requires labeling fewer examples to achieve the leather tanning, same accuracy as Query by A Stride the Future Bagging and little albert Query by Boosting. Apart from optimizing classification accuracy, in many applications, producing good class probability estimates is also important, e.g., in A Stride Into Essay, fraud detection, which has unequal misclassification costs. This thesis introduces a novel approach to active learning based on Active-DECORATE which uses Jensen-Shannon divergence (a similarity measure for probability distributions) to improve the selection of training examples for leather tanning optimizing probability estimation. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate the benefits of our approach. Unlike the Essay, active learning setting, in many learning problems the class labels for Essay John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth all instances are known, but feature values may be missing and can be acquired at A Stride Into a cost. For building accurate predictive models, acquiring complete information for all instances is often quite expensive, while acquiring information for a random subset of instances may not be optimal. We formalize the task of active feature-value acquisition, which tries to reduce the cost of achieving a desired model accuracy by identifying instances for which obtaining complete information is most informative. We present an approach, based on DECORATE, in which instances are selected for acquisition based on Essay John Kennedy: The Truth, the current model's accuracy and its confidence in the prediction. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach can induce accurate models using substantially fewer feature-value acquisitions than random sampling.

Kim, Min Sik. Buildling and Maintaining Overlay Networks for Bandwidth-Demanding Applications. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-05-36 (dissertation). July 11, 2005.

171 pages. The demands of Internet applications have grown significantly in terms of required resources and types of A Stride, services. John Fitzgerald! Overlay networks have emerged to A Stride the Future, accommodate such applications by implementing more services on top of IP (Internet Protocol). However, while overlay networks are successful in circumventing limitations of IP, the task of building and maintaining an overlay network is still challenging. In an overlay network, participating hosts are virtually fully-connected through the underlying Internet. Autistic Study! However, since the Essay, quality of overlay connections varies, the performance of the overlay network is dependent on which connections are chosen to be utilized. Therefore, maintaining a ``good'' overlay network topology is crucial in achieving high performance. To demonstrate how much performance gain can be achieved through topology changes, a distributed algorithm to build an overlay multicast tree is proposed for streaming media distribution. Serine Mechanism! The algorithm finds an optimal tree such that the average bandwidth of receivers is maximized under an abstract network model. However, increasing bandwidth does not necessarily lead to A Stride Into the Future, a better overlay topology; in overlay networks, interference between overlay connections should be taken into serine protease account. Since such interference occurs when different overlay connections pass through a congested link simultaneously, detecting congestion shared by multiple overlay connections is necessary to avoid bottlenecks.

For shared congestion detection, a novel technique called DCW (Delay Correlation with Wavelet denoising) is proposed. Previous techniques to detect shared congestion have limitations in applying to A Stride Into the Future Essay, overlay networks; they assume a common source or destination node, drop-tail queueing, or a single point of today, congestion. However, DCW is applicable to any pair of paths on the Internet without such limitations. It employs a signal processing method, wavelet denoising, to separate queueing delay caused by network congestion from various other delay variations. The Future! The proposed technique is evaluated through both simulations and Internet experiments. They show that for paths with a common synchronization point, DCW provides faster convergence and higher accuracy while using fewer packets than previous techniques. Furthermore, DCW is robust and Essay about John The Truth accurate without a synchronization point; more specifically, it can tolerate a synchronization offset of up to one second between two packet flows. Because DCW is designed to detect shared congestion between a pair of A Stride, paths, there is a concern about scalability when it is used in a large-scale overlay network. To cluster N paths, a straightforward approach of using pairwise tests would require O(N^2) time complexity. To address this issue, a scalable approach to cluster Internet paths using multidimensional indexing is presented. By storing per-path data in a multidimensional space indexed using a tree-like structure, the computational complexity of Essay John Fitzgerald The Truth, clustering is reducible to O(N log N).

The indexing overhead can be further improved by reducing dimensionality of the A Stride Into the Future Essay, space through the wavelet transform. Computation cost is kept low by using the Essay about John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, same wavelet transform for both denoising in DCW and dimensionality reduction. A Stride Essay! The proposed approach is evaluated using simulations and found to be effective for large N. The tradeoff between indexing overhead and clustering accuracy is protease mechanism shown empirically. As a case study, an algorithm that improves overlay multicast topology is designed. Because overlay multicast forwards data without support from routers, data may be delivered multiple times over the same physical link, causing a bottleneck. This problem is more serious for applications demanding high bandwidth such as multimedia distribution. Although such bottlenecks can be removed by overlay topology changes, a naive approach may create bottlenecks in other parts of the network. The proposed algorithm removes all bottlenecks caused by the redundant data delivery of overlay multicast, detecting such bottlenecks using DCW. In a case where the Into, source rate is constant and the available bandwidth of each link is not less than the rate, the algorithm guarantees that every node receives at study the full source rate. Simulation results show that even in a network with a dense receiver population, the A Stride Into, algorithm finds a tree that satisfies all the receiving nodes while other heuristic-based approaches often fail.

A similar approach to finding bottlenecks and removing them through topology changes is applicable to other types of overlay networks. This research will enable bandwidth-demanding applications to build more efficient overlay networks to achieve higher throughput. Zhang, Xincheng. Fashion In The Middle! Protocol Design for Scalable and Reliable Group Rekeying Divergences. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-05-33 (technical report-dissertation).

June 29, 2005. 183 pages. The Future! In secure group communications, group users share a symmetric key, called group key. The group key is used for encrypting data traffic among group users or restricting access to resources intended for group users only. A key server needs to change the group key after users join and leave (called group rekeying), by composing a rekey message that consists of encrypted new keys (encryptions, in short) and delivering it to all users.

When group size is large, it becomes infeasible to rekey per user join or leave because of its high processing and bandwidth overheads. Instead, the key server changes the group key per rekey interval, the length of which indicates how tight the group access control is. It is desired to reduce the overhead of case study, group rekeying as much as possible in order to allow frequent rekeying. To address the the Future, scalability issue of the key server, Wong, Gouda, and Lam proposed the key tree approach in 1998. The same idea also appears in RFC 2627. The scalability of rekey transport, however, was not addressed. The objective of this dissertation is to design a scalable and reliable rekey transport protocol and evaluate its performance. Rekey transport differs from data transport because rekey messages require scalable, reliable, and real-time delivery.

Furthermore, each user needs only a small subset of all of the encryptions in a rekey message. We have proposed a scalable and leather tanning reliable rekey transport protocol; its efficiency benefits from the special properties of rekey transport. The protocol runs in A Stride Into the Future Essay, two st.pdf: a multicast step followed by a unicast recovery step. Proactive forward error correction (FEC) is used in multicast to reduce delivery latency and limit the number of users who need unicast recovery. The unicast recovery step provides eventual reliability; it also reduces the worst-case delivery latency as well as user bandwidth overhead. In the fashion middle ages, protocol design, various technical issues are addressed. A Stride The Future! First, a key identification scheme is proposed for each user to identify the subset of new keys that it needs. The communication cost of this scheme is autistic only several bytes per packet.

Second, we investigate how to space the sending times of packets to make proactive FEC resilient to burst loss. Lastly, an Into the Future Essay, adaptive FEC scheme is proposed to make the number of users who need unicast recovery controlled around a small target value under dynamic network conditions. This scheme also makes FEC bandwidth overhead and Essay Fitzgerald Revealed rekey interval close to the the feasible minima. Application-layer multicast (ALM) offers new opportunities to do naming and routing. In the dissertation, we have studied how to use ALM to support concurrent rekey and A Stride data transport in secure group communications. Rekey traffic is bursty and requires fast delivery.

It is desired to reduce rekey bandwidth overhead as much as possible since it competes for available bandwidth with data traffic. About John The Truth! Towards this goal, we propose a multicast scheme that exploits proximity in the underlying network. We further propose a rekey message splitting scheme to significantly reduce rekey bandwidth overhead at each user access link and A Stride the Future network link. We formulate and prove correctness properties for the multicast scheme and rekey message splitting scheme. Simulation results show that our approach can reduce rekey bandwidth overhead from several thousand encryptions to the scarlet, less than ten encryptions for more than 90% of users in a group of 1024 users. Liu, Huaiyu. Designing a Resilient Routing Infrastructure for Peer-to-Peer Networks Protocols. A Stride Into Essay! The University of Texas at Essay Fitzgerald Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-05-32 (ph.d. Into Essay! dissertation). June 28, 2005. Little! 231 pages. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks have enabled a new generation of large scale distributed applications. Unlike the traditional client-server model, in a P2P network, all peers in the network both contribute to and receive services from the network. Due to their decentralized and self-organizing nature, P2P networks enable tens of thousands (potentially millions) of Internet machines to form virtual communities and share the vast resources aggregated from the participating machines. In this dissertation, we address a fundamental problem in designing P2P networks: How to construct and maintain a resilient infrastructure to provide reliable, scalable, and efficient routing service for millions of Into, Internet nodes without central service and administration?

The absence of central administration, the large number of nodes involved, and the high rate of node dynamics pose great challenges to the design of a resilient routing infrastructure for P2P networks. About Fitzgerald The Truth! Our work tackles the above challenges and Essay has successfully addressed the following problems: (1) How to leather tanning, design protocols to maintain ``consistency of routing tables to ensure successful routing? (2) How to reason about the Future, correctness of these protocols? (3) How to evaluate the system's ability to sustain high rates of node dynamics and how to improve this ability? In particular, we have designed a suite of protocols that construct and maintain a resilient routing infrastructure. To base the protocol design on a sound foundation, we have introduced a theoretical foundation, called C-set trees, to guide protocol design and correctness reasoning. Based on the theoretical foundation, we have designed a join protocol and developed rigorous correctness proofs for the protocol.

We have also designed an efficient failure recovery protocol, which has been demonstrated by extensive simulations to perform perfect recovery even when 50% of network nodes fail. The Scarlet 17 Summary! Both the join protocol and the failure recovery protocol have been integrated into a single framework following a module composition approach. Furthermore, we have conducted extensive simulation experiments to study behaviors of the designed system under different rates of node dynamics (churn experiments). We find our system to be effective, efficient, and provide reliable and scalable routing service for an average node lifetime as low as 8.3 minutes (the median lifetime measured for two deployed P2P networks, N.pdfter and Gnutella, was 60 minutes). Based on our system design, we have implemented a prototype system, named Silk, as the routing component of A Stride Into, a shared infrastructure for P2P networks and other large-scale distributed applications.

Stanley, Kenneth Owen. Protease Mechanism! Efficient Evolution of Neural Networks through Complexification. A Stride The Future Essay! The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI04-314 (dissertation). August 2004.

180 pages. Artificial neural networks can potentially control autonomous robots, vehicles, factories, or game players more robustly than traditional approaches. Neuroevolution, i.e. the artificial evolution of neural networks, is a method for finding the right topology and connection weights to the scarlet chapter, specify the desired control behavior. The challenge for neuroevolution is that difficult tasks may require complex networks with many connections, all of which must be set to Into the Future Essay, the right values. Even if a network exists that can solve the task, evolution may not be able to find it in such a high-dimensional search space. This dissertation presents the NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) method, which makes search for complex solutions feasible.

In a process called complexification, NEAT begins by about John Fitzgerald searching in a space of simple networks, and gradually makes them more complex as the search progresses. By starting minimally, NEAT is the Future more likely to find efficient and robust solutions than neuroevolution methods that begin with large fixed or randomized topologies; by elaborating on Essay about Fitzgerald, existing solutions, it can gradually construct even highly complex solutions. In this dissertation, NEAT is first shown faster than traditional approaches on a challenging reinforcement learning benchmark task. Second, by building on existing structure, it is shown to maintain an arms race even in open-ended coevolution. Third, NEAT is A Stride the Future used to albert, successfully discover complex behavior in three challenging domains: the game of Go, an automobile warning system, and A Stride Into a real-time interactive video game. Experimental results in these domains demonstrate that NEAT makes entirely new applications of machine learning possible. Nahm, Un Yong. Text Mining with Information Extraction. The Scarlet Chapter 17 Summary! The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# AI04-311 (dissertation). October 2004. 132 pages. The popularity of the Web and the large number of documents available in electronic form has motivated the search for hidden knowledge in text collections. Consequently, there is growing research interest in the general topic of text mining. A Stride! In this paper, we develop a text-mining system by autistic case study integrating methods from Information Extraction (IE) and the Future Data Mining (Knowledge Discovery from Databases or KDD).

By utilizing existing IE and KDD techniques, text-mining systems can be developed relatively rapidly and Essay about John Fitzgerald Revealed evaluated on Essay, existing text corpora for testing IE systems. We present a general text-mining framework called DiscoTEX which employs an IE module for about John Kennedy: The Truth Revealed transforming natural-language documents into Into the Future structured data and a KDD module for discovering prediction rules from the little albert today, extracted data. When discovering patterns in Essay, extracted text, strict matching of strings is inadequate because textual database entries generally exhibit variations due to typographical errors, misspellings, abbreviations, and other sources. We introduce the notion of the scarlet letter chapter, discovering soft-matching rules from text and present two new learning algorithms. TextRISE is an inductive method for learning soft-matching prediction rules that integrates rule-based and instance-based learning methods. Simple, interpretable rules are discovered using rule induction, while a nearest-neighbor algorithm provides soft matching. SoftApriori is a text-mining algorithm for discovering association rules from the Future, texts that uses a similarity measure to allow flexible matching to variable database items. We present experimental results on inducing prediction and leather tanning association rules from natural-language texts demonstrating that TextRISE and A Stride the Future Essay SoftApriori learn more accurate rules than previous methods for these tasks.

We also present an approach to using rules mined from extracted data to improve the accuracy of information extraction. Experimental results demonstate that such discovered patterns can be used to leather tanning, effectively improve the underlying IE method. Mayberry III, Marshall R. Incremental Nonmonotonic Parsing through Semantic Self-Organization. A Stride Into Essay! The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI04-310 (dissertation). May 2003. 148 pages. Subsymbolic systems have been successfully used to model several aspects of human language processing. Subsymbolic parsers are appealing because they allow combining syntactic, semantic, and thematic constraints in sentence interpretation and nonmonotonically revising that interpretation while incrementally processing a sentence. Such parsers are also cognitively plausible: processing is robust and multiple interpretations are simultaneously activated when the input is ambiguous.

Yet, it has proven very difficult to scale them up to realistic language. Chapter 17 Summary! They have limited memory capacity, training takes a long time, and the Future Essay it is difficult to represent linguistic structure. A new connectionist model, INSOMNet, scales up the in the ages, subsymbolic approach by utilizing semantic self-organization. INSOMNet was trained on semantic dependency graph representations from the recently-released LinGO Redwoods HPSG Treebank of sentences from the VerbMobil project. The results show that INSOMNet accurately learns to A Stride, represent these semantic dependencies and generalizes to letter chapter 17 summary, novel structures. Further evaluation of A Stride the Future, INSOMNet on the original VerbMobil sentences transcribed with annotations for spoken language demonstrates robust parsing of noisy input, while graceful degradation in performance from adding noise to the network weights underscores INSOMNet's tolerance to damage.

Finally, the cognitive plausibility of the model is shown on a standard psycholinguistic benchmark, in Essay Fitzgerald Kennedy: Revealed, which INSOMNet demonstrates expectations and defaults, coactivation of multiple interpretations, nonmonotonicity, and the Future Essay semantic priming. Li, Xiaozhou. Ranch: A Dynamic Network Topology. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-04-36 (dissertation). August 2004. In The Middle Ages! 166 pages.

Peer-to-peer computing is an emerging paradigm that has the potential of harnessing enormous amounts of under-utilized computational resources (e.g., home computers). The Future Essay! A central problem in peer-to-peer computing is how to organize the network nodes so that sophisticated applications can be efficiently supported. The cornerstone of a peer-to-peer network is a dynamic network topology that determines the neighbor relationships to be maintained by in the middle ages the network nodes. This dissertation is concerned with algorithmic and concurrency issues in dynamic network topologies. We present Ranch (random cyclic hypercube), a simple, recursive topology consisting of a collection of rings. Ranch is a scalable topology. A Stride Into The Future Essay! In particular, it has logarithmic in-degree, out-degree, and diameter, and it uses only a logarithmic number of messages for a node to fashion in the middle, join or leave the Into the Future Essay, network. Ranch also has a number of Essay about Fitzgerald Kennedy: Revealed, additional desirable properties, including locality awareness and A Stride Essay fault tolerance. We show how to build a name resolution scheme for Ranch that enables the about Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, peer-to-peer network to find data items efficiently. Our results include a name replication scheme and a fault-tolerant lookup algorithm.

We address the problem of topology maintenance in peer-to-peer networks, that is, how to properly update the neighbor variables when nodes join and leave the network, possibly concurrently. We design, and prove the correctness of, protocols that maintain the ring topology, the basis of several peer-to-peer networks, in the fault-free environment. Our protocols handle both joins and Into the Future Essay leaves actively (i.e., they update the fashion, neighbor variables as soon as a join or a leave occurs). We use an assertional method to prove the correctness of our protocols, that is, we first design a global invariant for a protocol and then show that every action of the protocol preserves the invariant. A Stride Essay! Our protocols are simple and our proofs are rigorous and the scarlet letter chapter explicit. We extend our results on A Stride the Future, the maintenance of rings to address the about Fitzgerald Revealed, maintenance of Ranch.

We present active and concurrent maintenance protocols that handle both joins and leaves for Ranch, along with their assertional correctness proofs. The protocols for Ranch use the protocols for rings as a building block. The protocols and the correctness proofs for Ranch substantially extend those for rings. We present simulation results that demonstrate the scalability and locality awareness of A Stride Into the Future, Ranch. Chaput, Harold Henry. The Constructivist Learning Architecture: A Model of fashion in the middle ages, Cognitive Development for Robust Autonomous Robots. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-04-34 (dissertation). August 2004. 91 pages. Autonomous robots are used more and more in remote and inaccessible places where they cannot be easily repaired if damaged or improperly programmed. Into Essay! A system is serine protease mechanism needed that allows these robots to repair themselves by recovering gracefully from damage and Into Essay adapting to unforeseen changes. Newborn infants employ such a system to adapt to a new and dynamic world by building a hierarchical representation of their environment.

This model allows them to respond robustly to protease, changes by Essay falling back to an earlier stage of serine protease, knowledge, rather than failing completely. A computational model that replicates these phenomena in infants would afford a mobile robot the same adaptability and robustness that infants have. This dissertation presents such a model, the Constructivist Learning Architecture (CLA), that builds a hierarchical knowledge base using a set of interconnected self-organizing learning modules. The dissertation then demonstrates that CLA (1) replicates current studies in infant cognitive development, (2) builds sensorimotor schemas for robot control, (3) learns a goal-directed task from delayed rewards, and (4) can fall back and recover gracefully from damage. The Future! CLA is a new approach to robot control that allows robots to recover from damage or adapt to unforeseen changes in the environment. CLA is also a new approach to cognitive modeling that can be used to better understand how people learn for their environment in infancy and adulthood. Xie, Fei. Integration of Model Checking into Software Development Processes. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-04-29 (dissertation). August 2004.

163 pages. Essay About Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth Revealed! Testing has been the dominant method for validation of software systems. As software systems become complex, conventional testing methods have become inadequate. Model checking is a powerful formal verification method. It supports systematic exploration of all states or execution paths of the system being verified. A Stride Into Essay! There are two major challenges in practical and scalable application of leather tanning, model checking to software systems: (1) the applicability of model checking to A Stride Into the Future Essay, software systems and (2) the intrinsic complexity of model checking. In this dissertation, we have developed a comprehensive approach to integration of the scarlet chapter 17 summary, model checking into two emerging software development processes: Model-Driven Development (MDD) and Component-Based Development (CBD), and a combination of MDD and CBD. This approach addresses the two major challenges under the following framework: (1) bridging applicability gaps through automatic translation of software representations to directly model-checkable formal representations, (2) seamless integration of state space reduction algorithms in the translation through static analysis, and (3) scaling model checking capability and achieving state space reduction by systematically exploring compositional structures of software systems. We have integrated model checking into MDD by Into applying mature model checking techniques to industrial design-level software representations through automatic translation of these representations to the input formal representations of model checkers. We have developed a translation-based approach to compositional reasoning of software systems, which simplifies the proof, implementation, and application of compositional reasoning rules at the software system level by reusing the proof and fashion in the ages implementation of existing compositional reasoning rules for directly model-checkable formal representations. We have developed an integrated state space reduction framework which systematically conducts a top-down decomposition of a large and complex software system into directly model-checkable components by exploring domain-specific knowledge.

We have designed, implemented, and applied a bottom-up approach to model checking of component-based software systems, which composes verified systems from verified components and integrates model checking into CBD. We have further scaled model checking of component-based systems by exploring the synergy between MDD and Into Essay CBD, i.e., specifying components in executable design languages, and realizing the bottom-up approach based on model checking of software designs through translation. McGuire, Tommy. Correct Implementation of Network Protocols. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-04-12 (dissertation). April 2004.. 190 pages. A number of issues combine to make network protocol development significantly more difficult than other areas of computer programming: problems with time, concurrency, and failures; interactions between the network protocol and its environment; and leather tanning obstacles in developing the protocol over time.

In order to address these issues, we introduce the Timed Abstract Protocol notation and A Stride the Austin Protocol Compiler. The Timed Abstract Protocol, or TAP, notation is a domain-specific formal language for describing asynchronous message-passing network protocols, with two execution models: an letter, abstract execution model and a concrete execution model. The abstract execution model is Into suited for the scarlet letter chapter 17 summary protocol design, comprehension, and Essay correctness verification. The concrete execution model is suited for protocol implementation. In The! We show that the two models are equivalent: that a protocol interpreted under the concrete model preserves the intended behavior of the protocol interpreted under the abstract model. The Austin Protocol Compiler, or APC, is a system that transforms a protocol given in the Timed Abstract Protocol notation into executable C code and provides a runtime environment for the protocol. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the TAP notation and APC, we present implementations of a secure encryption key exchange protocol, a failure discovery protocol, and A Stride the Future Essay a Domain Name System server. Essay About John Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed! While discussing the latter, we examine the performance of the APC implementation and show that it is A Stride Into comparable to two other DNS servers. The combination of the Timed Abstract Protocol notation and the Austin Protocol Compiler addresses the issues of network protocol development by allowing precise and verifiable descriptions of protocols which can be made executable easily, in order both to gain experimental experience and to provide reference implementations.

Gomez, Faustino J. Robust Non-Linear Control through Neuroevolution. The University of Texas at Essay about Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Into The Future! Report# AI03-303 (dissertation). August 2003. 150 KEY WORDS: Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, Non-Linear Control, Shaping pages. Many complex control problems require sophisticated solutions that are not amenable to traditional controller design. Not only is it difficult to model real world systems, but often it is unclear what kind of behavior is required to solve the task. Reinforcement learning approaches have made progress in such problems, but have so far not scaled well. Protease Mechanism! Neuroevolution, has improved upon conventional reinforcement learning, but has still not been successful in full-scale, non-linear control problems. This dissertation develops a methodology for solving real world control tasks consisting of three components: (1) an efficient neuroevolution algorithm that solves difficult non-linear control tasks by coevolving neurons, (2) an incremental evolution method to scale the algorithm to the most challenging tasks, and A Stride the Future Essay (3) a technique for making controllers robust so that they can transfer from John Fitzgerald, simulation to the real world.

The method is the Future faster than other approaches on a set of difficult learning benchmarks, and is used in serine mechanism, two full-scale control tasks demonstrating its applicability to A Stride Into the Future Essay, real world problems. Page, David Scott. Effective Data Access in Software IO Frameworks. The University of chapter 17 summary, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-03-56 (dissertation).

Fall 2003. 145 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Howell, Jo Ann Shaw. On the Reduction of a Matrix to Frobenius Form Using Residue Arithmetic. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-03-45 (dissertation). August 1971. 129 pages. This thesis is concerned with the reduction of an integral matrix to Frobenius form exactly using residue arithmetic.

Thus, exact integral factors of the characteristic polynomial are obtained. A Stride Essay! The algorithm is based on a modification of the Danilewski method. In The Middle Ages! This algorithm can be performed using either single-modulus or multiple-modulus residue arithmetic, and examples are given for both cases. Included in this thesis is a description of the A Stride Into, Danilewski method. The theory of residue arithmetic for integers, matrices, and autistic study polynomials is surveyed in Essay, order to provide an adequate background for describing the modified Danilewski method.

The selection of the moduli is discussed, and numerical results from case, a computer program are given. DOWNLOAD tr03-45a.pdf tr03-45b.pdf tr03-45c.pdf. Pettie, Seth. On the Shortest Path and Minimum Spanning Tree Problems. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-03-35 (dissertation). August 2003.

204 pages. The shortest path and minimum spanning tree problems are two of the classic textbook problems in combinatorial optimization. They are simple to describe and admit simple polynomial-time algorithms. However, despite years of concerted research effort, the asymptotic complexity of these problems remains unresolved. The main contributions of this dissertation are a number of asymptotically faster algorithms for the minimum spanning tree and shortest path problems. Of equal interest, we provide some clues as to why these problems are so difficult. In particular, we show why certain modern approaches to the problems are doomed to have super-linear complexity.

A sampling of our results are listed below. We emphasize that all of our algorithms work with general graphs, and make no restrictive assumptions on the numerical representation of edge-lengths. (1) A provably optimal deterministic minimum spanning tree algorithm. (We give a constructive proof that the algorithmic complexity of the minimum spanning tree problem is equivalent to A Stride Into the Future, its decision-tree complexity.) ? (2) An all-pairs shortest path algorithm for general graphs running in the scarlet letter chapter, time O(mn + n 2 log log n) , where m and n are the number of edges and A Stride Into the Future Essay vertices. This provides the first improvement over approaches based on Dijkstra's algorithm. ? (3) An all-pairs shortest path algorithm for undirected graphs running in O(mn log alpha) time, where alpha = alpha(m,n) is the inverse-Ackermann function. ? (4) A single-source shortest path algorithm running in O(m alpha + min [ n log log r,? n log n ] ) time, where r bounds the ratio of autistic study, any two edge lengths. For r polynomial in n this is O(m + n log log n) , an improvement over the Future Essay Dijkstra's algorithm. Little! ? (5) An inverse-Ackermann style lower bound for the online minimum spanning tree verification problem. This is the first inverse-Ackermann type lower bound for a comparison-based problem. ? (6) An Omega (m + n log n) lower bound on any hierarchy-type single-source shortest path algorithm, implying that this type of algorithm cannot improve upon Dijkstra's algorithm. (All of our shortest path algorithms are of the hierarchy type.) ? (7) The first parallel minimum spanning tree algorithm that is optimal w.r.t. to both time and work.

Our algorithm is for the EREW PRAM model. ? (8) A parallel, expected linear-work minimum spanning tree algorithm using only a polylogarithmic number of random bits. ? (9) An O(mn log alpha) bound on the comparison-addition complexity of all-pairs shortest paths. This is within a tiny ? log alpha factor of optimal when m = O(n) . Gorinsky, Sergey. Robust Congestion Control for IP Multicast. The University of Texas at Into the Future Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-03-33 (dissertation). August 2003. 124 pages. IP multicast is a network service for scalable distribution of data to multiple receivers. Traditional protocols for multicast congestion control rely on trust: each party is assumed to follow guidelines for fair bandwidth sharing.

However, with the growth and commercialization of the Internet, the assumption of universal trust is no longer tenable. In this dissertation, we consider a relaxed model where receivers are untrustworthy and can misbehave to acquire an unfairly high bandwidth at the expense of competing traffic. Our experiments with existing multicast protocols show that each of the evaluated protocols is vulnerable to receiver misbehavior. To take the first step towards robust multicast designs for distrusted environments, we focus on the class of feedback-free protocols where receivers provide no feedback to the sender and control congestion by regulating their subscription levels in the multi-group session. Unfortunately, the mechanism of group subscription offers a misbehaving receiver an opportunity to inflate its subscription level. Such inflated subscription attacks pose a major threat to fairness of bandwidth allocation. This dissertation is the first to solve the problem of inflated subscription. Autistic! The presented designs rely on an insight that the ability of a receiver to access a multicast group should be tied with the congestion status of the receiver. First, we address individual attacks where a receiver inflates its subscription with no assistance from other receivers.

Our solution guards access to multicast groups with dynamic keys and consists of A Stride Into, two independent components: DELTA (Distribution of ELigibility To Access) - a novel method for in-band distribution of group keys to receivers that are eligible to access the groups according to the congestion control protocol, and SIGMA (Secure Internet Group Management Architecture) - a generic architecture for key-based group access at little edge routers. DELTA and SIGMA require only minimal generic changes in the edge routers, do not alter the core of the network, and introduce no auxiliary servers. Then, we extend the design to protect multicast congestion control against inflated subscription of colluding receivers. To illustrate that integration with DELTA and A Stride Into the Future Essay SIGMA makes multicast protocols robust to inflated subscription and Essay about John Fitzgerald preserves other congestion control properties, we derive and evaluate robust adaptations of RLM and FLID-DL protocols. McQuesten, Paul H. A Stride Essay! Cultural Enhancement of Neuroevolution. The University of serine mechanism, Texas at A Stride Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI02-295 (dissertation). August 2002. 109 KEY WORDS: Culture, Neuroevolution, Learning and evolution, Neural network, Genetic algorithm, Machine learning, Cultural transmission pages. Any transmission of behavior from one generation to the next via nongenetic means is a process of culture.

Culture provides major advantages for survival in the biological world. This dissertation develops four methods that harness the ages, mechanisms of culture to enhance the power of Into Essay, neuroevolution: culling overlarge litters, mate selection by complementary competence, phenotypic diversity maintenance, and teaching offspring to respond like an elder. The methods are efficient because they operate without requiring additional fitness evaluations, and because each method addresses a different aspect of neuroevolution, they also combine smoothly. The combined system balances diversity and selection pressure, and improves performance both in terms of learning speed and autistic case solution quality in sequential decision tasks. Bednar, James. LEARNING TO SEE: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON VISUAL DEVELOPMENT.

The University of Texas at Into the Future Essay Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI02-294 (dissertation). Middle! May 2002. 138 pages. How can a computing system as complex as the A Stride Into Essay, human visual system be specified and constructed?

Recent discoveries of widespread spontaneous neural activity suggest a simple yet powerful explanation: genetic information may be expressed as internally generated training patterns for about John Kennedy: Revealed a general-purpose learning system. The thesis presents an implementation of this idea as a detailed, large-scale computational model of visual system development. Simulations show how newborn orientation processing and face detection can be specified in terms of training patterns, and how postnatal learning can extend these capabilities. The results explain experimental data from laboratory animals, human newborns, and older infants, and A Stride Into the Future Essay provide concrete predictions about infant behavior and albert neural activity for future experiments. A Stride Into! They also suggest that combining a pattern generator with a learning algorithm is an efficient way to case study, develop a complex adaptive system. Kolbly, Donovan. : Extensible Language Implementation. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Essay! Report# TR-02-71 (dissertation). Case! December 2002. 177 pages. This work presents several new approaches to the construction of extensible languages, and is the first system to combine local, dynamically extensible context-free syntax with the expressive power of meta-level procedures.

The unifying theme of our system is that meaning should be computed relative to A Stride Into Essay, local context. Albert Today! We show how this theme is manifest in an implementation of a Scheme macro system which achieves hygienic macro expansion without rewriting. Additionally, our Scheme macro system makes available compile-time meta-objects for additional power in writing macros; macros that pattern match on compile-time types for optimization at macro-processing time are one example. This approach is currently in use in our RScheme implementation of Scheme. We also show the how this approach is Into Essay applied to languages with conventional syntax, using Java as an example. We present a dynamically extensible parser based on middle, the Earley parsing algorithm. This approach is Essay practical as well as flexible; a straightforward implementation in C parses a 600-line (2777 token) file in about 44ms on an 866MHz Pentium III.

We also describe a language extension framework that makes possible an extensible variant of Java, in which new syntax can be supplied by the casual programmer with only limited knowledge of the Essay about Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, underlying compiler implementation or approach. This finally makes available to Java programmers the easy access to structured macro facilities that Lisp programmers find so powerful. Finally, we demonstrate this framework by constructing a deterministic finite automaton language extension to A Stride Essay, Java. Mittal, Neeraj. : Techniques for Analyzing Distributed Computations. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-02-70 (dissertation). May 2002.

182 pages. Inherent non-determinism in distributed programs and presence of case, multiple threads of control makes it difficult to write correct distributed software. Not surprisingly, distributed systems are particularly vulnerable to software faults. To build a distributed system capable of tolerating software faults, two important problems need to be addressed: fault detection and fault recovery . The fault detection problem requires finding a (consistent) global state of the computation that satisfies certain predicate ( e.g. , violation of mutual exclusion). To prevent a fault from causing any serious damage such as corrupting stable storage, it is essential that it be detected in a timely manner. However, we prove that detecting a predicate in 2-CNF, even when no two clauses contain variables from the same process, is an A Stride Into, NP-complete problem. We develop a technique, based on computation slicing , to serine, reduce the size of the computation and thus the number of global states to Into Essay, be examined for detecting a predicate. Slicing can be used to throw away the extraneous global states of the computation in an efficient manner, and the scarlet 17 summary focus on only those that are currently relevant for our purpose. To detect a fault, therefore, rather than searching the state-space of the computation, it is much more efficient to A Stride Essay, search the state-space of the slice. We identify several useful classes of predicates for which the slice can be computed efficiently.

Our experimental results indicate that slicing can lead to an exponential reduction over existing techniques both in terms of time as well as space for fault detection. To recover from faults, we consider rollback recovery approach, which involves restoring the system to a previous state and then re-executing. We focus on rollback recovery using controlled re-execution , which is useful and effective for tolerating synchronization faults . Unlike other approaches which depend on chance and do not ensure that the re-execution is fault-free, the controlled re-execution method avoids synchronization faults during re-execution in a deterministic fashion. Specifically, it selectively adds synchronization dependencies during re-execution to ensure that the previously detected synchronization faults do not occur again. We provide efficient algorithms to autistic study, solve the problem for two important classes of synchronization faults. Erdem, Esra. Theory of Applications of Answer Set Programming. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. The Future Essay! Report# TR-02-69 (dissertation). August 2002.

233 pages. Answer set programming (ASP) is a new form of declarative logic programming. Essay About Fitzgerald Revealed! ASP interprets a logic program as a constraint on sets of literals, just as a propositional formula can be viewed as a constraint on assignments of A Stride Into the Future Essay, truth values to atoms. The concept of an answer set was originally proposed as a semantics of negation as failure in Prolog. Instead of traditional Prolog systems, ASP uses answer set solvers. The input of Prolog consists of a logic program and a query, and Prolog computes answer substitutions; the input of an answer set solver is a logic program, and the solver computes the program's answer sets. The idea of ASP is to represent a given computational problem as a logic program whose answer sets correspond to solutions, and to John, use an answer set solver to find an A Stride Essay, answer set. Albert! We have investigated the application of ASP to several combinatorial search problems, including planning, wire routing, and phylogeny reconstruction. Planning is the problem of finding a sequence of actions that leads to a given goal.

Wire routing is the problem of determining the physical locations of all wires interconnecting the circuit components on a chip. Phylogeny reconstruction is the problem of constructing and labeling an evolutionary tree for a set of Essay, taxa (taxonomic units), which describes the Essay Revealed, evolution of the taxa in that set from their most recent common ancestor. A Stride Into The Future! In our work on phylogeny reconstruction, we have generated several conjectures about the little, evolutionary history of Indo-European languages. The work on Into, the use of ASP for planning has led us to leather tanning, the investigation of some theoretical questions related to answer sets. The Future! One is the problem of equivalent transformations of little albert, logic programs: under what conditions can we replace a program by an equivalent program that can be processed by an answer set solver more efficiently? Another problem is related to completion--a process that can translate a logic program into a set of formulas of classical logic. In some cases, the interpretations satisfying the completion of a program are also the answer sets for that program. In such cases, we can use propositional solvers--systems that compute a model of a given set of clauses--to find the program's answer sets.

For some problems, propositional solvers are more efficient than answer set solvers. A Stride The Future Essay! Therefore, we have investigated under what conditions we can use propositional solvers to protease, find the program's answer sets. Mettu, Ramgopal R. Approximation Algorithms for NP-Hard Clustering Problems. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of A Stride Into the Future, Computer Sciences. Report# TR-02-62 (dissertation). August 2002. 114 pages. Given a set of n points and their pairwise distances, the goal of about Fitzgerald Revealed, clustering is to partition the points into a small number of related sets. Clustering algorithms are used widely to manage, classify, and summarize many kinds of data. In this dissertation, we study the classic facility location and k-median problems in the context of clustering, and formulate and study a new optimization problem that we call the A Stride Into Essay, online median problem. Essay John Fitzgerald Revealed! For each of these problems, it is known to be NP-hard to compute a solution with cost less than a certain constant factor times the optimal cost.

We give simple constant-factor approximation algorithms for the facility location, k-median, and online median problems with optimal or near-optimal time bounds. We also study distance functions that are approximately metric, and show that such distance functions allow us to obtain a faster online median algorithm and to generalize our analysis to other objective functions, such as that of the well-known k-means heuristic. Given n points, the associated interpoint distances and nonnegative point weights, and a nonnegative penalty for each point, the facility location problem asks us to identify a set of cluster centers so that the weighted average cluster radii and A Stride Into the Future the sum of the leather tanning, cluster center penalties are both minimized. The k-median problem asks us to the Future Essay, identify exactly k cluster centers while minimizing just the weighted average cluster radii. We give a simple greedy algorithm for the facility location problem that runs in O(n^2) time and produces a solution with cost at most 3 times optimal. Leather Tanning! For the k-median problem, we develop and make use of a sampling technique that we call successive sampling, and give a randomized constant-factor approximation algorithm that runs in O(n(k+log +log^2 )) time. A Stride The Future Essay! We also give an Omega(nk) lower bound on the running time of leather tanning, any randomized constant-factor approximation algorithm for the k-median problem that succeeds with even a negligible constant probability. In many settings, it is desirable to browse a given data set at differing levels of granularity (i.e., number of clusters). Into Essay! To address this concern, we formulate a generalization of the k-median problem that we call the online median problem.

The online median problem asks us to compute an ordering of the points so that, over all i, when a prefix of length i is taken as a set of cluster centers, the weighted average radii of the induced clusters is minimized. We show that a natural generalization of the greedy strategy that we call hierarchically greedy yields an algorithm that produces an ordering such that every prefix of the ordering is within a constant factor of the associated optimal cost. Autistic Case Study! Furthermore, our algorithm has a running time of A Stride, Theta(n^2). Finally, we study the performance of fashion in the, our algorithms in practice. We present implementations of our k-median and Into Essay online median algorithms; our experimental results indicate that our approximation algorithms may be useful in practice. Berger, Emery D. Memory Management for High-Performance Applications. Leather Tanning! The University of Texas at A Stride Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-02-52 (dissertation). August 2002. 113 pages. Memory managers are a source of performance and robustness problems for application software.

Current general-purpose memory managers do not scale on serine protease mechanism, multiprocessors, cause false sharing of heap objects, and systematically leak memory. Even on uniprocessors, the memory manager is Into often a performance bottleneck. General-purpose memory managers also do not provide the bulk deletion semantics required by serine mechanism many applications, including web servers and compilers. A Stride The Future Essay! The approaches taken to date to address these and other memory management problems have been largely ad hoc. Programmers often attempt to work around these problems by writing custom memory managers. This approach leads to further difficulties, including data corruption caused when programmers inadvertently free custom-allocated objects to the general-purpose memory manager. In this thesis, we develop a framework for analyzing and the scarlet letter 17 summary designing high-quality memory managers. We develop a memory management infrastructure called heap layers that allows programmers to compose efficient memory managers from reusable and independently testable components. We conduct the first comprehensive examination of custom memory managers and show that most of these achieve slight or no performance improvements over a state-of-the-art general-purpose memory manager. Building on the knowledge gained in this study, we develop a hybrid memory management abstraction called reaps that combines the best of both approaches, allowing server applications to manage memory quickly and flexibly while avoiding memory leaks. We identify a number of previously unnoticed problems with concurrent memory management and analyze previous work in the light of these discoveries.

We then present a concurrent memory manager called Hoard and prove that it avoids these problems. Sahni, Jasleen Kaur. Scalable Network Architectures for Providing Per-flow Service Guarantees. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-02-43 (dissertation). August 2002. 153 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Samoladas, Vasilis.

On Indexing Large Databases for Advanced Data Models. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-01-58 (dissertation). August 2001. 191 pages. In the Into the Future, last decade, the relational data model has been extended in nu- merous ways, including geographic information systems, abstract data types and object models, constraint and temporal databases, and on-line analytical processing. We study the case, indexing requirements of Into, these data models. In many cases, these requirements are ful lled by autistic ecient techniques for multidimen- sional range search. Previous techniques for multidimensional range search, such as the Into Essay, R-tree and the scarlet chapter its variants, are based on ad hoc assumptions on the na- ture of the workloads they index, and have been known to su er from reduced scalability and robustness.

We adopt an alternative approach; our study fo- cuses on techniques that provide worst-case performance guarantees, and thus overcome these deficiencies. Marshall, Dana T. The Exploitation of A Stride Essay, Image Construction Data and Temporal/Image Coherence in Ray Traced Animation. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of ages, Computer Sciences. Report# TR-01-54 (dissertation). May 2001. 120 pages. The Future Essay! This dissertation proposed an elegant and fast method that speeds the serine, calculation of A Stride Into, ray traced animated scenes constructed of convex objects by Essay about Kennedy: The Truth Revealed a combination of temporal and image coherence. Amla, Nina. Efficient Model Checking for Timing Diagrams. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-01-53 (dissertation). May 2001. 144 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Camahort, Emilio. 4D Light-Field Modeling and Rendering. The University of Texas at A Stride Into the Future Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-01-52 (dissertation). Spring 2001. 186 pages.

Image-based models have recently become an alternative to geometry-based models for computer graphics. Essay About John Fitzgerald The Truth! They can be formalized as specializations of a more general model, the light field. A Stride Into The Future Essay! The light field represents everything visible from any point in 3D space. In computer graphics the light field is modeled as a function that varies over the 4D space of oriented lines. Early models parameterize an oriented line by autistic case study its intersection with two parallel planes, a parameterization that was inspired by holography. In computer graphics it introduces unnecessary biases that produce a rendering artifact called the disparity problem. We propose an alternative isotropic parameterization, the direction-and-point parameterization (DPP). We compare it to other parameterizations and determine whether they are view-independent, that is, invariant under rotations, translations and perspective projections.

We show that no parameterization is view-independent, and that only the DPP introduces a single bias. We correct for this bias using a multiresolution image representation. We implement a DPP modeling and rendering system that supports depth correction, interpolation, hierarchical multiresolution, level-of-detail interpolation, compression, progressivity, and adaptive frame-rate control. We show that its rendering quality is largely independent of the camera parameters. We study the quality of discrete light-field models using three geometric measures.

Two quantify discretization errors in the positional and directional parameters of light field. The third measure quantifies pixelation artifacts. We solve three open problems: (i) how to optimally choose planes for two-plane and DPP models, (ii) where to position the A Stride, discretization windows within those planes, and (iii) how to choose optimal window resolutions. Case Study! For a given amount of Into Essay, storage, we show that DPP models give the best overall quality representation for 4D light-field modeling and rendering. We demonstrate the application of 4D light-field models to holography. Leather Tanning! We generate a holographic stereogram based on both planar and A Stride Into Essay isotropic representations. Albert Today! We show that planar models require nearly twice the resources due oversampling for glancing directions. Our DPP-based approach, never used before in holography, uses half the resources without affecting the quality of the result. Gunnels, John Andrew. A Stride Into The Future! A Systematic Approach to the Design and Analysis of Linear Algebra Algorithms.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-01-44 (dissertation). December 2001. 131 pages. Over the last two decades, much progress has been made in the area of the high-performance sequential and parallel implementation of dense linear algebra operations. At what time can we confidently state that we truly understand this problem area and what form might evidence in support of this assertion take? It is our thesis that if we focus this question on the software architecture of libraries for dense linear algebra operations, we can claim to fashion ages, have reached the point where, for a restricted class of Into the Future, problems, we understand this area. In this dissertation, we provide evidence in support of this assertion by outlining a systematic and partially automated approach to John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, the derivation and high-performance implementation of a large class of dense linear algebra operations. We have arrived at a conclusion that the answer is to apply formal derivation techniques from Computing Science to the Future, the development of Kennedy: Revealed, high-performance linear algebra libraries. The resulting approach has resulted in an aesthetically pleasing, coherent code that facilitates performance analysis, intelligent modularity, and the enforcement of program correctness via assertions. In this dissertation, we illustrate this observation by looking at the development of the Formal Linear Algebra Methods Environment (FLAME) for implementing linear algebra algorithms.

We believe that traditional methods of implementation do not reflect the natural manner in A Stride Into, which an algorithm is either classified or derived. Protease Mechanism! To remedy this discrepancy, we propose the use of a small set of abstractions that can be used to design and implement linear algebra algorithms in a simple and straightforward manner. A Stride! These abstractions may be expressed in a script language that can be compiled into efficient executable code. We extend this approach to parallel implementations without adding substantial complexity. It should also be possible to case, translate these scripts into analytical equations that reflect their performance profiles. These profiles may allow software designers to systematically optimize their algorithms for a given machine or to meet a particular resource goal.

Given the A Stride, more systematic approach to Essay about John The Truth Revealed, deriving and Essay implementing algorithms that is facilitated by better abstraction and classification techniques, this sort of analysis can be shown to be systematically derivable and automated. Warshaw, Lane Bradley. Facilitating Hard Active Database Applications. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-01-14 (dissertation). May 2001. 161 pages. Active database technology enhances traditional databases with rules that are executed in response to database events. Tills enhancement promises exceptional returns.

Useful applications of the technology include view maintenance, workflow, and real-time decision control systems. Unfortunately, penetration of the scarlet chapter 17 summary, active databases has largely been restricted to simple rule systems. The Future Essay! This narrowed focus can be attributed to all explicit connection of the active rules to albert, the underlying concurrency control system. Although tills explicit Connection provides a level of flexibility, it becomes semantically intractable in Into the Future Essay, more complex applications. Furthermore, rule execution is computationally intensive. Since rules spawn the execution of many queries over the contents of the case, database. substantial skill is required to develop complex applications without introducing long duration transactions.

This dissertation addresses three issues surrounding application development that inhibits the feasibility of active databases. First, a quantitative evaluation is performed on the semantics of VenusDB, a modular active database Ianguage that executes within the nested transaction model. This evaluation provides evidence that rule modules improve system trial maintainability. Second, the most general contribution of this dissertation is the Essay, identification and study of Log Monitoring Applications (LMAs). LMAs are expert system applications that analyze logs maintained in fashion in the ages, a database. This dissertation develops the formal execution semantics and A Stride Into Essay correctness proofs of concurrency schemes for applications within the LMA class. The results show that only a minimal number of coupling modes are necessary for the database integration of hard rule systems obeying the LMA restrictions.

Third, the architecture and evaluation of an active database optimizer is presented. Leather Tanning! This optimizer uses database statistics to optimize rules as well as suggest physical schema optimizations. The optimizer is Into Essay integrated within VenueDB to improve system scalability. Pierce, Evelyn Tumlin. Self-Adjusting Quorum Systems For Byzantine Fault Tolerance. The University of Texas at case Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. A Stride Into The Future Essay! Report# TR-01-07 (dissertation).

March 2001. 76 pages. The purpose of this work has been to design protocols for a data service that tolerates Byzantine server faults by shifting between multiple tolerance modes at serine protease mechanism run time, monitoring itself for faulty server behavior and dynamically adjusting its own tolerance capabilities accordingly. Our goal is Into Essay a system that runs in an efficient low-fault mode most of the time, but can adjust itself to cope with new faults as they occur. John Kennedy: Revealed! Our approach is based on the masking quorum systems of Malkhi and Reiter. A Stride Into! Like the protocols originally proposed for these systems, our techniques are relatively economical in the scarlet letter, that updates and reads need to be performed only at a subset (quorum) of data servers, thus decreasing the Into the Future, workload on individual servers and simplifying the letter 17 summary, recovery process when failures occur. However, our protocols implement the A Stride Into, following additional capabilities: 1. Strengthened read and write protocols for serializability of completed operations.

2. Protocols for dynamically adjusting the threshold (and thus quorum size) of threshold masking quorum systems in response to information about the the scarlet chapter 17 summary, number and/or probability of faults in the system. 3. Protocols for detecting Byzantine server behavior in threshold masking quorum systems. As a subsidiary goal, we have sought to make our methods not only effective against random faulty server behavior, but also resistant to A Stride Into the Future, sabotage by a deliberate adversary. To this end, we have limited our use of standard assumptions, such as independence of failures and a priori limits on the number of faults, that restrict the leather tanning, applicability of many Byzantine fault tolerance techniques to Into, questions of security. Tarafdar, Ashis. Software Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems Using Controlled Re-Execution.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-00-38 (dissertation). August 2000. 145 pages. Chapter 17 Summary! Distributed applications are particularly vulnerable to synchronization faults. The Future! An important approach to tolerating synchronization faults is rollback recovery, which involves restoring a previous state and re-executing.

Existing rollback recovery methods depend on chance and cannot guarantee that synchronization faults do not recur during re-execution. We propose a new rollback recovery method, controlled re-execution, based on selectively adding synchronizations during re-execution to ensure that synchronization faults do not recur. The controlled re-execution method gives rise to three interesting questions: How do we determine the synchronizations that ensure a safe re-execution? How do we monitor an protease, application to detect faulty global conditions? How well does controlled re-execution perform in practice? The first part of the A Stride Into the Future Essay, dissertation addresses the predicate control problem which takes a computation and a global property and adds synchronizations to the computation to maintain the property. We design efficient algorithms to the scarlet letter, solve the problem for Into many useful predicates, including disjunctive predicates and various types of mutual exclusion predicates. These predicates correspond to leather tanning, commonly encountered synchronization faults such as races.

The second part of the dissertation investigates the predicate detection problem which involves determining whether a global property occurs in a computation. We address the problem for the useful class of conjunctive predicates and in the context of an extended model of computation that allows improved predicate detection over the conventional model. We show that, in A Stride Into the Future, general, the problem is NP-Complete. However, an efficient solution is demonstrated for the useful cases of receive-ordered and send-ordered computations. Further, this solution can be used to achieve an improved, though exponential, solution for the general problem. The third part of the dissertation involves an experimental study of the controlled re-execution method. We evaluate the controlled re-execution method in tolerating race faults and find that the extra tracing costs imposed are within tolerable limits and that it greatly enhanced the likelihood of recovery. We conclude that controlled re-execution is an effective and desirable method for tolerating races in fashion middle ages, long-running non-interactive distributed applications. Hewett, Micheal. Computational Perceptual Attention. The University of Texas at A Stride Into the Future Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-00-37 (dissertation). Fashion Middle Ages! May 10, 2002. 80 pages. A Stride The Future! This dissertation describes CPA, a general-purpose mechanism for expressing and implementing attention policies that control the allocation of resources among sensory processing tasks in protease, a robot or other advanced intelligent system. A wide variety of attention policies can be expressed in this mechanism, which also supports soft real-time constraints on perceptual processing. Intelligent systems can become inundated with data, resulting in perceptual overload and a consequent inability to A Stride, formulate a timely or appropriate response. Perceptual overload is often modulated by a perceptual attention mechanism that filters and prioritizes incoming data. Most existing attention mechanisms are tailored to the specific task the system is performing. A general-purpose attention mechanism must have a task-independent interface for controlling attention; support a heterogeneous set of sensors; support heterogeneous methods for processing sensor data; and support real-time throughput constraints.

The CPA is a general-purpose attention mechanism that supports multimodal perceptual attention. Letter! Using it, an Into the Future Essay, intelligent system can enact and control a variety of attention policies for any type or combination of sensor or sensor data. An intelligent system dynamically creates multiple heterogeneous perception tasks in fashion in the ages, accord with behavioral goals and installs them in the CPA. The CPA supports two general categories of perception tasks: detectors, which do not retain information between perception cycles; and trackers, which do. Perception tasks are prioritized using an attention policy and are executed using a priority-based scheduler. A wide range of attention policies can be expressed in this mechanism, including policies that dynamically modify perception priorities, policies in which emergency input overrides normal perception processing, and policies that dynamically change the level of resistance to A Stride Into Essay, perceptual distractions. Results show that perception intervals as short as 100 milliseconds can be achieved with a five-sensor robot under a variety of attention policies. Analysis of the system's performance under perceptual load shows that qualitatively different attention policies can be realized in the attention mechanism. Case Study! We show that intelligent systems can use the CPA to implement the A Stride, four primary characteristics of human perceptual attention: selective attention, sustained attention, divided attention, and top-down control. Adams, William Edward.

Untangling the Threads: Reduction for a Concurrent Object-Based Programming Model (Dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-00-36 (dissertation). August 2000. Middle Ages! 292 pages. Reduction is a technique for simplifying reasoning about systems where a set of sequential executions, which we call `threads', are executed concurrently. In a concurrent execution, steps from different threads are interleaved. A reduction theorem shows that a concurrent execution is equivalent to an execution in which all the steps of a given thread appear contiguously. These steps can be replaced by a single step representing the complete execution of the thread. Applying reduction to A Stride Essay, each thread in turn, we reduce a concurrent execution to a sequence of atomic steps, one for each thread. This is serine protease a sequential execution, where threads execute one at a time.

Reasoning about the A Stride Into Essay, sequential reduction is significantly simpler than reasoning about the original execution. In the sequential execution, we do not need to consider the little albert, interactions of steps from different threads. We describe a model for A Stride Into Essay concurrent systems, called `Seuss'. In this model, a program is a set of independently executing boxes, which communicate using a form of remote procedure call. We show how to reduce a concurrent execution of a Seuss program to a sequential execution. Since every concurrent execution is equivalent to a sequential execution, we can understand all possible executions of a Seuss program by understanding just its sequential executions. Essay Kennedy: The Truth Revealed! We show three main results. One gives sufficient conditions to Into the Future, guarantee that all threads in the scarlet letter chapter, an execution terminate.

The other two concern reduction of executions in which all threads terminate. A Stride Into The Future Essay! We express the reduction results relative to restrictions on which pairs of threads can run concurrently. The first reduction theorem shows a restriction on concurrency that guarantees that every execution can be reduced to a sequential execution. The second reduction theorem gives a stronger restriction on concurrency (so less concurrency is allowed in an execution), but, in return, gives a reduced sequential execution that has stronger fairness properties (and thus better progress properties) than we get with the the scarlet letter chapter, first theorem. A Stride Into Essay! To show these results, we use an operational semantics for a simple Seuss language. The semantics is such that our results apply to any language implementing the Seuss model. Gao, Youxin. Interconnect Optimization in Deep Sub-micron Design under the Transmission Line Model. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of serine, Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-00-35 (dissertation). March 2001. A Stride Into The Future! 127 pages. As the VLSI technology has been scaled down to little today, 0.18nm in recent years and is expected to be scaled down to A Stride Into the Future Essay, 0.05nm in the near future, interconnect delay becomes an little, important factor in achieving high performance. In deep sub-micron design, interconnect delay is the Future shown to be 10 to protease, a few hundred times bigger than the intrinsic gate delay for a global interconnect, and thus dominates the circuit delay.

To reduce interconnect delay, wire-sizing and buffer insertion/sizing are two effective techniques. One of the approaches to wire-sizing is continuous wire-sizing. In continuous wire-sizing, the the Future Essay, shape of a wire is described by a continuous function, and the objective is to find a shape function which minimizes delay or minimizes area subject to a delay bound. In the first part of this dissertation, we present some continuous wire-sizing results under the Elmore delay model. In the second part of this dissertation, we present some wire-sizing results under the transmission line model. In the third part of this dissertation, we present a graph based algorithm for autistic case optimal buffer insertion under accurate delay models. Thompson, Cynthia A. Semantic Lexicon Acquisition for Learning Natural Language Interfaces. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Into Essay! Report# AI99-278 (dissertation). February 23, 1999.

87 pages. A long-standing goal for the field of artificial intelligence is to case study, enable computer understanding of human languages. A core requirement in Into, reaching this goal is the ability to transform individual sentences into a form better suited for computer manipulation. This ability, called semantic parsing, requires several knowledge sources, such as a grammar, lexicon, and parsing mechanism. Building natural language parsing systems by hand is a tedious, error-prone undertaking. We build on previous research in automating the leather tanning, construction of such systems using machine learning techniques. The result is a combined system that learns semantic lexicons and semantic parsers from one common set of training examples. The input required is a corpus of sentence/representation pairs, where the Essay, representations are in the output format desired.

A new system, WOLFIE, learns semantic lexicons to be used as background knowledge by a previously developed parser acquisition system, CHILL. The combined system is tested on a real world domain of answering database queries. We also compare this combination to fashion, a combination of CHILL with a previously developed lexicon learner, demonstrating superior performance with our system. In addition, we show the ability of the system to learn to Into Essay, process natural languages other than English. Finally, we test the system on an alternate sentence representation, and on a set of large, artificial corpora with varying levels of ambiguity and synonymy. One difficulty in in the ages, using machine learning methods for building natural language interfaces is building the required annotated corpus.

Therefore, we also address this issue by using active learning to reduce the number of training examples required by both WOLFIE and CHILL. Experimental results show that the number of Essay, examples needed to reach a given level of performance can be significantly reduced with this method. Chen, Chung-Ping. Performance-Driven Interconnect Optimization (dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-99-10 (dissertation). August 1998. 141 pages. In today's deep submicron designs, interconnect is responsible for 70-80% of the signal delay in a chip. The Scarlet Chapter 17 Summary! This is in sharrp contrast to the situation of just a few years ago, when gate delay was the dominant factor in determining circuit performance, and when interconnect was essentially treated as a delay-free metal wire. If deep submicron integrated circuits are to excel in yield and performance, the design process must focus on Into the Future Essay, interconnects.

As a result, there is a paradigm shift in design methodology that puts emphasis on interconnect design. Wire sizing, buffer sizing, and buffer insertion are effective techniques to optimize interconnect performance and signal integrity. In this thesis, we present the results on interconnect optimization based on fashion in the ages, these techniques. Puchol, Carlos. An Automation-based Design Methodology for Distributed Hard-Real-Time Systems. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Into, Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-99-07 (dissertation). Mechanism! February 1999. 181 pages. Despite significant progress in A Stride the Future, realtime systems design in case study, recent years, most research has concentrated on Into, some specific areas such as scheduling, timing analysis or specification. This thesis focuses on the proper definition of the global structure of a realtime system, what it is and autistic case and how to integrate all its aspects towards obtaining a complete design that satisfies the specification. In this thesis, we consider the problem of providing a general, integrated, and A Stride Essay highly automated framework for the design of distributed hardrealtime systems which combines and exploits analytical techniques from today, individual areas of research. We propose such a framework, which may be thought of as providing a design methodology for the domain of realtime systems. Our proposed methodology is based on three fundamental principles: automation, formalization and generality. We propose a specification language based on these notions and developed from insight on the semantics and Into the Future experience of the Modechart language (a specification language for realtime systems), also included in this dissertation.

Current practice in John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth, the design and implementation realtime systems is a largely ad hoc process of trial and error. Our design methodology, separates the concerns involved and provides an environment which allows a designer to Into the Future, systematically meet the design constraints. This is achieved by providing language support to capture highlevel designs and to generate code automatically from fashion in the ages, them, that, together with the methodoligy presented and the application specific code, is designed to satisfy the realtime requirements. We present Modechart++, which supports the design methodology introduced and it is used to specify, verify, and synthesize code for distributed hardrealtime applications. Namjoshi, Kedar Sharad.

Ameliorating the State Explosion Problem. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-99-06 (dissertation). February 1999. Into Essay! 155 pages. Systems that maintain an ongoing interaction with their environment, such as Operating Systems Network Protocols and Microcontrollers, are commonplace.

The complexity of these systems necessitates a rigorous verification of correct behavior. Automatic verification methods such as Model Checking, while theoretically efficient, suffer in practice from the John, large state space of A Stride, these systems, a phenomenon called State Explosion. State explosion often arises when verifying systems parameterized by the number of serine protease mechanism, component processes, and single systems with large data domains. The main contribution of this dissertation is in the development of abstraction methods that serve to ameliorate the state explosion problem for such systems. The first part of the dissertation presents abstractions for interesting classes of parameterized systems that reduce the infinite family of instances to a finite-state system, while exactly preserving correctness properties. For parameterized ring systems with a synchronizing token, it suffices to examine a few small instances in order to determine the correctness of every instance of the system. The Future Essay! The method is applicable to protocols such as mutual exclusion and leather tanning Milner's Cycler. Somewhat surprisingly, the verification problem is undecidable even if the token carries a single bit of information. Into The Future! For parameterized synchronous systems, an exact abstraction reduces the in the ages, parameterized system to a finite abstract graph. This abstraction method is applied to the verification of the SAEJ1850 industrial standard bus arbitration protocol.

We also present a general algorithm schema from which algorithms for model-checking several types of infinite-state systems can be derived. The second part of the dissertation presents a proof technique for showing that two programs are equivalent up to stuttering (repetition) of states. Stuttering arises when comparing programs that are at different levels of abstraction. The new formulation replaces the the Future Essay, global reasoning of earlier techniques with local reasoning, which considerably simplifies abstraction proofs. This new formulation is used in case study, conjunction with a theorem prover to verify a data abstraction for the alternating-bit protocol. Ramachandran, Sowmya. Theory Refinement of Bayesian Networks with Hidden Variables. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI98-265 (dissertation). May 1998. Into! 129 pages.

Research in theory refinement has shown that biasing a learner with initial, approximately correct knowledge produces more accurate results than learning from data alone. Autistic Study! While techniques have been developed to revise logical and connectionist representations, little has been done to revise probabilistic representations. Bayesian networks are well-established as a sound formalism for representing and reasoning with probabilistic knowledge, and are widely used. There has been a growing interest in the problem of learning Bayesian networks from data. However, there is no existing technique for learning or revising Bayesian networks with hidden variables (i.e. variables not represented in the data), that has been shown to be efficient, effective, and scalable through evaluation on Into, real data. The few techniques that exist for little today revising such networks perform a blind search through a large space of revisions, and are therefore computationally expensive. A Stride Into The Future Essay! This dissertation presents Banner, a technique for using data to revise a given Bayesian network with Noisy-Or and Noisy-And nodes, to protease, improve its classification accuracy. Additionally, the initial network can be derived directly from a logical theory expressed as propositional Horn-clause rules. Banner can revise networks with hidden variables, and add hidden variables when necessary. A Stride Into Essay! Unlike previous approaches to this problem, Banner employs mechanisms similar to little, those used in logical theory refinement techniques for using the data to focus the search for effective modifications to the network.

It can also be used to Into the Future Essay, learn networks with hidden variables from data alone. We also introduce Banner-Pr, a technique for revising the parameters of a Bayesian network with Noisy-Or/And nodes, that directly exploits the computational efficiency afforded by these models. About Kennedy: Revealed! Experiments on Into, several real-world learning problems in domains such as molecular biology and albert intelligent tutoring systems demonstrate that Banner can effectively and efficiently revise networks to significantly improve their accuracies, and thus learn highly accurate classifiers. Comparisons with the Naive Bayes algorithm show that using the theory refinement approach gives Banner a substantial edge over learning from data alone. We also show that Banner-Pr converges faster and produces more accurate classifiers than an existing algorithm for Into the Future learning the parameters of a network. Estlin, Tara Adrienne. Leather Tanning! Using Multi-Strategy Learning to Improve Planning Efficiency and Quality. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# AI98-269 (dissertation). May 1998. A Stride Into! 117 pages. Artificial intelligence planning systems have become an important tool for automating a wide variety of tasks. However, even the most current planning algorithms suffer from today, two major problems. Essay! First, they often require infeasible amounts of computation time to solve problems in most domains. And second, they are not guaranteed to return the best solution to a planning problem, and in fact can sometimes return very low-quality solutions. One way to Essay John Kennedy:, address these problems is to provide a planning system with domain-specific control knowledge, which helps guide the planner towards more promising search paths. Machine learning techniques enable a planning system to A Stride, automatically acquire search-control knowledge for different applications. A considerable amount of planning and leather tanning learning research has been devoted to acquiring rules that improve planning efficiency, also known as speedup learning.

Much less work has been down in learning knowledge to improve the quality of plans, even though this is an essential feature for many real-world planning systems. A Stride Into The Future! Furthermore, even less research has been done in acquiring control knowledge to improve both these metrics. The learning system presented in this dissertation, called SCOPE, is a unique approach to learning control knowledge for Essay John Fitzgerald The Truth planning. SCOPE learns domain-specific control rules for a planner that improve both planning efficiency and plan quality, and it is A Stride the Future Essay one of the few systems that can learn control knowledge for partial-order planning. SCOPE's architecture integrates explanation-based learning (EBL) with techniques from inductive logic programming. Little Albert Today! Specifically, EBL is used to constrain an inductive search for control heuristics that help a planner choose between competing plan refinements.

Since SCOPE uses a very flexible training approach, its learning algorithm can be easily focused to prefer search paths that are better for particular evaluation metrics. SCOPE is extensively tested on several planning domains, including a logistics transportation domain and a production manufacturing domain. In these tests, it is shown to significantly improve both planning efficiency and quality and Into the Future Essay is shown to be more robust than a competing approach. Califf, Mary Elaine. Relational Learning Techniques for Natural Language Extraction. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI98-276 (dissertation). August 1998.

132 pages. The recent growth of online information available in the form of mechanism, natural language documents creates a greater need for computing systems with the ability to process those documents to simplify access to Into the Future Essay, the information. One type of processing appropriate for leather tanning many tasks is information extraction, a type of text skimming that retrieves specific types of information from text. Although information extraction systems have existed for two decades, these systems have generally been built by hand and contain domain specific information, making them difficult to port to other domains. A Stride Into The Future! A few researchers have begun to apply machine learning to information extraction tasks, but most of this work has involved applying learning to pieces of a much larger system. This dissertation presents a novel rule representation specific to natural language and a relational learning system, Rapier, which learns information extraction rules.

Rapier takes pairs of documents and filled templates indicating the information to be extracted and learns pattern-matching rules to extract fillers for the slots in the template. The system is tested on several domains, showing its ability to learn rules for different tasks. Rapier's performance is compared to a propositional learning system for information extraction, demonstrating the superiority of relational learning for little some information extraction tasks. The Future Essay! Because one difficulty in using machine learning to develop natural language processing systems is the necessity of providing annotated examples to supervised learning systems, this dissertation also describes an attempt to reduce the number of examples Rapier requires by employing a form of active learning. Experimental results show that the number of examples required to about, achieve a given level of performance can be significantly reduced by this method. John, Ajita. Compilation of Constraint Systems to Parallel Procedural Programs (dissertation).

The University of A Stride Into Essay, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Little! Report# TR-98-17 (dissertation). September 1998. 124 pages. This dissertation reports on the compilation of the Future, constraint systems into task level parallel programs in leather tanning, a procedural language. This is the only research, of which we are aware, which attempts to Into the Future, generate efficient parallel programs for numerical computations from constraint systems.

Computations are expressed as constraint systems. A dependence graph is derived from the constraint system and a set of input variables. Essay Kennedy: Revealed! The dependence graph, which exploits the parallelism in the constraints, is mapped to the target language CODE, which represents parallel computation structures as generalized dependence graphs. Finally, parallel C programs are generated. To extract parallel programs of appropriate granularity, the following features have been included. (i) modularity, (ii) operations over structured types as primitives, (iii) definition of atomic functions. A prototype compiler has been implemented. The execution environment or software architecture is specified separately from the constraint system.

The domain of matrix computations has been targeted for applications. Performance results for example programs are very encouraging. The feasibility of extracting efficient and portable parallel programs from domain-specific constraint systems has been established. Kakkad, Sheetal V. Address Translation and Storage Management for Persistent Object Stores. The University of Texas at A Stride the Future Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-98-07 (dissertation). March 1998. 219 pages. A common problem in software engineering is efficiently saving the state of application data structures to non-volatile storage between program executions. If this is accomplished using normal file systems, the programmer is forced to explicitly save the 17 summary, data to files as a stream of uninterpreted bytes, thereby losing both pointer semantics and object identity. A better approach is to use persistent object storage, a natural extension to A Stride Essay, virtual memory that allows heap data to be saved automatically to disk while maintaining the topology of data structures without any explicit programmer intervention. If persistent object stores are to replace the leather tanning, functionality of normal file systems, they must be able to A Stride Into, address large volumes of data efficiently on standard hardware.

High-performance address translation techniques are necessary and important for supporting large address spaces on stock hardware. We present pointer swizzling at page fault time (PS@PFT), a coarse-grained address translation scheme suitable for this purpose, and demonstrate it by building a persistent storage system for C++ called the Texas Persistent Store. We also discuss alternative approaches for portably incorporating fine-grained address translation in 17 summary, Texas for situations where coarse-grained swizzling alone is insufficient. As part of the A Stride Into, performance results, we present a detailed analysis of various components of a coarse-grained address translation technique, including a comparison with overall I/O costs. Pointer swizzling requires run-time knowledge of in-memory object layouts to leather tanning, locate pointers in objects. We have developed and implemented Run-Time Type Description (RTTD) for this purpose; our implementation strategy is portable because it is based on a novel use of compiler-generated debugging information for extracting the necessary type description.

RTTD is also useful for other applications such as data structure browsing, and advanced profiling and tracing. Another part of this research is a study of the interaction between systems similar to PS@PFT and operating systems, particularly regarding virtual memory management issues. Into! We suggest areas where operating system implementations can be made more open to improve their performance and extensibility. Finally, we briefly discuss storage management issues, specifically log-structured storage, disk prefetching, and compressed in-memory storage, and provide directions for future research in this area. Moriarty, David E. Leather Tanning! Symbiotic Evolution of Neural Networks in Sequential Decision Tasks. The University of Texas at A Stride Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI97-257 (dissertation). January 1997. 115 pages. Sequential decision tasks appear in many practical situations ranging from robot navigation to stock market trading. Because of the complexity of such tasks, it is often difficult to perceive the fashion in the middle, direct consequences of individual decisions and even harder to generate examples of A Stride Essay, correct behavior.

Consequently, difficult decision problems such as routing traffic, autonomous control, and resource allocation are often unautomated or are only semi-automated using ``rule-of-thumb'' strategies or simple heuristics. Study! This dissertation proposes a general methodology for automating these tasks using techniques from machine learning. Specifically, this research studies the combination of evolutionary algorithms and artificial neural networks to learn and perform difficult decision tasks. Evolutionary algorithms provide an efficient search engine for building decision strategies and require only minimal reinforcement or direction from the environment. Neural networks provide an Into the Future Essay, efficient storage mechanism for the decision policy and can generalize experiences from today, one situation to another. The learning system developed in this dissertation called SANE contains an evolutionary algorithm specifically tailored to sequential decision learning. Populations evolve faster than previous methods and rarely converge on suboptimal solutions. SANE is extensively evaluated and compared to existing decision learning systems and other evolutionary algorithms. SANE is Into Essay shown to be significantly faster, more robust, and more adaptive in almost every situation. Moreover, SANE's efficient searches return more profitable decision strategies. The flexibility and scope of SANE is demonstrated in two real-world applications.

First, SANE significantly improves the the scarlet letter 17 summary, play of a world champion Othello program. Second, SANE successfully forms neural networks that guide a robot arm to target objects while avoiding randomly placed obstacles. The contributions of this research are twofold: a novel integration of evolutionary algorithms and Into Essay neural networks and an efficient system for learning decision strategies in complex problems. Hermjakob, Ph.D., Ulf. Case! Learning Parse and Translation Decisions From Examples With Rich Context. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI97-261 (dissertation).

May 1997. 265 pages. A Stride Into Essay! The parsing of albert today, unrestricted text, with its enormous lexical and structural ambiguity, still poses a great challenge in natural language processing. The difficulties with traditional approaches, which try to master the complexity of parse grammars with hand-crafted rules, have led to a trend towards more empirical techniques. We therefore propose a system for parsing and we choose a deterministic shift-reduce type parser that integrates part-of-speech tagging and Into syntactic and semantic processing, which not only makes parsing very efficient, but also assures transparency during the autistic case study, supervised example acquisition. Applying machine learning techniques, the system uses parse action examples to generate a parser in the form of a decision structure, a generalization of decision trees. To learn good parsing and translation decisions, our system relies heavily on A Stride Into the Future Essay, context, as encoded in currently 205 features describing the case, morphological, syntactical and A Stride the Future semantical aspects of a given parse state. Compared with recent probabilistic systems that were trained on 40,000 sentences, our system relies on more background knowledge and in the a deeper analysis, but radically fewer examples, currently 256 sentences. We test our parser on lexically limited sentences from the Wall Street Journal and achieve accuracy rates of 89.8% for labeled precision, 98.4% for part of the Future, speech tagging and 56.3% of autistic, test sentences without any crossing brackets.

Machine translations of 32 Wall Street Journal sentences to German have been evaluated by 10 bilingual volunteers and been graded as 2.4 on a 1.0 (best) to 6.0 (worst) scale for both grammatical correctness and A Stride Into meaning preservation. The translation quality was only minimally better (2.2) when starting each translation with the correct parse tree, which indicates that the parser is quite robust and in the ages that its errors have only a moderate impact on A Stride Into the Future Essay, final translation quality. These parsing and translation results already compare well with other systems and, given the relatively small training set and amount of overall knowledge used so far, the results suggest that our system CONTEX can break previous accuracy ceilings when scaled up further. Clancy, Daniel Joseph. Solving Complexity and Ambiguity Problems in Qualitative Simulation.

The University of leather tanning, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI97-264 (dissertation). December 1997. 218 pages. Qualitative simulation is A Stride Into the Future used to reason about the behavior of imprecisely defined dynamical systems for tasks such as monitoring, diagnosis, or design.

Often, however, simulation of complex dynamical systems results in either an intractable simulation or an ambiguous behavioral description. These results have caused concern regarding the scalability of techniques based upon qualitative simulation to real--world problems. Two different approaches are used to solve these problems: 1) abstraction and problem decomposition techniques are used during simulation to focus on relevant distinctions thus reducing the overall complexity of the simulation; and 2) the expressiveness of the modeling language is extended to allow the the scarlet letter chapter, modeler to incorporate additional information. A Stride Into! Model decomposition and simulation (DecSIM) uses a component--based simulation algorithm to little albert, reason about the complex interactions within a sub--system independent of the interactions between subsystems. Variables within the A Stride Into the Future Essay, model are partitioned into chapter 17 summary closely related components and a separate behavioral description is Into the Future generated for serine each component. Links are maintained between related components to ensure that all of the constraints in the model are satisfied. DecSIM results in exponential speed--up for Essay models that lend themselves to decomposition.

Furthermore, DecSIM is guaranteed to generate a behavioral description that is equivalent to the description generated by a standard QSIM simulation modulo the temporal ordering of events for variables in separate components. A common source of irrelevant distinctions within qualitative simulation is intractable branching due to chatter. Leather Tanning! Chatter occurs when the derivative of a variable is constrained only by continuity within a restricted region of the state space. We present two different abstraction techniques that completely eliminate the A Stride the Future Essay, problem of chatter by abstracting a chattering region into a single abstract state. Both techniques retain the QSIM soundness guarantee and eliminate all instances of chatter without over--abstracting. To address the problem of an ambiguous behavioral description, Temporally Constrained QSIM (TeQSIM) integrates temporal logic model checking into the qualitative simulation process allowing the modeler to specify behavioral information via trajectory constraints. Trajectory constraints, specified using an extension of a propositional linear--time temporal logic, can be used to focus the letter chapter 17 summary, simulation, simulate non--autonomous systems and reason about boundary condition problems. Johnstone, Mark Stuart, B.S., M.S. Non-Compacting Memory Allocation and Real-Time Garbage Collection. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-97-29 (dissertation).

December 1997. 442 pages. Dynamic memory management is a very important feature of modern programming languages, and one that is often taken for granted. Programmers frequently place great demands on the memory management facilities of A Stride Into the Future Essay, their language, and expect the language to efficiently handle these requests. Unfortunately, memory management systems are not always up to the task. The article which appears below strikingly illustrates how problems with a program's dynamic memory management can cause disastrous results, sometimes years after the program is written. Memory errors like this one are very difficult to prevent, and it is a certainty that they will occur again and again.

It is our hope that the results presented in this research will lead to a better under standing of the nature of memory management problems, and to leather tanning, improved implementations of Essay, memory management systems . Essay About John The Truth! We believe that improved memory management systems will ultimately lead to more robust software, and problems like the one presented in the following article will become a rare exception rather than the A Stride Into the Future Essay, rule. McCain, Norman Clayton. Causality in Commonsense Reasoning about Actions. Chapter! The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-97-25 (dissertation). September 1997. 210 pages. In this dissertation, we investigate the role of A Stride Into Essay, causal knowledge in commonsense reasoning about action and change. We define a language in which a relatively simple form of causal knowledge is expressed. Using this language, we describe a novel approach to leather tanning, formalizing action domains as causal theories including domains that involve concurrency, nondeterminism, and things that change by themselves. We show that a subclass of causal theories can be translated into propositional logic by a generalization of Into the Future Essay, Clark's completion procedure for logic programs.

Finally, we describe an implemented approach to about John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth, automated query answering and satisfiability planning which is based on this translation. Rajaraman, Rajmohan. Sharing Resources in the Future, Distributed Systems. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-97-24 (dissertation). December 1997.

226 pages. An important goal of a distributed system is to effectively utilize the collective resources of the system, namely, the memory and the processors of the leather tanning, individual nodes. This dissertation addresses certain problems pertaining to sharing memory and processors in distributed systems. In the first part of the dissertation, we study two important issues that arise while sharing memory in a distributed system: memory contention and faults. A Stride Into The Future! We adopt a model of the scarlet 17 summary, computation in which each node can send or receive at the Future most a constant number of objects per step. Our main result is a simple protocol for providing fast access to shared objects in an environment in fashion, which memory contention is unconstrained and a constant fraction of the nodes and communication links may be faulty at any time. Essay! Our protocol combines techniques for hashing and leather tanning erasure codes with a new mechanism for on-line replication.

We show that if each new access request is Into the Future chosen according to a fixed probability distribution over the set of objects, then our protocol rapidly reaches a steady state in which each request is satisfied in an expected constant number of steps and the throughput of the leather tanning, protocol is asymptotically optimal. We also prove that the protocol continues to remain in a steady state if changes in the access pattern are moderate. The second part of the dissertation studies load balancing, which is a mechanism for sharing processors in a distributed system. We analyze the the Future, effectiveness of middle ages, a local load balancing algorithm in which each node repeatedly balances its load with its neighbors. Our main results concern the static version of the problem where we assume that the total load does not change with time. We analyze the local balancing algorithm in terms of A Stride Into Essay, both the the scarlet 17 summary, imbalance of the initial load distribution and several parameters of the network, including the number of nodes, the maximum degree, and the edge expansion. We show that the algorithm is A Stride the Future worst-case optimal for all networks. We improve this result for the special case of ring networks by leather tanning showing that the local balancing approach is optimal (up to an additive linear term) for every initial distribution of load on the ring. Our results are also shown to hold for an asynchronous model of computation.

This dissertation demonstrates that a number of basic resource sharing problems admit efficient solutions in the form of simple local algorithms. Our algorithms are simple in the sense that the program running at each node can be expressed as a periodic process that repeatedly executes a small number of fixed operations. Our algorithms are local in the sense that each node either communicates with only its nearest neighbors or sends messages to only a small number of other nodes. Hermjakob, Ulf. Learning Parse and Translation Decisions From Examples With Rich Context. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-97-12 (dissertation). July 1997. 165 pages.

The parsing of unrestricted text, with its enormous lexical and structural ambiguity, still poses a great challenge in natural language processing. The difficulties with traditional approaches, which try to master the complexity of parse grammars with hand-crafted rules, have led to a trend towards more empirical techniques. We therefore propose a system for parsing and translating natural language that learns from examples and uses some background knowledge. As our parsing model we choose a deterministic shift-reduce type parser that integrates part-of-speech tagging and syntactic and semantic processing, which not only makes parsing very efficient, but also assures transparency during the supervised example acquisition. Applying machine learning techniques, the system uses parse action examples to generate a parser in the form of a decision structure, a generalization of decision trees.

To learn good parsing and translation decisions, our system relies heavily on context, as encoded in currently 205 features describing the morphological, syntactical and semantical aspects of a given parse state. Compared with recent probabilistic systems that were trained on 40,000 sentences, our system relies on more background knowledge and Into a deeper analysis, but radically fewer examples, currently 256 sentences. Ages! We test our parser on lexically limited sentences from the Wall Street Journal and achieve accuracy rates of 89.8% for labeled precision, 98.4% for part of speech tagging and 56.3% of test sentences without any crossing brackets. Machine translations of 32 Wall Street Journal sentences to German have been evaluated by 10 bilingual volunteers and A Stride Essay been graded as 2.4 on a 1.0 (best) to 6.0 (worst) scale for both grammatical correctness and serine protease meaning preservation. Into The Future Essay! The translation quality was only minimally better (2.2) when starting each translation with the correct parse tree, which indicates that the parser is quite robust and autistic study that its errors have only a moderate impact on final translation quality. A Stride Into The Future! These parsing and translation results already compare well with other systems and, given the relatively small training set and amount of overall knowledge used so far, the results suggest that our system Contex can break previous accuracy ceilings when scaled up further.

Hsu, Tsan-sheng. Graph Augmentation and Related Problems: Theory and Practice. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-97-03 (dissertation). Leather Tanning! January 24, 1997. 346 pages. Graphs play an important role in modeling the underlying structure of A Stride the Future Essay, many real world problems. In this thesis, we investigate several interesting graph problems. The first part of this thesis focuses on the problem of finding a smallest set of edges whose addition makes an John Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, input undirected graph satisfy a given connectivity requirement.

This is A Stride the Future a fundamental graph theoretic problem that has a wide variety of applications in designing reliable networks and database systems. We have obtained efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for finding smallest augmentations to satisfy 3-edge-connectivity, 4-edge-connectivity, biconnectivity, triconnectivity, and four-connectivity. Our parallel algorithms are developed on mechanism, the PRAM model. Our approach in Into Essay, obtaining these results is to first construct a data structure that describes all essential information needed to augment the input graph, e.g., the set of all separating sets and the set of all maximal subsets of vertices that are highly connected. Based on this data structure, we obtain a lower bound on the number of edges that need to be added and prove that this lower bound can be always reduced by one by properly adding an edge. The second part of the thesis focuses on the implementation of PRAM-based efficient parallel graph algorithms on autistic case, a massively parallel SIMD computer. This work was performed in two phases.

In the first phase, we implemented a set of A Stride Into the Future, parallel graph algorithms with the constraint that the size of the input cannot be larger than the fashion ages, number of physical processors. For this, we first built a kernel which consists of A Stride, commonly used routines. Then we implemented efficient parallel graph algorithms by calling routines in the kernel. In the little, second phase, we addressed and solved the issue of allocating virtual processors in our programs. Under our current implementation scheme, there is no bound on the number of virtual processors used in Into, the programs as long as there is enough memory to store all the data required during the computation. The Scarlet! The performance data obtained from extensive testing suggests that the extra overhead for simulating virtual processors is moderate and the performance of the Future, our code tracks theoretical predictions quite well. Zelle, John Marvin, Ph.D. Using Inductive Logic Programming to Automate the Construction of Natural Language Parsers.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI96-249 (dissertation). December 1995. 121 pages. Designing computer systems to understand natural language input is a difficult task. In recent years there has been considerable interest in corpus-based methods for constructing natural language parsers.

These empirical approaches replace hand-crafted grammars with linguistic models acquired through automated training over Essay The Truth language corpora. A common thread among such methods to date is the use of propositional or probabilistic representations for the learned knowledge. This dissertation presents an alternative approach based on techniques from a subfield of machine learning known as inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP, which investigates the learning of relational (first-order) rules, provides an empirical method for acquiring knowledge within traditional symbolic parsing frameworks. This dissertation details the architecture, implementation and evaluation of CHILL, a computer system for Essay acquiring natural language parsers by the scarlet training over corpora of parsed text. CHILL treats language acquisition as the learning of search-control rules within a logic program that implements a shift-reduce parser. Control rules are induced using a novel ILP algorithm which handles difficult issues arising in the induction of search-control heuristics. Both the control-rule framework and the induction algorithm are crucial to CHILL'S success. The main advantage of CHILL over propositional counterparts is its flexibility in handling varied representations.

CHILL has produced parsers for various analyses including case-role mapping, detailed syntactic parse trees, and A Stride the Future Essay a logical form suitable for expressing first-order database queries. All of these tasks are accomplished within the same framework, using a single, general learning method that can acquire new syntactic and semantic categories for resolving ambiguities. Experimental evidence from both artificial and real-world corpora demonstrates that CHILL learns parsers as well or better than previous artificial neural network or probabilistic approaches on in the, comparable tasks. In the database query domain, which goes beyond the scope of previous empirical approaches, the learned parser outperforms an existing hand-crafted system. Into The Future! These results support the serine, claim that ILP techniques as implemented in CHILL represent a viable alternative with significant potential advantages over neural-network, propositional, and probabilistic approaches to Into, empirical parser construction. Lee, Wan Yik. Spatial Semantic Hierarchy for a Physical Mobile Robot.

The University of Essay about Fitzgerald Revealed, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI96-254 (dissertation). Into! December 1996. 160 pages. This dissertation describes research to extend and improve the Spatial Semantic Hierarchy (SSH) approach to robot exploration and mapping, and to letter, demonstrate and evaluate its effectiveness in controlling physical mobile robots. The SSH approach for robot exploration and mapping was first developed in the context of a simulated robot, NX, and tested in simulated environments with very simple models of sensorimotor error.

Physical implementations of aspects of the SSH approach have been built by other researchers but they do not provide an adequate demonstration of its strengths or an adequate analysis of its conditions of applicability. The dissertation work extended and improved the the Future Essay, SSH mapping theory from its original prototype to a version capable of handling real sensorimotor interaction with a real (offlce) environment. The underlying goal of this research is to demonstrate how symbolic representations and leather tanning symbol-based behaviors of an autonomous robot can be grounded in non-symbolic, continuous sensorimotor interaction with a real environment through the SSH approach. The extended theory is implemented on a physical robot to explore a previously unknown environment, and to create an SSH spatial description of the environment. This dissertation describes the Essay, improved SSH mapping theory, the details of its implementation on a physical robot, and a demonstration and Essay about John Kennedy: The Truth evaluation of several features of the implementation. Kay, Ph.D., Herbert. Refining Imprecise Models and Their Behaviors. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# AI96-258 (dissertation). December 1996. 143 pages. This dissertation describes methods for simulating and refining imprecisely-defined Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) systems. When constructing a model of a physical process, a modeler must cope with uncertainty due to incomplete knowledge of the process. A Stride Into The Future Essay! For tasks such as design and diagnosis, the effects of this uncertainty must be considered. However, predicting the behavior of an imprecisely-defined model is not easy since the model covers a space of fashion in the, many precise instances, each of which behaves differently. While model uncertainty cannot be completely eliminated, it is possible to reduce it. Model refinement uses observations of a physical process to Essay, rule out portions of the model space that could not have produced the observations. As more experience with the physical process is gained, the imprecision in John Kennedy: The Truth, the model is further reduced.

This dissertation describes three methods for reasoning with imprecise ODE models. SQsim is a simulator that produces a guaranteed bound on the behavior of an imprecise ODE model. Into The Future Essay! By using a multiple-level representation and inference methods that span the qualitative-to-quantitative spectrum, SQslM produces predictions whose uncertainty is consistent with model imprecision. We demonstrate SQsim on a complex, nonlinear chemical process and compare it to other methods for simulating imprecise ODE models. MSQUID is a function estimator for autistic study fitting (and bounding) noisy data that is known to be monotonic. It uses a neural- network inspired model and nonlinear constrained optimization to search a space of monotonic functions.

We prove that MSQUID can estimate any monotonic function and show that it produces better estimates than does unconstrained optimization . SQUID, which uses SQsim and Into the Future MSQUID as components, is Essay about John a system identification method that refines an imprecise model using a stream of observations from a physical process. SQUID uses refutation to rule out Into Essay, portions of the model space that are inconsistent. Mahoney, Ph.D., J. Jeffrey. Combining Symbolic and Connectionist Learning Methods to Refine Certainty-Factor Rule-Bases. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI96-260 (dissertation). May 1996. 100 pages. This research describes the system RAPTURE, which is designed to revise rule bases expressed in certainty-factor format. Recent studies have shown that learning is facilitated when biased with domain-specific expertise and have also shown that many real-world domains require some form of probabilistic or uncertain reasoning in order to successfully represent target concepts.

RAPTURE was designed to take advantage of both of these results. Beginning with a set of certainty-factor rules, along with accurately-labeled training examples RAPTURE makes use of both symbolic and connectionist learning techniques for revising the rules in order that they correctly classify all of the training examples. 17 Summary! A modified version of backpropagation is used to adjust the certainty factors of the rules ID3's information-gain heuristic is Into Essay used to add new rules and the Upstart algorithm is fashion ages used to create new hidden terms in the rule base. Results on refining four real-world rule bases are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of this combined approach. Two of the Future, these rule bases were designed to identify particular areas in strands of DNA one is for identifying infectious diseases and the fourth attempts to diagnose soybean diseases. The results of RAPTURE are compared with those of backpropagation, C4.5 KBANN and other learning systems.

RAPTURE generally produces sets of rules that are more accurate than these other systems often creating smaller sets of rules and using less training time. Chen, Yao-Ping. Algorithms for protease mechanism VLSI Partitioning and Routing. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. A Stride Into! Report# TR-96-33 (dissertation). November 26, 1996. 117 pages. In this dissertation, we study several partitioning and routing problems in VLSI designs.

The first one is multiple chip design partitioning. We are given a library of prefabricated chips, and we need to partition a large design into parts such that each part can be realized by a chip in the library. We present an algorithm to minimize both the number of chips and the interconnection cost in realizing a design. Next, we study a partitioning problem in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) designs. We apply register relocation techniques during the the scarlet chapter 17 summary, clustering of registers and A Stride Into the Future Essay combinational modules to minimize the number of FPGA logic modules. This problem is exactly solved by modeling it as a linear program, following a sophisticated transformation from an integer nonlinear program.

Our third topic deals with feed-through pin assignment for routing of leather tanning, standard-cell designs. It is a necessary process between global routing and detailed routing. We present an optimal algorithm for single row feed-through pin assignment under some reasonable constraints. It transform the original problem to a path problem on a special graph. The exact single row algorithm serves as the basic procedure in Essay, an iterative algorithm for the multiple row feed-though pin assignment. The fourth problem is clock net routing. We simultaneously generate the routing topology and the positions of clock buffers. Autistic Case! Clock buffers are inserted to minimize delay while zero skew requirement is satisfied. A Stride Into! Our algorithm gives excellent results on reducing wire length and fashion ages phase delay, while feasible buffer positions are efficiently obtained using a graph theoretic approach. Finally, we consider partitioning clock pins into clusters aiming to minimize and balance the capacitive load of each cluster of clock pins. This preprocessing step for buffered clock tree routing can greatly reduce the effort in post-routing load balancing by A Stride Into the Future adjusting wire widths or lengths.

We present a near-optimal algorithm with provably small error by using dynamic programming techniques. Lai, Glenn G. Efficient Searches for VLSI Applications. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-96-32 (dissertation). November 26, 1996. 108 pages. Given a collection of objects, a region query finds those that intersect a specified area and a neighbor search finds the neighbors located within a specified distance of an object. For search efficiency, the search areas are usually constrained to be rectangular and the objects are represented by their minimal, rectangular bounding boxes. A spatial structure is used to store the objects for efficient searches. The focus of case study, this dissertation is on the interactive response times as perceived by a human designer with respect to both search operations.

Region queries and neighbor searches are used extensively in VLSI ap-plications. For example, to A Stride Essay, display the visible portion of a design in an edit window, search for objects that intersect the edit window. To modify an object interactively, pick the object by making the search area a point. In design-rule checking, employ the neighbor-search operation to find nearby objects that can interfere with an object. Based on little albert, properties of VLSI designs and analyses of real VLSI data, this dissertation describes the main data distributions that a spatial structure is expected to encounter, argues for a space-subdivision paradigm, presents the paradigm's worst-case performance, and explains why the worst-case performance is irrelevant in practice. Based on this paradigm, this dissertation presents HV/VH trees and hinted quad trees designed with the classical tradeoffs between memory usage and search speed, and compares them to other spatial structures. Kaltenbach, Markus. Interactive Verification Exploiting Program Design Knowledge: A Model-Checker for UNITY.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of A Stride Into Essay, Computer Sciences. Report# TR-96-22 (dissertation). January 1997. 270 pages. The design of concurrent programs that run reliably and efficiently on networks of fashion middle, interconnected computers will remain an important challenge for the foreseeable future, as the size and complexity of such systems will continue to grow. Verification techniques based on appropriate design formalism and the Future Essay complemented by mechanical support will play an important role for Essay about John Revealed asserting the correctness and quality of these concurrent systems. In this dissertation we focus on A Stride the Future Essay, providing suitable automated assistance to the design and verification of leather tanning, concurrent systems by developing a model checker or finite state programs and A Stride propositional UNITY logic. Combining the verification technique of model checking with the temporal logic of UNITY was motivated by two goals, namely to exploit the simplicity and autistic case structure of A Stride Into Essay, UNITY logic as to Essay about Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, provide efficient checking algorithms for a mostly automated verification, and to allow the Into the Future, user to interactively supply design knowledge in order to improve the system performance.

These goals have been met in three ways: (i) we have derived a model checking procedure for safety and basic progress properties that is based on the proof rules of UNITY logic, increases the efficiency of verification by making it possible to replace fixpoint computations by simple verification checks, and, moreover, takes advantage of state-based design knowledge in serine protease mechanism, the form of invariants; (ii) we have developed and formally investigated a new theory of generalized progress, in A Stride the Future, which action-based hints can be provided to indicate how progress is achieved and which can be used to improve the efficiency of checking and reasoning about leather tanning, arbitrary progress properties; (iii) finally, we have implemented the resulting model checking procedures as part of the UNITY Verifier System and have used our implementation to demonstrate the improved verification performance with several examples. Collins, Timothy Scott. Efficient Matrix Computations through Hierarchical Type Specifications (dissertation) This document has a part A.. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-96-13b (dissertation). May 1996. 98 pages.

Matrix computations arise in the implementations of almost all scientific and engineering applications. Due to the physical properties of these problems and the nature of the solution methods, the resulting matrices often have complicated structure. That is, the values in the matrices have some regular pattern in their organization. Although it is well known that structure plays a crucial role in both the representational and computational efficiency of matrix computations, current programming systems offer little direct support for the representation of complicated structured matrices that arise in modern applications. Also, matrix computations are often so large that parallelism is necessary to achieve acceptable execution times. The combination of complicated structure and Into the Future parallelism makes coding matrix computations a tedious and error-prone task. In The! This dissertation investigates both the formal and pragmatic issues involved in providing powerful language and compiler capabilities for simplifying the task of constructing efficient sequential and parallel implementations for matrix computations. The central concept is a type theory for special recursive matrices called hierarchical matrix structures.

The theory of hierarchical matrix structures provides a foundation for both capturing and exploiting the representational and computational semantics of structured matrices. The MaTRiX++ environment is a prototype language and compiler implementation of the hierarchical matrix theory. Evaluation of the system suggests that the specifications of matrix computations in MaTRiX++ are concise. Also, the execution times of generated implementations are comparable to hand-tuned code. Contributions of A Stride Essay, this work are both formal and practical: the theory of hierarchical matrices provides a model for describing and exploiting matrix computation semantics; the Ma-TRiX++ prototype environment supports rapid specification of autistic study, complicated matrix computations without sacrificing efficiency. In addition, the hierarchical typing methodology presents a metaphor for exposing the deep relationship between physical problems and their matrix structures. Collins, Timothy Scott. Efficient Matrix Computations through Hierarchical Type Specifications (dissertation) This document has a part B.. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-96-13a (dissertation). May 1996. 98 pages. Matrix computations arise in the implementations of almost all scientific and engineering applications. A Stride Into! Due to the physical properties of these problems and the nature of the solution methods, the resulting matrices often have complicated structure. That is, the values in the matrices have some regular pattern in their organization. Although it is well known that structure plays a crucial role in Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed, both the representational and computational efficiency of A Stride Into Essay, matrix computations, current programming systems offer little direct support for the representation of complicated structured matrices that arise in modern applications. Also, matrix computations are often so large that parallelism is necessary to achieve acceptable execution times. The combination of complicated structure and parallelism makes coding matrix computations a tedious and error-prone task. This dissertation investigates both the formal and pragmatic issues involved in providing powerful language and compiler capabilities for simplifying the task of protease, constructing efficient sequential and parallel implementations for matrix computations.

The central concept is a type theory for special recursive matrices called hierarchical matrix structures. The theory of Into, hierarchical matrix structures provides a foundation for little both capturing and exploiting the representational and the Future computational semantics of structured matrices. The MaTRiX++ environment is a prototype language and compiler implementation of the hierarchical matrix theory. Evaluation of the system suggests that the the scarlet letter, specifications of matrix computations in MaTRiX++ are concise. Also, the Into the Future Essay, execution times of leather tanning, generated implementations are comparable to hand-tuned code. A Stride The Future Essay! Contributions of this work are both formal and practical: the theory of little albert today, hierarchical matrices provides a model for describing and A Stride Into the Future exploiting matrix computation semantics; the Ma-TRiX++ prototype environment supports rapid specification of complicated matrix computations without sacrificing efficiency. In addition, the serine, hierarchical typing methodology presents a metaphor for A Stride exposing the autistic case study, deep relationship between physical problems and their matrix structures. Stuart, Douglas Alan. A Stride Into The Future Essay! Formal Methods for Real-Time Systems.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-96-01 (dissertation). January 1996. 350 pages. Computers are increasingly being used to The Truth Revealed, control safety-critical systems which depend on A Stride Essay, the absolute timing of system events for their correctness. Formal specification and verification is one approach to assuring that such systems are correct. Leather Tanning! Mechanical verification can enhance the utility of formal methods by increasing their applicability and reliability.

This work will focus on a particular mechanical verification technique, model checking, in the context of a specific specification language environment, RTL and Modechart. RTL is the Future Essay a first order logic for autistic case reasoning about the times of occurrences of system events. Modechart is a specification language introduced to A Stride the Future Essay, organize RTL specifications. Model checking can be used to show that every computation of a Modechart specification satisfies a property specified in RTL. Computation graphs will be introduced to represent the set of all computations of a Modechart specification for model checking. Decision procedures for in the middle ages a number of classes of RTL formulas with respect to Modechart specifications will also be introduced. One of the disadvantages of model checking as a verification technique is that it is extremely susceptible to Into, the state explosion problem. One focus of leather tanning, this work is presenting different techniques for A Stride Into Essay mitigating the state explosion problem. These include substituting computation graph reachability queries for more complex RTL formulas, using monitor modes, using partial computation graphs, exploiting determinism, and using simulation-verification. Sirosh, Joseph.

A Self-Organizing Neural Network Model Of The Primary Visual Cortex. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Leather Tanning! Report# AI95-237 (dissertation). August 1995. This work is Into the Future Essay aimed at letter 17 summary modeling and analyzing the computational processes by which sensory information is learned and represented in the brain. First, a general self-organizing neural network architecture that forms efficient representations of visual inputs is presented. Essay! Two kinds of visual knowledge are stored in the cortical network: information about the principal feature dimensions of the mechanism, visual world (such as line orientation and ocularity) is stored in the afferent connections, and correlations between these features in the lateral connections. During visual processing, the cortical network filters out these correlations, generating a redundancy-reduced sparse coding of the A Stride, visual input. Through massively parallel computational simulations, this architecture is shown to give rise to structures similar to those in the primary visual cortex, such as (1) receptive fields, (2) topographic maps, (3) ocular dominance, orientation and size preference columns, and (4) patterned lateral connections between neurons. The same computational process is shown to account for many of the dynamic processes in little albert today, the visual cortex, such as reorganization following retinal and cortical lesions, and perceptual shifts following dynamic receptive field changes. These results suggest that a single self-organizing process underlies development, plasticity and visual functions in Into Essay, the primary visual cortex.

Subramanian, Siddarth, Ph.D. Qualitative Multiple-Fault Diagnosis of Continuous Dynamic Systems Using Behavioral Modes. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI95-239 (dissertation). December 1995. 128 pages. As systems like chemical plants, power plants, and automobiles get more complex, online diagnostic systems are becoming increasingly important. One of the ways to rein in the complexity of fashion in the, describing and reasoning about large systems such as these is to describe them using qualitative rather than quantitative models. Model-based diagnosis is a class of diagnostic techniques that use direct knowledge about how a system functions instead of expert rules detailing causes for every possible set of Into Essay, symptoms of a broken system. Our research builds on standard methods for protease model-based diagnosis and extends them to the domain of complex dynamic systems described using qualitative models.

We motivate and describe our algorithm for A Stride diagnosing faults in a dynamic system given a qualitative model and a sequence of qualitative states. The main contributions in this algorithm include a method for propagating dependencies while solving a general constraint satisfaction problem, and a method for verifying the compatibility of a behavior with a model across time. The algorithm can diagnose multiple faults and uses models of leather tanning, faulty behavior, or behavioral modes. We then demonstrate these techniques using an implemented program called QDOCS and test it on some realistic problems. Through our experiments with a model of the reaction control system (RCS) of the space shuttle and with a level-controller for a reaction tank, we show that QDOCS demonstrates the best balance of generality, accuracy and efficiency among known systems. Rajagopalan, Raman M, Ph.D. Qualitative Reasoning about Dynamic Change in the Spatial Properties of a Physical System.

The University of A Stride Into, Texas at middle ages Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. The Future! Report# AI95-241 (dissertation). December 1995. 224 pages. Spatial reasoning is an essential part of human interaction with the physical world. Of the many models that have been developed to support automated spatial reasoning, most rely on albert today, numerical descriptions of a spatial scene. This dissertation addresses problems where only qualitative descriptions of a spatial scene are available, such as natural language understanding, qualitative design, and physics problem solving. We provide the first set of solutions, given only a qualitative description of a spatial scene, for reasoning about A Stride the Future Essay, dynamic change in both the spatial and non-spatial properties of a physical system. We use diagrams to compactly input the spatial scene for a problem, and text to describe any non-spatial properties. To match diagram and text objects so their descriptions can be integrated, we have developed a method for describing the Essay about John Revealed, conceptual class of objects directly in diagrams.

Then, diagram and text objects can be matched based on their conceptual class. The given problem is solved through qualitative simulation, and all spatial reasoning is done with respect to an extrinsic Cartesian coordinate system. We model the relative positions of objects through inequality constraints on the coordinates of the points of A Stride Into the Future Essay, interest. Changes due to translational motion are detected by noting changes in the truth values of inequality constraints. We model the orientation of an chapter, object through knowledge of Into, its extremal points and its qualitative angle of leather tanning, rotation with respect to each coordinate axis. This model has been used to reason qualitatively about the effects of the Future Essay, rotational motion, such as changes in the area projected by letter chapter 17 summary one object onto Into, another. We have implemented our spatial representation as production rules and as model fragments in the QPC qualitative modeling system.

The former has been used for leather tanning solving static-world problems such as understanding descriptions of an urban scene. The latter has been used to reason about situations where changes in spatial properties play a critical role, such as the operation of transformers, oscillators, generators, and motors. To support dynamic spatial reasoning, we have expanded the modeling capabilities of QPC to include methods for modeling piecewise-continuous variables, non-permanent objects, and variables with circular quantity spaces. Murray, Kenneth S. Learning as Knowledge Integration. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-95-41 (dissertation). November 1995. 300 pages. A fundamental challenge for A Stride Into the Future Artificial Intelligence is developing methods to build and Essay about Revealed maintain knowledge-based systems.

Knowledge integration is the task of identifying how new and prior knowledge interact while incorporating new information into A Stride Into the Future a knowledge base. This task is letter 17 summary pervasive because substantial knowledge bases must be developed incrementally: segments of knowledge are added separately to a growing body of knowledge. Into The Future Essay! This task is difficult because new and prior knowledge may interact in very subtle and surprising ways, and unanticipated interactions may require changes to the knowledge base. Performing knowledge integration involves determining and effecting these changes. This research investigates knowledge integration as a machine learning task. Case! Its contributions include formalizing knowledge integration as a machine learning task, developing a computational model for performing knowledge integration, and Into instantiating the computational model as an implemented machine learning program. Leather Tanning! The study of knowledge integration and methods that perform it is important both for pragmatic concerns of building knowledge-based systems and for theoretical concerns of understanding learning systems. By identifying subtle conflicts and gaps in knowledge, knowledge integration facilitates building knowledge-based systems. The Future! By avoiding unnecessary restrictions on learning situations, knowledge integration reveals important sources of learning bias and fashion ages permits learning behaviors that are more opportunistic than do traditional machine learning tasks. REACT is a computational model that identifies three essential activities for performing knowledge integration. Elaboration assesses how new and A Stride Into the Future prior knowledge interact.

The system's limited capacity to explore the leather tanning, interactions of new and A Stride Into the Future Essay prior knowledge requires methods to albert today, focus its attention. A Stride Into! This focus is achieved by restricting elaboration to leather tanning, consider only selected segments of prior knowledge. Recognition selects the prior knowledge that is considered during elaboration. By identifying the consequences of new information for A Stride Into the Future relevant prior knowledge, recognition and elaboration reveal learning opportunities, such as inconsistencies and gaps in the extended knowledge base. Adaptation exploits these learning opportunities by letter chapter 17 summary modifying the new or prior knowledge. KI is a machine learning program that implements the REACT model. Empirical studies demonstrate that KI provides significant assistance to knowledge engineers while integrating new information into a large knowledge base.

Kleyn, Michiel Florian Eugene. A High Level Language for Specifying Graph-Based Languages and their Programming Environments (dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Department of A Stride Into the Future Essay, Computer Sciences. About Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth! Report# TR-95-34 (dissertation). November 1995.

192 pages. This dissertation addresses the problem of A Stride, creating interactive graphical programming environments for visual programming languages that are based on leather tanning, directed graph models of A Stride Essay, computation. Such programming environments are essential to autistic case, using these languages but their complexity makes them difficult and time consuming to construct. The dissertation describes a high level specification language, Glide, for defining integrated graphical/textual programming environments for such languages. It also describes the design of a translation system, Glider, which generates an executable representation from specifications in the Glide language. Glider is a programming environment generator; it automates the task of A Stride the Future, creating the programming environments used for developing programs in graphbased visual languages.

The capabilities supported by the synthesized programming environments include both program capture and animation of executing programs. The significant concepts developed for this work and embodied in the abstractions provided by John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth Revealed the Glide language are: an approach to treating programs as structured data in a way that allows an integrated representation of graph and A Stride Into text structure; a means to navigate through the structure to little albert today, identify program components; a query language to concisely identify collections of components in A Stride the Future, the structure so that selective views of program components can be specified; a unified means of representing changes to case study, the structure so that editing, execution, and animation semantics associated with the language can all be captured in A Stride Into the Future, a uniform way; and a means to case study, associate the graphical capabilities of user interface libraries with displaying components of the language. A Stride The Future Essay! The data modeling approach embodied in the Glide specification language is a powerful new way of representing graph-based visual languages. The approach extends the the scarlet letter chapter, traditional restricted mechanisms for specifying composition of text language structure. Into Essay! The extensions allow programming in visual languages to be expressed as a seamless extension of programming in text-based languages. A data model of a graph-based visual language specified in Glide forms the basis for specifying the program editing, language execution semantics, and program animation in a concise and abstract way. Wu, Shiow-Yang. Decomposition Abstraction in Parallel Rule Languages. The University of Texas at John Fitzgerald Revealed Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. A Stride Into The Future! Report# TR-95-33 (dissertation). August 1995.

14 pages. As the applications of production systems expand from traditional artificial intelligence domains into the data intensive and real-time arenas, program complexity and the volume of data also increase dramatically. Over a decade of efforts to exploit this opportunity, the previous approaches of employing parallel match and/or syntactic based multiplc-rulc-firing have failed to raise the performance to a satisfactory level. Based on the observations made in a pilot study, we found that by incorporating application semantics, it is possible to achieve a much higher level of concurrency than what can be achieved by about The Truth traditional techniques. This dissertation presents a new approach called decomposition abstraction that aims at the exploration of application parallelism in production systems.

Decomposition abstraction is the process of organizing and specifying parallel decomposition strategies. We propose a general object-based framework and present the formal semantics of a set of decomposition abstraction mechanisms that are applicable to any rule language. A semantic-based dependency analysis technique that uncovers hidden concurrency based on a new notion of functional dependency successfully derives parallelism that is very difficult, if not impossible, to discover by traditional syntactic analysis techniques. The effectiveness of our approach is validated both by simulation and implementation on Sequent Symmetry multiprocessor. A Stride Essay! The performance results demonstrate the potential of the decomposition abstraction approach to achieve linear and scalable speedup. Kartha, G. Neelakantan. A Mathematical Investigation of Reasoning About Actions. The Scarlet Letter! The University of the Future Essay, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-95-17 (dissertation). May 1995.

167 pages. Reasoning about letter, actions is a central area of research in artificial intelligence, related to the study of commonsense and nonmonotonic reasoning, knowledge representation, planning and theorem proving. The methodology of research in this area has not been quite satisfactory; typically, a new proposal for reasoning about A Stride Into Essay, actions is illustrated by way of a few examples that have been known to be challenging to formalize, and then claims are made that the method works in general. This is not very satisfactory since minor modifications of the examples might prove (indeed, have proven, in many cases) to be difficult or impossible for the new proposal to handle correctly. Such an example-oriented methodology also makes it difficult to compare various formalisms and leather tanning thus to A Stride, synthesize new ones. In this dissertation, we present a systematic study of reasoning about actions. The shortcomings of the about John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, example-oriented methodology are avoided as follows. First, declarative languages for describing actions are introduced and A Stride Essay their semantics defined in such a way as to capture the underlying commonsense intuitions.

Different methods of reasoning about in the middle, actions are presented as translations from these languages and then the adequacy of the different formalizations is established by proving the soundness and completeness of the translations. The new declarative languages we propose are capable of the Future Essay, representing rich action domains, such as those where actions can have indirect effects. In addition, we introduce a new approach to reasoning about actions and show its adequacy in formalizing a large class of action domains. We show that, in conjunction with this approach, symbolic methods can often be employed for automating reasoning about Essay about John Kennedy:, actions. Finally, we point out A Stride, some limitations of proposed methods of reasoning about actions and suggest ways to overcome these limitations.

Leow, Wee Kheng. VISOR: Learning Visual Schemas in Neural Networks for Object Recognition and Scene Analysis. The University of the scarlet letter, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. A Stride Into The Future Essay! Report# AI94-219 (dissertation). John The Truth Revealed! June 1994. 166 pages. This dissertation describes a neural network system called VISOR for object recognition and scene analysis.

The research with VISOR aims at Into three general goals: (1) to contribute to building robust, general vision systems that can be adapted to different applications, (2) to contribute to a better understanding of the human visual system by serine protease mechanism modeling high-level perceptual phenomena, and A Stride (3) to serine protease, address several fundamental problems in neural network implementation of intelligent systems, including resource-limited representation, and representing and learning structured knowledge. These goals lead to a schema-based approach to visual processing, and focus the research on the representation and learning of visual schemas in Into Essay, neural networks. Given an leather tanning, input scene, VISOR focuses attention at one component of an object at a time, and extracts the shape and position of the component. A Stride The Future Essay! The schemas, represented in a hierarchy of leather tanning, maps and connections between them, cooperate and compete to the Future, determine which one best matches the input. VISOR keeps shifting attention to other parts of the albert, scene, reusing the same schema representations to identify the A Stride the Future, objects one at fashion middle a time, eventually recognizing what the scene depicts. The recognition result consists of labels for the objects and the entire scene. VISOR also learns to encode the schemas' spatial structures through unsupervised modification of connection weights, and reinforcement feedback from the environment is used to determine whether to adapt existing schemas or create new schemas to represent novel inputs. VISOR's operation is based on cooperative, competitive, and parallel bottom-up and top-down processes that seem to underlie many human perceptual phenomena. Therefore, VISOR can provide a computational account of many such phenomena, including shifting of attention, priming effect, perceptual reversal, and circular reaction, and may lead to Into the Future, a better understanding of leather tanning, how these processes are carried out in the Future Essay, the human visual system. Compared to traditional rule-based systems, VISOR shows remarkable robustness of recognition, and is able to indicate the confidence of its analysis as the inputs differ increasingly from the schemas. About John Fitzgerald Revealed! With such properties, VISOR is a promising first step towards a general vision system that can be used in different applications after learning the application-specific schemas.

Almstrum, Vicki Lynn. Limitations in the Understanding of Mathematical Logic by Novice Computer Science Students. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-94-33 (dissertation). September 10, 2003. Into! 183 pages. This research explored the understanding that novice computer science students have of mathematical logic.

Because concepts of logic are at the heart of many areas of computer science, it was hypothesized that a solid understanding of logic would help students grasp basic computer science concepts more quickly and would better prepare them for advanced topics such as formal verification of program correctness. In The Middle Ages! This exploratory study lays the A Stride the Future, groundwork for further investigation of John Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, this hypothesis. Data for A Stride the Future the study were the publicly available versions of the Advanced Placement Examination in fashion in the, Computer Science (APCS examination) and files containing anonymous individual responses of students who took these examinations. A content analysis procedure was developed to provide reliable and valid classification of multiple-choice items from the APCS examinations based on the relationship between concepts covered in each item and the concepts of logic. The concepts in the computer science subdomain of logic were clarified by means of a taxonomy developed for use in this study. Thirty-eight experts in computer science education were judges in the content analysis of the multiple-choice items. A Stride Into The Future Essay! The judges' ratings provided criteria for chapter grouping items into Into the Future Essay strongly related and not strongly related partitions. In general, the mean proportion of student respondents that correctly answered the items in a partition was lower for the strongly related than for the not strongly related partition, with a smaller standard deviation.

The difficulty distributions for the two partitions were shown to be non-homogeneous (p ! .002), with the difficulty distribution for the strongly related partition skewed more towards the very difficult end of the distribution. The results of autistic case study, this study suggest that novice computer science students experience more difficulty with concepts involving mathematical logic than they do, in general, with other concepts in computer science. This indicates a need to improve the A Stride Into, way in which novice computer science students learn the concepts of logic. In particular, pre-college preparation in mathematical logic and the content of discrete mathematics courses taken by computer science students need to be scrutinized. Suel, Torsten. Routing and Sorting on autistic study, Fixed Topologies. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-94-29 (dissertation). December 1994.

197 pages. This thesis studies the problems of packet routing and sorting on parallel models of computation that are based on a fixed, bounded-degree topology. It establishes lower bounds for several classes of sorting networks and algorithms, and describes techniques and algorithms for packet routing and sorting on mesh-connected and related networks. A Stride Into The Future! A lower bound of Omega(lg n lglg n / lglglg n) is established for little albert the depth of shuffle-unshuffle sorting networks, a class of sorting networks that maps efficiently to the hypercube and its bounded-degree variants. A stronger lower bound of Omega(lg^2 n / lglg n) is Into the Future Essay shown for a subclass of the shuffle-unshuffle sorting networks whose structure corresponds to the class of ascend and descend algorithms on fashion ages, the hypercube. Into The Future! These lower bounds also extend to restricted classes of study, non-oblivious sorting algorithms on hypercubic networks. A lower bound of A Stride Into, Omega(n (lg n / lglg n)^2) is shown for the size of Shellsort sorting networks, and for the running time of non-oblivious Shellsort algorithms. The lower bound establishes a trade-off between the running time of a Shellsort algorithm and little today the length of the A Stride, underlying increment sequence. For the little albert, problems of permutation routing and sorting on A Stride Into, meshes and related networks, a set of techniques is proposed that can be used to convert many randomized algorithms into in the deterministic algorithms with matching running time and queue size. Applications of these techniques lead to a deterministic algorithm for sorting on A Stride Into the Future, the two-dimensional mesh that achieves a running time of 2n+o(n), and little a fairly simple deterministic algorithm for routing with a running time of A Stride the Future, 2n+o(n) and very small queue size. Revealed! Some other applications of the techniques are also described.

Finally, the thesis gives algorithms and A Stride the Future Essay lower bounds for routing and sorting on leather tanning, multi-dimensional meshes and meshes with bus connections. Lee, Wood Wai. A Qualitative Simulation Based Method To Construct Phase Portraits. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI93-194 (dissertation). Essay! January 1993. Protease Mechanism! 235 pages.

Shortcomings of qualitative simulation, and Into Essay of quantitative simulation, motivate combining them to do simulations exhibiting strengths of each. The resulting class of techniques is case study termed qualitative-quantitative simulation . Qualitative-quantitative simulation is made more challenging-yet more useful- by accounting for partial quantitative information. Available quantitative information is often incomplete, so allowing numerical values to be qualified with error terms or tolerances expressed as intervals is Into important. In this research, we demonstrate the The Truth, combination of qualitative and quantitative simulation in an implemented system called Q3. Q3 utilizes complete or incomplete quantitative information, progressively refining a qualitative simulation in a process that provides increasingly specific numeric predictions. A Stride Into Essay! The step size refinement algorithm is central to Q3. Step size refinement is discussed with respect to three properties often used in analyzing simulation algorithms: correctness of the 17 summary, inferences, theoretical convergence to the true solution, and stability of Into Essay, solutions when the model parameters and initial conditions are incompletely specified. Q3 has been successfully applied to model based prediction, measurement interpretation diagnosis, and finding probabilities of leather tanning, qualitative behaviors. Franke, David Wayne. A Theory of Teleology.

The University of A Stride Into the Future Essay, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI93-201 (dissertation). May 1993. 188 pages. A representation language for teleological descriptions, or descriptions of purpose, is defined.

The teleological language, TeD, expresses the descriptions of purpose in terms of design modifications that guarantee the satisfaction of design specifications. These specifications express potential behaviors the designed artifact should or should not exhibit. We define an abstraction relation on behavior and implement model checking and albert today classification algorithms that compute this abstraction relation. The model checking algorithm determines whether or not a behavior satisfies a specification. The classification algorithm provides effective indexing of behaviors and teleological descriptions. The Future! We implement an acquisition technique for letter chapter teleological descriptions and Into the Future demonstrate how teleological descriptions can subsequently be used in diagnosis, explanation, case-based reasoning, design by analogy, and design reuse.

We demonstrate the behavior language, teleology language, acquisition of teleological descriptions, and application of John Kennedy: Revealed, teleological descriptions in explanation, diagnosis, and A Stride Into the Future Essay design reuse via examples in the thermal, hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical domains. We define additional teleological operators that express purposes like prevent, order, synchronize, maintain, and regulate, demonstrating the ability to represent common human-generated descriptions of albert today, purpose in TeD. Expressing the purpose of preventing an undesirable behavior is unique to TeD, and is an A Stride Into, example of TeD's ability to express purposes regarding missing behaviors and components removed from a design. Letter Chapter 17 Summary! The teleology language developed in this work represents a significant advance over previous work by providing a formal language that 1) is independent of any particular domain of mechanisms or behavior language, 2) can be effectively acquired during the design process, and 3) provides an Essay, effective means of classifying and indexing teleological descriptions. Lee, Xiang-Seng.

Temporal and Spatial Analysis in protease mechanism, Knowledge-based Physics Problem Solving. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI93-205 (dissertation). December 1992. 266 pages. Physics problems as stated in textbooks are typically informal and incomplete, and not amenable to the direct application of the the Future Essay, general laws of physics. Chapter 17 Summary! In this dissertation, we present a theory of analysis for automatically solving such problems.

In particular, the theory provides a detailed methodology for constructing a formal problem representation, called physical representation, upon which physics laws may be appropriately selected and instantiated. With the equations generated by these laws, the solutions to these problems are obtained through strictly mathematical manipulations. This theory provides a well-structured domain language, in which it is relatively easy to state mechanical knowledge and mechanics problems. In the language we introduce the notion of basic physical phenomenon for representing the knowledge of the Future Essay, physical situations and in the ages events. This notion serves as both the A Stride Into Essay, building block for the physical representation and as a vehicle for accessing the little albert today, appropriate physical laws.

Both basic physical phenomena and A Stride Into Essay more traditional temporal entities, instants and intervals, may be used as time references. This dual-system representation facilitates bi-level abstractions of time necessary to avoid discontinuities introduced by short impulsive phenomena, e.g., collisions, and corresponds well with human-like temporal reasoning. The language also includes an about Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth, ontology of space, using multiple abstractions to account for its inherent complexity, and representation schemes for physical laws and equations. The other key ingredient of the theory is a repertoire of ordered knowledge sources, formulated to specify the derivation procedures of a physical representation. The domain language, in which these knowledge sources are written, has a structure which is A Stride Essay useful as a theoretical basis for determining their ordering and inference step sizes. This practice has proven crucial for building knowledge-based systems that are easy to debug and modify. The theory has been implemented and little today tested in a computer program which has successfully solved several relatively difficult problems selected from a widely used textbook. Novel methods implemented in the program for Into Essay intelligently selecting appropriate physics laws and for solving equations are also discussed. DOWNLOAD Available from middle, University Microfilms. Farquhar, Adam. Automated Modeling of Physical Systems in the Presence of Incomplete Knowledge.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. A Stride Into The Future! Report# AI93-207 (dissertation). September 1993. 149 pages. This dissertation presents an approach to automated reasoning about physical systems in the presence of little albert, incomplete knowledge which supports formal analysis, proof of guarantees, has been fully implemented, and applied to substantial domain modeling problems. Predicting and reasoning about the behavior of Into the Future, physical systems is a difficult and study important task that is essential to everyday common sense reasoning and to complex engineering tasks such as design, monitoring, control, or diagnosis.

A capability for automated modeling and simulation requires - expressiveness to represent incomplete knowledge - algorithms to draw useful inferences about non-trivial systems, and - precise semantics to support meaningful guarantees of correctness In order to clarify the structure of the knowledge required for reasoning about the behavior of physical systems, we distinguish between the model building task which builds a model to A Stride, describe the autistic study, system, and the simulation task which uses the model to generate a description of the possible behaviors of the A Stride Into Essay, system. This dissertation describes QPC, an implemented approach to reasoning about physical systems that builds on the expressiveness of Qualitative Process Theory [Forbus,1986] and the mathematical rigor of the QSIM qualitative simulation algorithm [Kuipers,1986]. The semantics of QPC's modeling language are grounded in the mathematics of ordinary differential equations and about John Kennedy: The Truth Revealed their solutions. This formalization enables the statement and proof of A Stride Into the Future Essay, QPC's correctness. If the domain theory is adequate and the initial description of the system is correct, then the leather tanning, actual behavior of the system must be in the set of possible behaviors QPC predicts. QPC has been successfully applied to problems in Botany and complex examples drawn from A Stride Into, Chemical Engineering, as well as numerous smaller problems.

Experience has shown that the letter, modeling language is expressive enough to describe complex domains and that the inference mechanism is powerful enough to predict the behavior of substantial systems. Bayerdorffer, Bryan Carl. Associative Broadcast and the Communications Semantics of Naming Concurrent Systms. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-93-20 (dissertation). November 1993. 207 pages. Much of the complexity of concurrent program design lies in the specification of patterns of communication: flows of information among objects (e.g. processes) expressed as functions of the global computation state. Into! Underlying the communication mechanisms of every concurrent system is a naming system, whic is used to specify the objects participating in each communication. We call those characteristics of naming systems that determine the patterns of communication that can be specified the leather tanning, communication semantics of naming systems.

A more expressive naming system allows communication to be specified at Into Essay a higher level of abstraction. The available communication abstractions are significant in in the, the choice of an Into, algorithm, in which specific patterns of communication are manifest, to fashion middle ages, solve a particular problem. Thus the choice or design of a naming system often significantly affects the design of concurrent programs. Yet naming systems have not been widely studied as independent components of concurrent systems. Into! This has led to empirical design and inappropriate choices of naming systems, which hinder the specification of complex patterns of communication and the scarlet letter chapter constrain algorithm design, yielding awkward programs and inefficient executions. To simplify the use of naming systems in specifying communication, and to make more precise our understanding of A Stride Into, their communication semantics, we adopt a two fold approach: The development of a formal taxonomy of naming systems, and the design of a specific naming system and communication primitive, called Associative Broadcast, that enable straightforward specification of the scarlet chapter, complex communication patterns. The taxonomy defines a set of orthogonal properties that characterize the ability ofnaming systems to express fundamental patterns of communication. Naming systems are classified and ranked in a partially ordered hierarchy according to the Future, their properties. The hierarchy allows systematic comparison of naming systems, and selection of naming systems for the solution of problems requiring specific properties. Associative Broadcast resides at the top of the hierarchy, and allows the leather tanning, specification of a dynamic, descriptively named target set of objects as the destination of a message by defining names to A Stride Essay, be propositional expressions over sets of object attributes, and by using delayed resolution.

We apply Associative Broadcast to obtain algorithms with desirable symmetry, robustness, concurrency, and efficiency properties for problems in the areas of study, distributed constraint reduction, database consistency in the presence of A Stride the Future, network partition failures, and virtual time synchronization. Bunda, John D. Instruction Processing Optimization Techniques for case study VLSI Microprocessors (dissertation). University of A Stride the Future, Texas at fashion in the ages Austin, Department of Essay, Computer Sciences. Report# TR-93-19 (dissertation). November 1993.

174 pages. The RISC minimalist paradigm of computer architecture has inspired machines that are straightforward to understand and implement. There has been disagreement as to little albert, the precise definition of RISC, and strong results about the relative value of RISC over other architectural approaches are evasive. For the purposes of this thesis, a RISC architecture consists of a general-purpose register file and a simple multi-stage pipeline for executing single instructions at A Stride Into the Future Essay a peak rate of one per clock cycle. Study! Even within the Into, parameters of a RISC processor architecture, there remain design decisions that can significantly impact cost and processing performance. This thesis presents an autistic case, extensive investigation of some of these decisions. A common criticism of RISC machines is low code density; programs for RISC architectures tend to contain more instructions and A Stride Into Essay occupy more physical storage than those for machines with more complex and protease mechanism powerful instruction sets. In today's technology, this disadvantage is often mitigated by reduced memory cost, larger scale integration, and the ease of implementing high-speed RISC instruction processors. It is unclear, however, how evolution in technology and processor applications influences this tradeoff; it is prudent to continue examining consequences of popular RISC design choices with respect to Into Essay, these changing parameters. For example, microprocessor clock cycle times are decreasing at a faster rate than memory access times and interconnect speed.

Moreover, as speed and device densities increase, so does the problem of managing and removal of heat energy from processor chips. All of these factors tend to increase, rather than decrease concern over the performance and cost penalties of low code density. It is natural to ask whether low code density is a necessary penalty for RISC instruction processing performance. Within the framework of serine, a parameterized design for Into the Future Essay a RISC instruction processor, this thesis presents analysis of these processing performance and energy-efficiency issues through software simulation. Yu, Yuan. Automated Proofs of Object Code For a Widely Used Microprocessor. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-93-09 (dissertation). The Scarlet 17 Summary! 734 pages. Computing devices can be specified and studied mathematically. Formal specification of computing devices has many advantages -- it provides a precise characterization of the computational model and allows for mathematical reasoning about models of the computing devices and programs executed on them.

While there has been a large body of research on program proving, work has almost exclusively focused on programs written in high level programming languages. This thesis addresses the very important but largely ignored problem of machine code program proving. In this thesis we have formally described a substantial subset of the MC68020, a widely used microprocessor built by A Stride the Future Essay Motorola, within the mathematical logic of the automated reasoning system Nqthm, a.k.a. the about John Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, Boyer-Moore Theorem Proving System. A Stride The Future Essay! Based on this formal model, we have mechanized a mathematical theory to facilitate automated reasoning about object code programs. We then have mechanically checked the correctness of MC68020 object code programs for binary search, Hoare's Quick Sort, the Berkeley Unix C string library, and other well-known algorithms. The object code for these examples was generated using the Gnu C, the Verdix Ada, and middle ages the AKCL Common Lisp compilers.

Jain, Ravi. Scheduling Data Transfers in Parallel Computers and Communications Systems. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. The Future! Report# TR-93-03 (dissertation). February 1993.

225 pages. The performance of many applications of parallel computers and communications systems is limited by the speed of data transfers rather than the speed of processing. An important, but neglected, aspect of resource management to overcome this bottleneck is the scheduling of data transfers. Data transfer scheduling differs from traditional scheduling problems in fashion middle, that data transfer tasks require multiple resources simultaneously, rather than a single resource serially, in order to execute. A Stride Into Essay! We study the data transfer scheduling problem by first defining a general model for precisely specifying and classifying scheduling problems.

We use the model for the recognition of the similarity of today, seemingly different problems from different application areas, for the systematic transformation of one problem specification into that of A Stride Into the Future, a seemingly different problem, and for the systematic decomposition of a problem specification into solvable subproblems. We obtain polynomial-time, optimal and approximate algorithms for a wide range of data transfer scheduling problems under a variety of architectural and little today logical constraints, including communication architectures in which resources are fully connected, communication architectures with a tree topology, and the presence of mutual exclusion and A Stride Into the Future Essay precedence constraints. Our algorithms either generalize previous results for serine protease mechanism these problems, or provide better performance, or both. Our results are applicable to both parallel computers and communications systems, including certain types of shared-bus multiprocessor systems such as the Sequent and the IBM RP3, hierarchical switching systems, tree-structured multiprocessor architectures, and intersatellite communications systems. Ng, Hwee Tou. A General Abductive System with Application to Plan Recognition and A Stride Diagnosis. Serine Protease Mechanism! The University of Into the Future Essay, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# AI92-177 (dissertation). June 1992. 145 pages. A diverse set of intelligent activities, including natural language understanding, diagnosis, and scientific theory formation, requires the ability to serine protease, construct explanations for observed phenomena. In this thesis, we view explanation as abduction, where an abduction explanation is a consistent set of assumptions which, together with background knowledge, logically entails a set of observations.

Richards, Bradley Lance. An Operator-Based Approach to First-Order Theory Revision. The University of A Stride the Future, Texas at Austin, Department of leather tanning, Computer Sciences. Report# AI92-181 (dissertation). August 1992. 178 pages. This thesis presents a system, FORTE (First-Order Revision of Theories from Examples), that performs theory revision in first-order domains. Moving to a first-order representation creates many new challenges, such as argument selection and recursion. but it also opens many new application areas, such as logic programming and qualitative modelling, that are beyond the reach of propositional systems. FORTE uses a hill-climbing approach to A Stride Essay, revise theories. It identifies possible errors in the theory and calls on a library of operators to develop possible revisions.

The best revision is implemented, and the process repeats until no further revisions are possible. Albert! Operators are drawn from a variety of sources, including propositional theory revision, first-order induction, and inverse resolutions. FORTE has been tested in a wide variety of A Stride Into, domains. The thesis includes results from standard machine-learning domains, logic programming, qualitative model building, and grammar acquisition. Acker, Liane. Access Methods for Large, Multifunctional Knowledge Bases.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of leather tanning, Computer Sciences. Report# AI92-183 (dissertation). A Stride Essay! August 1992. 147 pages. The goal of this research is to leather tanning, develop methods for representing and accessing knowledge to support multiple tasks. The goals of the research are threefold. The first goal is to develop an expressive and A Stride Essay convenient frame-based language for fashion ages representing domain knowledge so that it can be applied to A Stride the Future Essay, multiple tasks. A single comprehensive, fine grained representation of today, domain knowledge that can support a variety of applications is more flexible and cost-effective than several special purpose knowledge bases. The second goal of the research is to A Stride Into the Future, make users of a knowledge base less dependent on the particulars of how knowledge is represented. This is achieved by providing a content addressable knowledge base and by providing access to concepts in the virtual knowledge base.

Users can access frames in the scarlet letter 17 summary, the knowledge base by description as well as by A Stride Into Essay name, regardless of whether they exist explicitly or implicitly in the knowledge base. Fashion Ages! The third goal of the A Stride Essay, research is to develop computational methods for accessing from a knowledge base coherent portions of knowledge about fashion, a given concept (called viewpoints of concepts). Viewpoints are essential for a variety of A Stride Into the Future Essay, tasks, including explanation generation, compositional modeling, problem solving, and machine learning. This research identifies several types of viewpoints and develops methods for constructing viewpoints of each type. Autistic Case! Evaluation suggests that the viewpoints generated by these methods are comparable in coherence to human- generated viewpoints. Turpin, Russell.

Programming Data Structures in Logic. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-92-44 (dissertation). December 1992. 170 pages. Current programming languages that are grounded in a formal logic -- such as pure Lisp (based on the lambda calculus) and A Stride Prolog (based on Horn clause logic) -- do not support the use of leather tanning, complex, pointer-based data structures. The lack of this important feature in Into the Future, logically grounded languages contrasts sharply with its strong support in the imperative programming languages that have enjoyed wide application, of which C is fashion in the a prime example. Unfortunately, the formal methods for reasoning about imperative languages have not proved broadly useful for reasoning about A Stride Into Essay, programs that manipulate complex, pointer-based data structures. Between these two camps resides an leather tanning, open question: How can we verify programs involving complex, pointer-based data structures? This work gives an answer to this question. It describes a programming language in which a programmer can define logical predicates on data structures and pointers, and use these predicates to A Stride Into, specify programs that manipulate complex, pointer-based data structures.

These programs may dynamically allocate memory and destructively modify their arguments. This solution is grounded in two theoretical advances. (1) This work develops a first-order logic for data structures that formalizes the notions that are necessary for defining and leather tanning reasoning about relationships between data structures, including notions such as the address of a data structure, pointer reference, reachability via pointer reference, and data structure overlap. A Stride Into Essay! (2) This work provides a compilation algorithm, based on a calculus of procedure composition, that generates procedural code from a program specified in the logic. Compilation is in the style of automatic programming, and relies on the programmer, using theorem proving tools, to verify assertions in the logic that are generated by the compilation algorithm. Kuo, Chin-Ming. Parallel Execution of Production Systems. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-92-42 (dissertation). November 1992. 152 pages. The production system or rule-based system paradigm is serine protease a widely used form of building expert systems or artificial intelligence applications involving knowledge representation and knowledge base search. As the complexity and size of expert system applications expand, parallelizing production systems becomes an attractive approach in attempts to A Stride Into the Future Essay, speedup the executions. Previous attempts at parallel structuring of rule-based programs have failed to achieve desired levels of parallelism. Today! This research is Into the Future Essay a comprehensive approach to the parallelization of rule-based programs. The structure of the productions systems is examined and static analysis techniques are developed.

Several sources of run-time parallelism are developed to restructure the cases where the dynamic behaviors of the systems can not be detected by the compile-time analysis. We propose a new production system language (CREL), suitable for parallel implementation, to allow asynchronous execution. Staskauskas, Mark G. Specification and Verification of Large-Scale Reactive Programs. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-92-34 (dissertation). August 1992. 192 pages. Leather Tanning! The UNITY methodology has attracted wide attention because of its elegant logic for specifying and reasoning about Essay, concurrent programs. However, the about John Fitzgerald Kennedy:, UNITY examples tackled so far are much smaller in scale than the A Stride Into the Future, problems typically encountered in practice. The goal of this dissertation is the identification of extensions to Essay John The Truth, UNITY that will enable it to A Stride Into Essay, be applied to significantly larger problems. To explore possible extensions, we have applied UNITY to three large-scale examples drawn from industrial applications: the I/O subsystem portion of the Essay about John, GCOS operating system; a distributed electronic funds-transfer system; and a telephone-switching system.

Hayashi, Akira. Geometrical Motion Planning for Highly Redundant Manipulators Using a Continuous Model. Into The Future! The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI91-156 (dissertation). March 1991. 156 pages. There is letter chapter a need for highly redundant manipulators to work in complex, cluttered environments.

Our goal is to plan paths for such manipulators efficiently. The path planning problem has been shown to be PSPACE-complete in terms of the Into Essay, number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of the manipulator. We present a method which overcomes the complexity with a strong heuristic: utilizing redundancy by means of the scarlet, a continuous manipulator model. The continuous model allows us to change the A Stride Into, complexity of the problem from a function of both the DOF of the manipulator (believed to about John Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth, be exponential) and the complexity of the the Future Essay, environment (polynomial), to a polynomial function of the complexity of the environment only. The power of the continuous model comes from the ability to decompose the manipulator into segments, with the number, size, and boundaries of the segments, varying smoothly and dynamically. First, we develop motion schemas for the individual segments to achieve a basic set of goals in open and cluttered space.

Second, we plan a smooth trajectory through free space for John Kennedy: The Truth Revealed a point robot with a maximum curvature constraint. Third, the path generates a set of position subgoals for the continuous manipulator which are achieved by the basic motion schemas. A Stride The Future! Fourth, the mapping from the continuous model to an available jointed arm provides the Essay Kennedy: The Truth, curvature bound and obstacle envelopes required (in step 2) to guarantee a collision-free path. The validity of the continuous model approach is also supported by an extensive simulation which we performed. Into Essay! While the simulation has been performed in the scarlet letter chapter, 2-D, we show a natural extension to A Stride the Future, 3-D for each technique we have implemented for the 2-D simulation. Hartman, John. Automatic Control Understanding for Natural Programs. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. In The! Report# AI-91-161 (dissertation). May 1991. 227 pages.

Program understanding involves recognizing abstract concepts like read-process loop in existing programs. Programmers spend much of their time understanding programs, so studying and A Stride the Future automating the leather tanning, process has many benefits. Programming plans are units of programming knowledge connecting abstract concepts and their implementations. Existing research assumes that plan instances can be recognized to recover the programmer's abstract concepts and intentions, but this approach has not been confirmed empirically. We present a practical method for bottom-up control concept recognition in large, unstructured imperative programs. Control concepts are abstract notions about interactions between control flow, data flow and computation, such as do loop, read process loop, and bounded linear search. They are recognized by comparing an abstract program representation against a library of standard implementation plans. The program representation is a hierarchical control flow/data flow graph decomposed into a tree of sub-models using propers (single entry/exit control flow sub-graphs).

Plans are represented by similar graphs with added qualifications. Recognition is based on simple matching between sub-models and plans. The method was implemented in the UNPROG program understander and tested with Cobol and Lisp source programs. This method is robust, efficient, and scalable. The program representation can be formed for all language constructs which permit static determination of control and data flow. Into Essay! Comparing sub- models and comparisons increases linearly with program size. UNPROG has been applied to leather tanning, automatic Cobol restructuring. Knowledge associated with plans and concepts permits more specific and insightful transformation, code generation, and documentation than is possible with syntactic methods. Control understanding can similarly raise the level of other reverse engineering and re-engineering tools for applications like analysis, documentation, and translation.

We also showed how our method and UNPROG can be used for empirical study of programs at the conceptual level. Results can be used to improve recognizer performance, acquire plans, catalog natural plans and concepts, test the hypothesis that programs are planful, and characterize program populations. Throop, David Rutherford. A Stride! Model-Based Diagnosis of leather tanning, Complex, Continuous Mechanisms. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI91-162 (dissertation).

August 1991. 135 pages. In diagnosis, when a hypothesis proposes a variable's value, several different lines of evidence may be considered; the different evidence must be arbitrated. The result of this arbitration consists of a single best estimate of the A Stride Into the Future Essay, variable value and of a measure of that estimate's plausibility. The plausibility measure reflects the autistic case, degree of agreement among the lines of evidence.

This report describes HEATX, a program for model-based diagnosis of A Stride Into, non-linear mechanisms with continuous variables. The Scarlet Chapter! Previous work in model-based diagnosis has avoided arbitrating numeric evidence, often by representing continuous variables as discrete symbols (e.g., high, cold). Such restricted representation have had difficulty in diagnosing mechanisms with feedback or reconvergent fanout. HEATX represents numerical data explicitly in Essay, the hypotheses and in leather tanning, the inferencing procedures; it is thereby able to arbitrate evidence numerically. A Stride Into The Future Essay! HEATX uses both nonlinear numerical simulations and approximate linear models to perform diagnosis in the domain of heat-exchanger networks. The response of these networks to changes in their inputs is nonlinear; the little albert today, networks also have feedback and reconvergent fanout. This dissertation introduces several novel techniques for diagnosing such networks. It interleaves the generation of complete fault hypotheses with several tests on partially formed hypotheses. Two of these tests are the qualitative filter and A Stride Essay the clustering filter.

The qualitative filter analyzes the signs of gains between fault and symptom variables. The clustering filter constructs linear approximations to albert, individual components and assembles these into Into the Future Essay a linear model of the network. It then uses the linear model to assess the leather tanning, consistency of a hypothesis. Into! It does so by determining whether there is a value for the candidate fault variable which is consistent with the Essay about The Truth, quantitative values of the symptom variables; the degree of agreement between the Into the Future Essay, symptoms and little today best value for A Stride Into the Future Essay the fault variable is used to score the hypothesis. This filter is extended to multi-fault diagnosis, in which values for several fault variable may be estimated and judged simultaneously. Berleant, Jared Daniel. The Use of Partial Quantitative Information with Qualitative Reasoning. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI91-163 (dissertation).

August 1991. 131 pages. There is a need for combining qualitative and quantitative simulations, to do simulation tasks that would be difficult using either alone. Little! This task is made more difficult by the fact that available quantitative information may be incomplete, bounding values with intervals or describing them with probability distribution functions. This research demonstrates the combination of qualitative and quantitative simulation in A Stride Essay, an implemented system, Q3. Q3 utilizes partial or complete quantitative information, to gradually refine a qualitative simulation into a simulation that has properties and advantages of both qualitative simulations and quantitative ones. The technique exemplified by Q3 is shown to possess properties often used in analyzing both qualitative and quantitative simulators. The Scarlet Letter Chapter! Qualitative and quantitative inferences are correct. Theoretical convergence to A Stride the Future, the true solution and stability in ages, the presence of partial model inputs are also shown.

Q3 has been applied to the problem of finding probabilities of qualitative behaviors, an important problem. Partial quantitative characterization of A Stride the Future, model inputs, in the form of intervals and probability distributions, may be used to bound the probabilities of different behaviors. This is albert demonstrated for simple models including one in the dependability analysis application domain. Ourston, Dirk. Using Explanation-Based and Empirical Methods in Theory Revision. A Stride Into Essay! The University of Texas at Austin, Department of autistic case, Computer Sciences. Report# AI91-164 (dissertation). August 1991.

125 pages. The knowledge acquisition problem is a continuing problem in expert system development. The knowledge base (domain theory) initially formulated by the expert is usually only an approximation to the correct theory for the application domain. This initial knowledge base must be refined (usually manually) as problems are discovered. This research addresses the knowledge base refinement problem for classification tasks. The research provides an automatic method for correcting a domain theory in the light of incorrect performance on a set of training examples. The method uses attempted explanations to Into the Future Essay, focus the correction on the failing part of the case, knowledge base. A Stride The Future Essay! It then uses induction to supply a correction to the knowledge base that will render it consistent with the training examples. Using this technique, it is possible to correct overly general and the scarlet chapter 17 summary overly specific theories, theories with multiple faults at various levels in the theory hierarchy, and theories involving multiple concepts. Methods have been developed for making corrections even in the presence of noisy data.

Theoretical justification for the method is given in the form of convergence results that predict that the method will eventually converge to a hypothesis that is within a small error of the correct hypothesis, given sufficient examples. Because the technique currently relies on theorem proving for much of the analysis, it is quite expensive to computationally and heuristic methods for A Stride Into the Future Essay reducing the computational burden have been implemented. The system developed as part of the research is called EITHER (Explanation-based Inductive THeory Extension and Revision). Little Today! EITHER uses propositional Horn clause logic as its knowledge representation, with examples expressed as attribute-value lists. The system has been tested in a variety of domains including revising a theory for the identification of promoters in DNA sequences and a theory for A Stride Into soybean disease diagnosis, where it has been shown to fashion middle ages, outperform a purely inductive approach. Campbell III, A. T. Modeling Global Diffuse Illumination for Image Synthesis. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-91-39 (dissertation). December 1991. A Stride Into The Future Essay! 155 pages.

Rapid developments in the design of algorithms for rendering globally illuminated scenes have taken place in the past five years. Chapter 17 Summary! Net energy methods such as radiosity algorithms have become effective at computing the energy balance for scenes containing diffusely reflecting objects. Such methods first break up a scene description into a large set of elements, or possibly several levels of A Stride Essay, elements. Energy transfers among these elements are then determined using a variety of means. While much progress has been made in the design of energy transfer algorithms, little or no attention has been paid to in the, the proper generation of the mesh of surface elements. This dissertation presents a technique for adaptively creating a mesh of surface elements as the energy transfers are computed. The method allows large numbers of small elements to be placed at parts of the scene where the A Stride Into the Future, most active energy transfers occur without requiring that other parts of the scene be subdivided needlessly to the same degree. As a result, the computational effort in the energy transfer computations can be concentrated where it has the most effect. Since the sources of direct and indirect illumination in the scene are polygonal elements, the effects of light sources with finite area must be computed.

Most methods simplify the problem by approximating the area source with a collection of point sources. Mechanism! We present an object space algorithm to model illumination from polygonal light sources analytically. The result is a collection of smooth-shaded polygonal facets that may be rendered from any viewing position. Binary Space Partitioning trees are used to compute umbra and penumbra boundaries efficiently. Fast analytic techniques are developed for illumination calculations. Numerical optimization methods ensure that the shading function is sampled finely enough to Essay, find all significant illumination gradations. The Scarlet Chapter 17 Summary! Illumination calculations are optimized to concentrate computational effort on parts of the scene where they are most needed. Aahlad, Yeturu.

Balanced Sequencing Protocols. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-91-34 (dissertation). November 1991. 122 pages.

The protocol used to control the sequence of execution of events of A Stride the Future, a distributed computation has a significant impact on its performance. Most of the proposed protocols are pessimistic in the sense that when the available information is not sufficient to determine the correctness of executing an event, that event will be delayed until such information is available. Others have proposed optimistic protocols which, in such situations, proceed to execute the event. When the necessary information becomes available, if it turns out that the event should not have been executed, the protocol takes appropriate action to recover from the mistake. This research addresses ways to strike an appropriate balance between the extremes of optimism and pessimism in a sequencing protocol and evaluates the benefits of doing so. The term Balanced Sequencing Protocol refers to protocols whose degree of optimism can be varied across a spectrum of possibilities ranging from optimistic to pessimistic by tuning one or more parameters of the protocol. Two approaches are employed in the investigation: (1) a general protocol for sequencing any program at any specified level of optimism, and (2) balanced sequencing protocols specialized for some common distributed computing primitives and paradigms, namely, producer-consumer, distributed semaphores and distributed locking. Little Albert Today! For these specialized protocols, the range of circumstances where balanced protocols do better than both extremes and the optimal balance are analytically determined. A model of distributed databases used in a previously published simulation experiment is studied, and balanced locking is demonstrated to perform better than conventional locking when recovery cost is A Stride Into the Future less than 20 message delays. During the course of this research, a previously unknown phenomenon which can cause the performance of optimistic protocols to degrade over time was identified, and its effects were quantified for a simple system. A solution to study, this problem based on A Stride Into the Future Essay, balanced sequencing is autistic proposed.

Levy, Eliezer. Semantics-Based Recovery in Transaction Management Systems. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-91-29 (dissertation). August 1991. The Future! 89 pages. A cornerstone of the transaction paradigm is the notion of atomicity. The principle that forms the basis for obtaining transaction atomicity in most contemporary database systems is to prohibit transactions from accessing uncommitted data. There is a large range of database environments for which this standard approach to transaction atomicity is excessively restrictive and even not appropriate. A method that allows exposing uncommitted data, yet preserves transaction atomicity without inducing cascading aborts is chapter highly desirable. Such a method would alleviate performance problems related to long-duration and distributed transaction management, and would provide critical functionality for enterprises based on cooperative transactions.

This dissertation focuses on semantic recovery as the requisite method. The Future Essay! Semantic undoing, referred to ages, as compensation, is carried out by a compensating transaction which is associated with a specific forward transaction. A compensating transaction faces the intricate task of undoing its forward transaction while obliterating the effects of other transactions to a minimal extent and A Stride Into preserving data consistency. Only with the leather tanning, aid of the specific semantics of the application at hand can this task be accomplished. Compensation, and semantic recovery in general, can be utilized in the Future Essay, the realm of distributed transaction management systems. Supporting atomicity of mechanism, multi-site transactions in a distributed system is equated with long-duration delays, blocking, and loss of the local autonomy of the A Stride Essay, individual sites. The two-phase commit protocol embodies these deficiencies.

These hard problems can be alleviated by employing semantic recovery, and by trading standard all-or-nothing atomicity for a weaker notion of relaxed atomicity. Leather Tanning! Facing the Into the Future Essay, relevant impossibility results in distributed computing, this new direction is well justified. Relaxed atomicity is characterized by an asynchronous process of recovery from decentralized and uncoordinated local decisions as to whether to commit or abort a multi-site transaction. Essay Kennedy: The Truth! This recovery process finally leads to a unanimous outcome. Relaxing standard atomicity interacts in A Stride Into the Future Essay, a subtle way with correctness and concurrency control issues. Leather Tanning! Accordingly, a correctness criterion is proposed and protocols that satisfy this criterion are presented. The results on relaxed atomicity are of particular importance for heterogeneous distributed databases, where the local autonomy of the integrated systems cannot be compromised. Cheng, Albert Mo Kim. Analysis and Synthesis of A Stride the Future Essay, Real-Time Rule-Based Decision Systems. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-91-14 (dissertation). Fashion! April 1991. 284 pages. Real-time decision systems (RTDS's) are computer-controlled systems that must react to events in the external environment by performing decision-intensive computation sufficiently fast to meet specified timing and A Stride Into Essay safety constraints. This dissertation investigates a class of these systems where decisions are computed by autistic study an equational rule-based program. Two fundamental problems are identified: (1) the analysis of rule-based RTDS's in order to verify that the specified timing and safety properties are satisfied prior to their execution, and (2) the synthesis of Into the Future, rule-based RTDS's that are guaranteed to leather tanning, meet the specified timing constraints in A Stride Essay, addition to the safety constraints. Two complementary approaches have been developed to solve the first problem: (1) model checking of the global state transition graph representing the program, and (2) static analysis of the program. These approaches are combined to form the leather tanning, cornerstone of the General Iterative Analysis Algorithm.

The applicability of this analysis technique is A Stride further enhanced by leather tanning the development of a facility with which the rule-based programmer can specify domain-specific knowledge in the language Estella in order to A Stride Into the Future, validate the Essay Kennedy: Revealed, performance of an even wider range of programs. Two approaches also have been identified to tackle the second problem: (1) transforming the given equational rule-based program by adding, deleting, and/or modifying rules, and A Stride Essay (2) optimizing the albert today, scheduler to select the rules to fire such that the variables in the program will always converge to stable values within the response time constraint. The complexity and size of real-time decision systems often necessitates the use of computer-aided design tools. This dissertation describes a suite of analysis tools based on our theoretical framework which have been implemented to ensure that equational rule-based programs written in the language EQL can indeed meet their specified timing constraints. Haruyama, Nick Shinichiro.

New Routing Strategies for VLSI. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-91-02 (dissertation). December 1990. 158 pages.

This report describes two methods of routing for VLSI layout: one method for channel routing and another method for power wire routing. Our two-layer channel router is designed to find solutions which minimize both wiring area and number of A Stride Into Essay, vias simultaneously. Our method, called topological channel routing, analyzes the topological relationship of wires before the wires are mapped onto the channel. A unique layout design rule called an middle ages, interleaving mesh is used. The interleaving mesh prohibits long wires on A Stride the Future Essay, one layer from overlapping with wires on the other layer, thus has smaller cross talks of signals because of smaller capacitive couplings between those wires on serine, different layers. Experimental results show that the A Stride the Future Essay, algorithm generates very good solutions. For example, we have obtained a height of autistic, 41 for the famous Deutsch's Difficult Example without any parallel overlaps of wires and simultaneously a via count of 186, which is one of the best results ever reported in the literature.

Our power router finds non-crossing VDD and GND trees on one layer using a small metal area. The solution is A Stride Into the Future obtained under the constraints of metal migration and autistic study voltage drop. Experimental results show that the power wire area is considerably smaller than a previously developed method for single-layer routing. Byun, Yung-Tai. A Stride Essay! Spatial Learning Mobile Robots with a Spatial Semantic Hierarchical Model. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI90-121 (dissertation). January 1990.

235 pages. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a spatial exploration and fashion in the map-learning strategy for a mobile robot to use in unknown, large-scale environments. A Stride Into The Future Essay! Traditional approaches aim at serine mechanism building purely metrically accurate maps. Because of sensorimotor errors, it is hard to Into the Future, construct accurately such maps. However, in spite of sensory and computation limitation, humans explore environments, build cognitive maps from exploration, and successfully path-plan, navigate, and place-find. Based on the study of human cognitive maps, we develop a spatial semantic hierarchical model to replace the global absolute coordinate frame used in traditional approaches. The semantic hierarchical model consists of three levels: control level, topological level, and geometrical level. The topological level provides the 17 summary, basic structure of the hierarchy.

At the control level, a robot finds places or follows travel edges which can be described by Into Essay qualitatively definable features. The distinctive features allow development of distinctiveness measures. Serine Protease! The robot uses these measures to find, with negative feedback control, the distinctive places by hill-climbing search algorithms, and the travel edges by edge-following algorithms. Distinctive places and travel edges are connected to build a topological model. This model is Essay created prior to the construction of a global geometrical map. Cumulative location error is essentially eliminated while traveling among distinctive places and travel edges by alternating between the hill-climbing search control algorithms and the edge-following control algorithms. On top of the Essay about Fitzgerald The Truth, topological model, metrical information is accumulated first locally and then globally. Using a simulation package with a robot instance, NX, we demonstrate the A Stride Into Essay, robustness of little albert today, our method against the Future sensorimotor errors. The control knowledge for distinctive places and travel edges, the topological matching process, and the metrical matching process with local geometry make our approach robust in the face of metrical errors. In addition to robust navigation at the control and topological levels, our framework can incorporate certain metrically-based methods and leather tanning thus provide the best of Essay, both approaches. Hermjakob, Ph.D., Ulf.

Access-Limited Logic -- A Language for little Knowledge Representation. The University of A Stride Into the Future, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI90-141 (dissertation). Case Study! October 1990. 237 pages. Access-Limited Logic (ALL) is a language for knowledge representation which formalizes the access limitations inherent in a network structured knowledge-base. Where a deductive method such as resolution would retrieve all assertions that satisfy a given pattern, an access-limited logic retrieves all assertions reachable by Into the Future following an available access path. The time complexity of inference is thus a polynomial function of the size of the accessible portion of the in the middle, knowledge- base, rather than the size of the entire knowledge-base. Access-Limited Logic, though incomplete, still has a well defined semantics and A Stride the Future Essay a weakened form of completeness, Socratic Completeness, which guarantees that for middle ages any query which is a logical consequence of the Into the Future, knowledge-base, there exists a series of queries after which the original query will succeed. We have implemented ALL in Lisp and chapter 17 summary it has been used to build several non-trivial systems, including versions of Essay, Qualitative Process Theory and Pearl's probability networks. Leather Tanning! ALL is a step toward providing the properties - clean semantics, efficient inference, expressive power - which will be necessary to build large, effective knowledge bases.

Blumenthal, Brad Brand. Applying Design Replay to A Stride the Future, the Domain of Metaphoric Human Interface Design. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI90-145 (dissertation). December 1990. 126 pages. This research focuses on the development of an algorithm for recording the experience of an automated design system and reusing that experience to improve the performance of the design system on subsequent design episodes.

This new design replay algorithm has been implemented in little albert, the REMAID system, applied to the domain of automated human interface design, and Into empirically tested against implementations of other approaches to design replay presented in the literature. Essay Fitzgerald Kennedy: Revealed! The success of the REMAID design replay technique is based on two fundamentally new approaches. A Stride Into The Future! First, REMAID effectively interleaves design replay with generic automated design by recognizing and intelligently adapting to various kinds of mismatches between the recorded experience and the current episode. These mismatches, called pretours, detours, and combinations, are identified, and methods for recognizing and adapting to them are described. The second approach used by study the REMAID algorithm is to reuse the reasoning involved in producing a design, rather than just the choices. This is implemented by recording and reusing the heuristics used to A Stride Into Essay, produce a design, rather than simply recording the goals that were addressed. In particular, the heuristics that were used to today, order subgoals in a design are recorded and reused. The design system that REMAID is applied to is called MAID and A Stride the Future automatically produces human interface designs for a computer application when given a specification of the functionality of that application.

In addition to serving as the test domain for REMAID, MAID advanced the state of the art in protease mechanism, automated human interface design by implementing a representation and A Stride the Future an algorithm that automatically incorporates characteristics from real world objects into interface designs. MAID creates such metaphoric interface designs by importing appearances, new objects and other features suggested by the real-world entity. Study! MAID has been used to design nine different interfaces to two different applications. Branting, Karl. Integrating Rules and Precedents for A Stride Classification and Explanation: Automating Legal Analysis. The University of about John The Truth, Texas at Austin, Department of A Stride Into the Future Essay, Computer Sciences. Report# AI90-146 (dissertation). Serine Protease! December 1990.

159 pages. The goal of this research is to develop a model for problem solving that integrates general rules with specific examples. Developing such a model is important because neither rules nor examples, standing alone, are sufficient for problem solving in many important domains. Few areas of human expertise are so well understood that problem solving is reducible to deduction from general principles. Similarly, there are few domains in which experience is so extensive that every new problem precisely matches a previous problem whose solution is known. Into Essay! When neither rules nor examples are individually sufficient, problem-solving expertise depends on integrating both. Legal analysis typifies a task in which problem solving depends upon both an incomplete general theory and examples. A lawyer familiar only with the literal text of legal rules but ignorant of in the ages, any examples of their use would be critically handicapped in the tasks of making, anticipating, and evaluating arguments. Much of the expertise of an experienced lawyer comes not from knowledge of legal rules themselves, but from Into Essay, familiarity with examples of the use of rules for argumentation, planning, and adjudication. The dependence of expert performance in law on both rules and leather tanning examples makes law an A Stride the Future, ideal domain for illustrating and evaluating models for Essay about John Fitzgerald Kennedy: integrating general and specific knowledge sources.

Iscoe, Neil Allen. Domain-specific Programming: an A Stride Into the Future, Object-Oriented and Knowledge-Based Approach to Specification and Generation. University of Texas at fashion middle ages Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-90-37 (dissertation). November 1990.

154 pages. Programmers must have an Into, understanding of both programming knowledge and application domain knowledge to protease, write application programs. But while programming is well enough understood to model and A Stride Into Essay teach, application domain knowledge is not yet well understood, and is codified only in an informal ad hoc manner. Because representations that precisely characterize application domain knowledge do not currently exist, errors are frequently made when gathering and mapping specifications from the informal to Essay John Fitzgerald Kennedy: Revealed, the formal. This dissertation defines a meta-model for Into application domain knowledge and protease mechanism describes a methodology for its instantiation into domain-specific models. Domain models are representations of application domains that can be used for a variety of operational goals in A Stride, support of serine protease, specific software engineering tasks or processes. The meta-model and A Stride the Future Essay methodology in this dissertation facilitate understanding and analyzing application areas and eliciting and formalizing software requirements and specifications. The emphasis is on general characterization techniques that can be used to instantiate models from albert today, different application domains.

Menon, Vinod. Dynamic Aspects of Signaling in A Stride, Distributed Neural Systems. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-90-36 (dissertation). Case! November 1990.

162 pages. A distributed neural system consists of localized populations of neurons - neuronal groups - linked by massive reciprocal connections. A Stride The Future! Signaling between neuronal groups forms the basis of in the middle, functioning of such a system. In this thesis, fundamental aspects of Into the Future, signaling are investigated mathematically with particular emphasis on the architecture and temporal self-organizing features of distributed neural systems. Coherent population oscillations, driven by exogenous and endogenous events, serve as autonomous timing mechanisms and are the basis of one possible mechanism of signaling. The theoretical analysis has, therefore, concentrated on leather tanning, a detailed study of the Into Essay, origin and Fitzgerald Kennedy: frequency-amplitude-phase characteristics of the oscillations and the emergent features of inter-group reentrant signaling. It is shown that a phase shift between the excitatory and inhibitory components of the interacting intra-neuronal-group signals underlies the A Stride Essay, generation of oscillations. Such a phase shift is readily induced by delayed inhibition or slowly decaying inhibition. Today! Theoretical analysis shows that a large dynamic frequency-amplitude range is possible by varying the time course of the inhibitory signal. A Stride! Reentrant signaling between two groups is shown to give rise to synchronization, desynchronization, and resynchronization (with a large jump in frequency and phase difference) of the oscillatory activity as the latency of the reentrant signal is varied.

We propose that this phenomenon represents a correlation dependent non-Boolean switching mechanism. A study of triadic neuronal group interactions reveals topological effects - the existence of autistic case study, stabilizing (closed loop) and destabilizing (open loop) circuits. The analysis indicates (1) the metastable nature of A Stride Into Essay, signaling, (2) the existence of time windows in which correlated and uncorrelated activity can take place, and (3) dynamic frequency-amplitude-phase modulation of oscillations. By varying the latencies, and hence the relative phases of the reentrant signals, it is possible to dynamically and selectively modulate the cross-correlation between coactive neuronal groups in a manner that reflects the mapping topology as well as the intrinsic neuronal circuit properties. Leather Tanning! These mechanisms, we argue, provide dynamic linkage between neuronal groups thereby enabling the A Stride Into Essay, distributed neural system to operate in a highly parallel manner without clocks, algorithms, and central control.

Deshpande, Sanjay R. A Theory for in the Automated Synthesis of Architectures for Repetitive Multi-Rate Algorithms. University of A Stride Into, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-90-28 (dissertation). Albert! August 1990. 230 pages. A theoretical framework is developed to achieve automated architectural synthesis for data-independent, repetitive, multi-rate algorithms from their behavioral specifications.

Multi-rate functions are formally defined. It is A Stride Into Essay shown that systolic architectures for algorithms incorporating multi-rate functions make inefficient use of hardware components and that a multi-clock design style can produce more efficient architectures. A graph-oriented language, called Data Dependency Graphs (DDGs), is introduced to facilitate the specification of fashion, multi-rate computations. Computational semantics suitable for multi-rate computations are associated with the A Stride Into, nodes and edges of the DDG. A compatible model for function execution by in the hardware components is proposed. A bus-based architectural scheme is A Stride Into the Future Essay also proposed.

The synthesis process is seen as translation from DDGs to architectures. Analytic techniques are introduced to extract design information from the DDGs. Synthesis problems are formulated, and heuristic approaches are suggested for their solution. An implementation of a heuristic synthesis system is described. The implementation is evaluated via experiments. Bulko, William Charles. Understanding Coreference in a System for Solving Physics Word Problems(Ph.D. Dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI89-102 (dissertation).

May 1989. 197 pages. In this thesis, a computer program (BEATRIX) is presented which takes as input an English statement of a physics problem and a figure associated with it, understands the leather tanning, two kinds of input in combination, and produces a data structure containing a model of the physical objects described and the relationships between them. BEATRIX provides a mouse-based graphic interface with which the Into the Future, user sketches a picture and enters English sentences; meanwhile, BEATRIX creates a neutral internal representation of the picture similar to that which might be produced as the output of a vision system. Today! It then parses the text and A Stride Into Essay the picture representation, resolves the autistic case, references between objects common to the two data sources, and produces a unified model of the problem world. The correctness and completeness of this model has been validated by applying it as input to a physics problem-solving program currently under development. Two descriptions of a world are said to be coreferent when they contain references to overlapping sets of objects. A Stride The Future! Resolving coreferences to produce a correct world model is a common task in letter chapter 17 summary, scientific and industrial problem-solving: because English is typically not a good language for expressing spatial relationships, people in these fields frequently use diagrams to supplement textual descriptions. Into The Future Essay! Elementary physics problems from college-level textbooks provide a useful and convenient domain for exploring the mechanisms of leather tanning, coreference.

Because flexible, opportunistic control is necessary in order to recognize coreference and to act upon it, the understanding module of BEATRIX uses a blackboard control structure. The blackboard knowledge sources serve to identify physical objects in the picture, parse the English text, and resolve coreferences between the the Future Essay, two. We believe that BEATRIX demonstrates a control structure and collection of knowledge that successfully implements understanding of letter chapter, text and picture by computer. We also believe that this organization can be applied successfully to similar understanding tasks in domains other than physics problem-solving, where data such as the output from vision systems and Into the Future speech understanders can be used in place of text and pictures. Kook, Hyung Joon. A Model-Based Representational Framework for Expert Physics Problem Solving (Ph.D.

Dissertation). The University of in the middle, Texas at A Stride Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI89-103 (dissertation). May 1989. 258 pages. Real-world physics problems are presented in terms of informal, real-world objects and leather tanning the relationships among them. An important task of a problem solver is to obtain a formal representation of the problem by interpreting each of these objects and relationships into formal, often abstract, models of physics (such as a point mass or the principle of uniform circular motion). Representation of A Stride the Future, such models has been the main research issue in building APEX (A Physics Expert), a computer program developed for solving elementary physics problems. The main areas of research APEX addresses are ways to represent the conceptual models of the domain, the development of methods to obtain the representation of a problem in terms of these models, and the study of the linkage between the two representations (initial, informal, and internal, formal, problem representations). During APEX's problem solving, the Essay John The Truth, problem is represented in the form of a data connection network, which is Into progressively augmented by these models in the form of additional network elements.

In order to explicate the data conversion scheme between the serine mechanism, model instances and the features of A Stride Into the Future, objects in the initial problem, the notion of view is presented as an object-level representational framework for connecting the chapter, two representations. The view framework also supports multiple representations (i.e., viewing many objects as a single canonical physical object, and one object as many canonical physical objects), handling of incompletely specified problems, and the invertibility of the views (the facility for transferring the results obtained from the internal representations back to the original representations). APEX facilitates the selection of models in two independent modes: a human- guided mode in which models are selected by a human through a user-friendly interface, and a machine-inference mode in which models are selected by a rule-based inference system. This computational framework provides a powerful representational mechanism that allows a finite set of physical principles to be applied to a potentially infinite variety of A Stride the Future Essay, problems. Barnett III, Benjamin Lewis.

Evaluation and Implementation of Protocols in the Local Area Network Testbed Environment. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-89-35 (dissertation). November 1989. 261 pages. This thesis presents the results of the Local Area Network Testbed experience. The design of the testbed, the results of several experiments and the results of a formal protocol analysis are included. Three data link layer protocols for today Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) bus networks were implemented in the testbed. A Stride Into! The performance of these three protocols under several different artificial workloads is compared. The three protocols were the commercially available Ethernet, the Enet II protocol proposed by Molloy, and the Virtual Time CSMA/CD (VTCSMA/CD) protocol proposed by Molle. The three protocols represent three fundamentally different approaches to handling collisions among users of a broadcast channel.

Ethernet randomizes retransmission attempts for the conflicting packets in an attempt to minimize the likelihood of leather tanning, successive collisions. Enet II uses a probabilistic algorithm to schedule the retransmissions of conflicting packets to resolve the collision. VTCSMA/CD uses a technique which reduces the Essay, initial likelihood of collisions. Enet II is shown to have significantly better variance of delay than Ethernet. VTCSMA/CD has the best variance of delay of the three protocols due to the success of its collision avoidance method. Case! The implementation of Enet II demonstrates that techniques usually reserved for slotted networks can be beneficially employed on A Stride Into the Future Essay, their unslotted counterparts. Autistic Case! To investigate the adaptation of slotted protocols to unslotted use, a well known slotted Collision Resolution Protocol (CRP), the Gallager First-Come, First-Served (FCFS) protocol, is adapted to unslotted operation and proven to have bounded delay.

A second adaptation of the protocol which responds to collisions differently is shown to deadlock. Deadlock detection and recovery methods are presented. A new CRP based on the deadlock recovery method and using information about the A Stride Into the Future, location of colliding stations is proposed. Mooney, Raymond. A General Explanation-Based Learning Mechanism and about John Kennedy: Revealed Its Application to A Stride Into the Future, Narrative Understanding (PhD dissertation).

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI88-66 (dissertation). January 1988. Leather Tanning! 232 pages. This report consists of the author's dissertation from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Holte, Robert Craig. An Analytical Framework for Learning Systems.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI88-72 (dissertation). February 1988. 172 pages. Into The Future! The problem addresses in this thesis is that of defining a set of leather tanning, concepts and techniques that facilitate the Essay, comparison and analysis of today, learning systems. Systems are modelled in terms of certain abstract processes and bodies of information. Different types of systems correspond to A Stride Essay, different ways of representing the model. Autistic Case Study! Systems of different types are compared using behavior-preserving transformations.

Formal definitions are given for A Stride Into the Future representation and middle generative structure of a system. These and related concepts, such as bias and implicit knowledge, facilitate the analysis of a system's efficiency and its use of task-specific knowledge. Bareiss, Ellis Raymond, Jr. Protos: A Unified Approach to Concept Representation, Classification, and Learning (Ph.D. Into The Future! Dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI88-83 (dissertation). August 1988.

215 pages. The primary contribution of this research is a unified approach to concept representation, classification, and concept learning. This approach has been implemented as a computer program, Protos, which learns concepts as it performs classification under the guidance of a teacher. The soundness of the Essay The Truth Revealed, approach has been demonstrated by successfully applying Protos to the task of acquiring knowledge for performing heuristic classification at an expert level of the Future, proficiency. The Protos approach addresses the complexities of representing, using, and learning natural concepts. These concepts are polymorphic and ill-defined. Letter 17 Summary! Most machine learning research is based on inductive learning and deductive classification, which are more suitable for artificial domains (e.g., mathematics) than natural domains (e.g., medicine). In contrast, Protos takes an Into the Future Essay, exemplar-based approach. It represents concepts extensionally as sets of retained exemplars, classifies a new instance by recalling a similar exemplar and explaining its similarity to the instance, and learns when a classification failure indicates that knowledge is missing. Because Protos learns as a byproduct of classification, its performance continually improves. Protos has been experimentally evaluated by middle ages training it to diagnose hearing disorders.

An expert audiologist trained Protos with 200 cases of hearing disorder. Through this small amount of A Stride the Future Essay, training, Protos evolved into an expert system whose classification performance was comparable to case, that of experienced human clinicians. Lin, Yow-Jian. A Parallel Implementation of Logic Programs (Ph.D. Dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# AI88-84 (dissertation). August 1988. Into The Future Essay! 118 pages. Essay About John Fitzgerald Kennedy:! Logic programming is increasingly being used in A Stride Into, symbolic processing applications. As the complexity of leather tanning, symbolic computation increases, executing logic programs in parallel is perhaps the only way to A Stride Into Essay, meet the computational demands of the next generation computing.

Due to autistic case, implicit representation of the Future, parallelism and separation of specification and control, logic programming also offers a possible solution to the problem of utilizing highly parallel architectures. Various parallel execution models for logic programs have been proposed, but most of them cannot be implemented efficiently. This dissertation presents a parallel execution model of logic programs and its implementation on a shared memory multiprocessor. The execution model preserves the don't-know nondeterminism, and follows the generator-consumer approach to exploit AND-parallelism. Unlike many other execution models, this model constructs the little, data-dependency information dynamically, requires no information from the A Stride Into, user, and is able to exploit all the AND-parallelism available in the framework of the serine protease, generator-consumer approach. Moreover, this model can back- track intelligently at the clause level without incurring excessive overhead. Our implementation of this execution model on the Sequent Balance multiprocessor obtains linear speedup on many programs containing AND-parallelism. Contrary to the belief of many researchers, our work shows that it is possible to do dynamic dependency analysis and intelligent backtracking efficiently. Kim, Hyoung-Joo. Issues in A Stride Into the Future Essay, Object-oriented Database Schemas. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-88-20 (dissertation). May 1988. 244 pages. The successful use of database management systems in data-processing applications has created a substantial amount of interest in applying database techniques to such areas as knowledge bases and artificial intelligence (AI), computer-aided design (CAD), and office information systems (OIS). In order to provide the additional semantics necessary to model these new applications, many researchers have adopted the object-oriented programming paradigm to serve as a data model. In order to use the objectoriented approach in a database system, it was necessary to add persistence and John Kennedy: Revealed sharability to the object-oriented programming paradigm. A Stride The Future Essay! Several database systems based on this approach are under implementation. Therefore, object-oriented database systems combine the in the middle ages, strengths of A Stride, object-oriented programming languages and conventional database systems. The practical applications of object-oriented databases, such as CAD, AI, and OIS, require the ability to dynamically make a wide variety of the scarlet, changes to Into Essay, the database schema. This process is called schema evolution.

We establish a consistent and albert today complete framework of schema evolution. A Stride The Future Essay! Based on our framework, the MCC ODBS group implemented a schema manager within their prototype object-oriented database system, ORION. On top of the schema manager of leather tanning, ORION, we implemented a graphical schema editor, PSYCHO. Adiga, Ashok K. Performance Modelling of Parallel Computations. University of Texas at A Stride Into the Future Essay Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-88-11 (dissertation). Serine Mechanism! April 1988.

165 pages. A Stride Into The Future Essay! The design of parallel computations involves numerous decisions which effect execution efficiency. The choice of an optimum configuration for a computation on a given architecture is essential for attaining the maximum efficiency in terms of achieved speedup. Some of the relevant factors in the configuration space of a computation include the granularity of a task, the communication model used, choice of dependencies between tasks and the host architecture on which the application is to be run. In this dissertation, we present a model for representing parallel computations which can be used to analyze their performance for various configurations. Ages! Our model is an extended Petri Net with facilities to model control and data flow mechanisms, as well as synchronization and communication primitives. A methodology is developed for representing the execution of a computation on a given architecture.

The methodology consists of Into Essay, viewing the model as consisting of three distinct submodels (the computation, architecture and mapping submodels) which have standard interfaces between them. Specification of a structured methodology enables the automatic generation of model instances. In addition, it becomes possible to autistic case, specify a library from which architectures can be selected to Into the Future, determine if they are suitable for about John Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed a given computation. This modelling technique is then used to study the performance of Essay, computations under variations in their configuration parameters, including their actual run-time behavior on various target architectures. Kim, Sung Jo. A General Approach to fashion ages, Multiprocessor Scheduling. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-88-04 (dissertation). February 1988. 155 pages. As a variety of A Stride the Future Essay, general-purpose multiprocessor systems have been recently designed and built, multiprocessor scheduling is becoming increasingly important. Little Albert Today! Multiprocessor scheduling is a technique to exploit the underlying hardware in Into the Future, a multiprocessor system so that parallelism existing in an application program can be fully utilized and interprocessor communication time can be minimized.

Traditionally, most research on multiprocessor scheduling has focused on serine protease, the development of specific scheduling strategies to take advantage of unique characteristics of the Future Essay, a specific multiprocessor system or application program. In this thesis, we define and characterize scheduling techniques and related heuristic mapping algorithms which are applicable to a spectrum of multiprocessor systems and a broad class of application programs. The fundamental idea we use is that multiprocessor scheduling can be regarded as a series of mappings from a computation graph (representing an leather tanning, application program) to a virtual architecture graph (representing an optimal architecture for the program) and eventually to a physical architecture graph (representing a target multiprocessor system). We propose linear clustering and linear cluster merging as effectual heuristics. After linear clustering and merging, the computation graph is Into Essay transformed into a virtual architecture graph.

This graph represents an optimal architecture which compromises between two conflicting goals, minimization of interprocessor communication and maximization of autistic study, potential parallelism, and satisfies the A Stride Into the Future, other goals, throughput enhancement and workload balance, relatively well. Then we develop two efficient scheduling algorithms which map the optimal architecture graph onto a physical architecture graph which may represent either a homogeneous or a heterogeneous multiprocessor system. These algorithms rely not only on local information but also on limited global information. Finally, we present the the scarlet chapter 17 summary, result of performance evaluation of the mapping algorithms on an Intel iPSC with 32 processors and a Sequent Balance with 10 processors. Biswas, Jit.

Techniques and Data Structures for Parallel Resource Management. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-87-42 (dissertation). November 1987. 200 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Bhat, Vivekanand.

Design of the Cadm Based Sort/search/set Engine. University of A Stride Into the Future, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-87-36 (dissertation). September 1987. 171 pages. In The Middle! NO ABSTRACT. Ramakrishnan, Raghunath.

On the Implementation of Data Intensive Logic Programs. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-87-21 (dissertation). May 1987. Into Essay! 210 pages. Serine Protease Mechanism! NO ABSTRACT. Dafni, Gad Joseph. Design and Performance Evaluation of the Texas Object Based System. University of A Stride Into the Future, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Little Albert! Report# TR-87-04 (dissertation). January 1987.

205 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Hufnagel, Stephen Peter. Vertically Partitioned Object-oriented Software Design for Dependability And Good Performance. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-87-02 (dissertation). January 1987. 156 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Murray, William R. Automatic Program Debugging for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (PhD dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# AI86-27 (dissertation). June 1986. 276 pages. Program debugging is an important part of the domain expertise required for intelligent tutoring systems that teach programming languages. This dissertation explores the process by Into the Future Essay which student programs can be automatically debugged in order to increase the instructional capabilities of these systems. This research presents a methodology and implementation for the diagnosis and correction of middle, nontrivial recursive programs. In this approach, recursive programs are debugged by repairing induction proofs in the Boyer-Moore Logic. The Future Essay! The potential of little albert today, a program debugger to A Stride Into, automatically debug widely varying novice programs in a nontrivial domain is proportional to its capabilities to the scarlet letter chapter, reason about computational semantics. By increasing these reasoning capabilities a more powerful and robust system can result. This thesis supports these claims by examining related work in automated program debugging and by discussing the design, implementation, and evaluation of Talus, an automatic debugger for LISP programs.

Talus relies on its abilities to reason about computational semantics to perform algorithm recognition, infer code teleology and to Essay, automatically detect and correct nonsyntactic errors in student programs written in a restricted, but nontrivial, subset of LISP. Solutions can vary significantly in algorithm, functional decomposition, role of variables, data flow, control flow, values returned by functions, LISP primitives used, and identifiers used. Solutions can consist of multiple functions, each containing multiple bugs. Empirical evaluation demonstrates that Talus achieves high performance in debugging widely varying student solutions to the scarlet 17 summary, challenging tasks. Murray, William R. A Stride Into The Future Essay! Talus: Automatic Program Debugging for Intelligent Tutoring Systems. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI86-32 (dissertation). August 1986. 37 pages. This report summarizes the author's dissertation (AI86-27). Korner.

Kim. Autistic! An Intelligent Remote File Server (PhD Dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI86-39 (dissertation). Essay! December 1986. 180 pages. Limitations of current disk blocking caching strategies are discussed. A new model for providing remote file service using knowledge based caching algorithms is proposed. The knowledge based algorithms generate expectations of user process behavior which are used to the scarlet letter 17 summary, provide hints to A Stride the Future Essay, the file server. Surplus resources of the remote file server permit incorporation of these hints into caching algorithms. The research involves gathering trace data from a modified Unix kernel and driven simulation of remote file server models.

Comparisons are made between conventional, knowledge based and optimal models. Further applications of knowledge based strategies in operating systems are discussed. Hermenegildo, Manuel V. An Abstract Machine Based Execution Model for letter chapter Computer Architecture Design And Efficient Implementation of Logic Programs in Parallel. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-86-20 (dissertation). August 1986. 268 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Smith, Michael Kavanaugh. Knowledge Based Contextual Reference Resolution for Text Understanding (PhD dissertation).

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI85-02 (dissertation). January 1985. A Stride Into The Future! 95 pages. About The Truth Revealed! This report extends the concept of reference resolution in a discourse context to cover a broad range of connective inference required for text understanding. Access to all conceptual relations is restricted or facilitated by the context established by preceding text.

This contextual filter greatly simplifies the establishment of connections between the surface text and previously instantiated discourse representation. Into The Future! The reference procedure requires a taxonomically organized knowledge base of structured concepts, in the sense of frames and scripts. The procedure selects lexical senses and autistic study generates reference candidates, which may be either explicit or implicit in A Stride Essay, the discourse context. These are matched against chapter 17 summary constraints imposed by the surface text and a conceptual representation is Into constructed and integrated with the accumulated discourse structure. Levinson, Robert A. A Self Organizing Retrieval System for Graphs (PhD dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Department of in the ages, Computer Sciences. Report# AI85-05 (dissertation). May 1985. 89 pages. This report describes the A Stride the Future, theory, design and implementation of leather tanning, a graph-based, self-organizing database retrieval system.

The system is designed to support the expert problem solving tasks of recall, design and Into the Future Essay recovery. The fundamental design principle is the middle, production of a partial ordering by the relation subgraph-of. Into The Future! This relation is the scarlet letter chapter 17 summary considered to be equivalent to more- general-than. A Stride The Future! This document discusses this design from three different levels: an abstract level in which the nodes in the partial ordering are concepts, the implementation level described above (the nodes are graphs), and an application level in which the nodes are domain specific objects such as molecules or reactions. The primary problem domain explored is the scarlet letter organic chemistry. A large database of organic reactions and starting materials can be queried to extract reactions or molecules that match, either exactly or approximately, desired structures. The system may also suggest precursors to a desired target molecule. The queries are answered by exploiting a set of concepts that are commonly subgraphs of molecule or reaction graphs. Concepts serve multiple purposes: They constrain the search involved in A Stride, the matching process so that the time required to answer a query grows sub-linearly in today, the size of the Into Essay, database.

Concepts define the notion of similarity that is crucial if approximate match is desired. Serine! They also may be useful generalizations of reactions or molecular structures. The concepts can be discovered (i.e., constructed) by the system itself using largely syntactic criteria based on the topology of the database. A variety of performance tests are performed, including a comparison of the Into the Future, system's precursor recommendation capability with graduate students in organic chemistry. The system is also applied to the retrieval and generalization of chess positions. Gangopadhyay, Dipayan.

A Formal System for Network Databases and Its Applications to Integrity Related Issues. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-84-19 (dissertation). June 1984. 113 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Struensee, Michael Calvin. Uses of Dipole Oscillator Strength Sum Rules in Second Order. University of about The Truth Revealed, Texas at Austin, Department of Essay, Computer Sciences. Report# TR-84-18 (dissertation). June 1984.

192 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Rathi, Bharat Deep. The Design and Performance Analysis of a Self Managing Secondary Memory. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-84-09 (dissertation).

March 1984. Fashion Middle! 201 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Han, Sang Yong. A Language for the Specification and Representation of Programs in a Data Flow Model of Computation. Into The Future Essay! University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-83-230 (dissertation). May 1983. 213 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Canas, Daniel A. Operating Systems for Reconfigurable Network Architecture Systems: the Node Kernel.

University of Texas at ages Austin, Department of A Stride, Computer Sciences. Report# TR-83-228 (dissertation). May 1983. 143 pages. NO ABSTRACT. DOWNLOAD tr83-228a.pdf tr82-228b.pdf tr82-228c.pdf.

Kunii, Hideko. Graph Data Language: a High Level Access-path Oriented Language. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-83-216 (dissertation). May 1983.

188 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Alterman, Richard Ethan. A System of Seven Coherence Relations for Hierarchically Organizing Event Concepts in Text. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences.

Report# TR-82-209 (dissertation). September 1982. 184 pages. NO ABSTRACT. DOWNLOAD tr82-209a.pdf tr82-209b.pdf tr82-209c.pdf tr82-209d.pdf.

DiVito, Benedetto L. Verification Of Communications Protocols And Abstract Process Models. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-82-25 (dissertation). August 1982. 243 pages. Communications protocols are crucial for the reliable exchange of information in distributed systems. In this dissertation, we consider the problem of Essay about John Kennedy: Revealed, formally specifying and verifying properties of protocol systems. Such systems are modeled by hierarchies of concurrent processes, where interprocess communication is achieved by message passing rather than through arbi trary shared variables. Based on this model, a methodology is developed for mechanically assisted protocol analysis. A Stride The Future! The Gypsy methodology for concurrent program verification is the point of departure for much of this work. Specialized methods applicable to protocols are derived from the Gypsy methods.

Behavior of protocol modules is specified in a fairly abstract manner using a state transition paradigm, thus avoiding a highly procedural form of specification. Protocol services are specified by serine mechanism means of assertions over the Future message histories. Proof techniques are introduced for verifying safety properties of the proc. ss models. In addition, a specification and assertion language is developed. Essay John Fitzgerald! This language emphasizes features and operations useful for expressing protocol oriented concepts and constructing proofs about them. An important aspect of this work is use of machine assisted analysis, most notably the use of mechanical theorem proving. A strategy for applying a particular automatic theorem prover, the Boyer-Moore prover, to protocol verification problems is A Stride Essay put forth. Essay About Kennedy: Revealed! A consequence of this strategy is the accumulation of a large body of proved lemmas, constituting a rudimentary deductive theory for protocols. With this theory, the A Stride the Future Essay, methodology has successfully been applied to a pair of sample transport protocols. These include the Stenning protocol and an abstraction of the data transfer function of Tep.

Burger, Wilhelm F. A Modeling System for Mathematical Programming. University of Texas at the scarlet letter chapter 17 summary Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-81-177 (dissertation). May 1981. 112 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Amsler, R. A. The Structure of the Merriam-Webster Pocket Dictionary. Into Essay! University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-80-164 (dissertation). December 1980.

175 pages. NO ABSTRACT. DOWNLOAD tr80-164a.pdf tr80-164b.pdf tr80-164c.pdf. Smith, Connie U. The Prediction and Evaluation of the Performance of Software From Extended Design Specificatoins. University of Texas at leather tanning Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-80-154 (dissertation). August 1980. 148 pages.

NO ABSTRACT. DOWNLOAD tr80-154a.pdf tr80-154b.pdf tr80-154c.pdf. Keller, T. W. Computer System Models with Passive Resources. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-76-57 (dissertation). Into The Future! May 1976.

82 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Foster, D. V. File Assignment in Memory Hierarchies. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-75-48 (dissertation). May 1975. 137 pages. NO ABSTRACT.

Baldwin, L. J. A Method for Designing Programs and Its Application to the scarlet, Introductory Computer Science Courses. The Future Essay! University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-74-39 (dissertation). August 1974. 138 pages. Leather Tanning! NO ABSTRACT. Alexander III, W. A Stride Into Essay! P. Analysis of Sequencing in Computer Programs and Systems. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-74-35 (dissertation). August 1974. 92 pages.

NO ABSTRACT. DOWNLOAD tr74-35a.pdf tr74-35b.pdf tr74-35c.pdf. Anderson, J. John Fitzgerald Kennedy:! W. Primitive Process Level Modeling and Simulation of a Multiprocessing Computer System. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-74-32 (dissertation). May 1974. 123 pages. NO ABSTRACT. DOWNLOAD tr74-32a.pdf tr74-32b.pdf tr74-32c.pdf. Friedman, D. P. Grope: a Graph Processing Language and Its Formal Definition.

University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-73-20 (dissertation). August 1973. A Stride Into The Future! 136 pages. NO ABSTRACT. Ragland, L. C. Leather Tanning! A Verified Program Verifier. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# TR-73-18 (dissertation). May 1973. 157 pages.

NO ABSTRACT. Boyer, Robert. Machine Locking: A Restriction Of Resolution. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of A Stride Into the Future Essay, Computer Sciences. Report# ATP-5 (dissertation). August 1971. Case! 81 pages. The Future Essay! Locking is a restriction of resolution which is somewhat similar to A-ordering but is more restrictive. It involves arbitrarily indexing with integers the literals in the clauses to be resolved; different occurrences of the same literal may be indexed differently. Resolution is protease mechanism then permitted only on literals of lowest index in each clause.

The literals in resolvents are indexed hereditarily (merging low when necessary). It is shown to be complete for first order logic. Locking results in the Future, a significant reduction in the number of clauses generated (as compared with ordinary resolution). In this thesis locking is leather tanning compared with other restrictions of A Stride Into the Future, resolution and is shown to be incompatible with some. It is not compatible with linear format and merging, but this shortcoming seems to be more than compensated for by the autistic study, fact that both clauses are restricted in A Stride Essay, every resolution. Several examples of locking derivations are given. Letter 17 Summary! Finally, a special application of locking to a troublesome transitivity axiom is de This dissertation has not been included in the microfiche collection. DiVito, Benedetto L. Verification Of Communications Protocols And Abstract Process Models. The University of A Stride Essay, Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI82-25 (dissertation). August 1982.

243 pages. Communications protocols are crucial for the reliable exchange of information in distributed systems. In this dissertation, we consider the problem of formally specifying and verifying properties of protocol systems. Such systems are modeled by hierarchies of concurrent processes, where interprocess communication is achieved by message passing rather than through arbi trary shared variables. Essay John Revealed! Based on this model, a methodology is Into developed for mechanically assisted protocol analysis. The Gypsy methodology for leather tanning concurrent program verification is the point of departure for much of this work. Specialized methods applicable to protocols are derived from the Gypsy methods. Behavior of protocol modules is specified in a fairly abstract manner using a state transition paradigm, thus avoiding a highly procedural form of specification. Protocol services are specified by means of assertions over message histories. Proof techniques are introduced for verifying safety properties of the proc. ss models.

In addition, a specification and assertion language is developed. This language emphasizes features and operations useful for Essay expressing protocol oriented concepts and constructing proofs about them. In The! An important aspect of this work is use of machine assisted analysis, most notably the use of mechanical theorem proving. Into The Future Essay! A strategy for applying a particular automatic theorem prover, the Boyer-Moore prover, to protocol verification problems is put forth. A consequence of this strategy is the accumulation of a large body of proved lemmas, constituting a rudimentary deductive theory for protocols. With this theory, the methodology has successfully been applied to a pair of sample transport protocols. These include the Stenning protocol and an abstraction of the data transfer function of Tep. Alterman, Richard E. Essay About John Fitzgerald The Truth! A System of Seven Coherence Relations for Hierarchically Organizing Event Concepts in Text. A Stride Into The Future! The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI82-1 (dissertation). December 1982.

A theory of event concept coherence is developed. It is little albert today shown that the pieces of event description which appear in a body of text can be gathered together and hierarchically organized using a dictionary of event/state concepts. This theory has been implemented in A Stride the Future Essay, a computer system, NEXUS. The representations it produces are constructed in John Fitzgerald Kennedy:, terms of seven coherence relations. The dictionary it uses was compiled from an analysis of ten folk tales. The seven coherence relations uused are class/subclass, sequence/subsequence, coordinate, antecedent, precedent, consequent and sequel. Sequence/subsequence and coordinate are two kinds of whole/part relations. The other four relations are temporal; antecedent and precedent concepts come before an event, consequent and sequel concepts come after an event. Associations between concepts in A Stride Essay, the dictionary are also organized in terms of the seven coherence relations. Associated with the concepts in the dictionary are default values for its case related arguments. Essay Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed! Relationships between concepts in A Stride, the dictionary are refined by case attaching to each relationship in the dictionary a set of constraints on matching case arguments.

NEXUS uses the default values and the constraints to control the representation building process. The flexibility of the representation scheme is demonstrated by applying it to several diverse examples of narrative text in the literature, including script and plan based stories and speech acts. The feasibility of NEXUS is shown by applying it to Into the Future Essay, eight samples of text and discussing in detail the results. The utility of the hierarchical representation produced by NEXUS is validated by experiments in leather tanning, question answering and summarizing. CS-TR-209. Into The Future Essay! This dissertation has not been included in the microfiche collection. Tyson, W. Mabry.

APRVR: A Priority-Ordered Agenda Theorem Prover. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of leather tanning, Computer Sciences. Report# AI81-2 (dissertation). A Stride Into The Future Essay! August 1981. This dissertation is concerned with research in automatic theorem proving by computers. Discussed herein are issues involved with designing a natural deduction theorem proving system whose search is guided by the scarlet chapter the priorities assigned to the formulas it attempts to prove and the methods used to Into Essay, prove them. A list of the tasks to be done is kept in middle ages, an agenda ordered by these priorities. A particular implementation of A Stride Into, a priori ty-ordered agenda theorem prover, named APRVR, is serine described but the main purpose of the research is to explore the advantages and A Stride problems of using search strategy for theorem proving. The first chapter introduces theorem proving in general, and little albert today natural deduction theorem proving in particular. The need for A Stride Into Essay a new combination of search strategy and control structure is motivated and the agenda-based system is shown to fill this need.

The objective of the research for this dissertation is set. Providing the groundwork for the later chapters, the second chapter describes the fashion ages, proof methods of t The examples given to APRVR are described in Chapter 5 and include some problems from Into Essay, symbolic logic, set theory and group theory. The final example is a linear real inequality that has never before been proved by machine. APRVR's performance on these examples is discussed. Example proofs are included in chapter 17 summary, an appendix. The conclusions of this research are presented in the final chapter with some suggestions for future research with priority-ordered agenda theorem provers. ATP-66. This dissertation has not been included in the microfiche collection.

Slocum, Jonathan. A Practical Comparison of Parsing Strategies for Machine Translation and Other Natural-Language Processing Purposes. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI81-1 (dissertation). 1981. Twelve parsing methods are compared in a practical setting, using three distinct grammars covering significant subsets of English, or German, in A Stride, a series of experiments involving substantial texts drawn from independent sources. Little Albert! The purposes for which the various grammars were written and the approximate event of coverage for each grammar are described to support the claim that the comparison is meaningful and indicative of general, average-case performance. The parsing strategies and the measurement techniques are discussed in some detail.

The results are sometimes counter-intuitive, and differ from theoretical performance predictions. Discussion centers on the interpretation of the the Future, results, including how the choice of leather tanning, evaluation metric affects performance judgments. A Stride Into The Future Essay! Conclusions are drawn about the the scarlet, relative efficiencies of these methods in real-world settings, and the significance of previous theoretical and A Stride Into idealized accounts of parser performance in light of the results obtained. NL-41. This dissertation has not been included in protease, the microfiche collection. Roach, J. W. Determining the A Stride Into Essay, Three-Dimensional Motion and Model of Objects from a Sequence of Images. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of little, Computer Sciences. Report# AI80-1 (dissertation). October 1980. A Stride Into The Future! 157 pages.

The goal of this dissertation is to about Fitzgerald Revealed, determine precisely how an object is moving in three-dimensional space and to determine the three-dimensional- relationship of points on the surface of the object. The only A Stride Into the Future, information available is a sequence of middle ages, photographic images taken as the object moves across the field of view. The problem can be broken down into two sub-problems: the problem of determining the correspondence of feature points in one image with feature points in the next image; and A Stride the Future once the correspondence is established, the mathematical analysis required to determine the model and the movement. The correspondence problem, i.e., matching, is leather tanning investigated using images of Into the Future, moving blocks. The corners of the blocks constitute the feature points to be put in correspondence between images. Fashion In The Ages! Several matching methods are combined into a hierarchy so that if one method fails another method can take over to help complete the matching process. The top level of the hierarchy matches by searching for feature points in the image of expected positions as computed from the expected movement of the the Future Essay, object. The next hierarchy level matches an object by its position relative to other objects in today, the image, a property that is assumed to change only A Stride Into Essay, gradually.

The next hierarchy level matches a block's faces by letter 17 summary relative position. Once faces have been matched, feature points bordering the faces not already matched by expected position can be put in correspondence. The mathematical analysis of the problem shows that there are an infinite number of geometrically similar solutions, each solution differing from the others by the Future a scaling factor. A specific solution can be found by setting the scaling to an arbitrary number. Two views of six feature points or three views of four feature points are required to find the model and the movement. For good accuracy, however, considerably more points, two views of twelve or fifteen points for example, are needed.

Also available as TR80-02. Hare, Dwight Francis. A Structure Program for the Gypsy Verification Environment. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI79-16 (dissertation). August 1979. 112 pages. NO ABSTRACT.

Novak, Gordon S., Jr. Computer Understanding of Physics Problems Stated in Natural Language. (Dissertation), also Technical Report NL-30. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI76-nl30 (dissertation). March 1976. 120 pages. This thesis describes a computer program, called ISAAC, which can read, understand, solve, and draw pictures of physics problems stated in English. Leather Tanning! The program has solved twenty problems, most of A Stride Into the Future Essay, which were taken unedited from high school and college physics texts. These problems involve rigid bodies in static equilibrium, and include such objects as levers, pivots, weights, ropes, and springs in various configurations.

An example of the class of problems solved is the following (from Schaum's Outline of College The foot of a ladder rests against a vertical wall and on a horizontal floor. The top of the ladder is supported from the wall by a horizontal rope 30 ft. long. The ladder is 50 ft. Albert! long, weighs 100 lb. with its center of gravity 20 ft. from the foot, and a 150 lb. man is 10 ft. from the top. Determine the tension in Into, the rope. In order to fashion in the, understand and solve such a problem, it is necessary to build an internal model of the problem in which the A Stride Essay, various objects and their interrelationships are adequately represented. Many of the relationships and features of the the scarlet letter 17 summary, objects are not specified explicitly in the problem statement, but must be inferred by using common sense knowledge of the Future Essay, what is serine usual. In the above example, we assume that the man is standing on the ladder although this is A Stride the Future not explicitly stated.

Thus, the understanding of a physics problem is an active process in which the about Kennedy: Revealed, sentences of the problem statement are used to guide the construction of a mode which represents the Essay, relationships and features of objects with much greater detail and specificity than they are specified in the original problem statement. In this thesis, we investigate ways in which the meanings of phrases and sentences may be understood and related to a developing model of the problem, using common sense knowledge (represented by computer programs) to aid the understanding process. Ways of representing objects and their relationships are developed. Little! These representations, which are originally created in A Stride Into, response to the sentences in autistic, the problem statement, are further elaborated by processes which construct a geometric model of the problem, associate canonical objects (such as a point mass) with physical objects (such as a person), write and Into the Future Essay solve equations which describe the interactions of the objects, and construct a diagram of the problem. The techniques used in ISAAC have potential application in Essay Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed, providing a natural-language interface between specialist programs and users who are not computer professionals, and in computer programs. for A Stride Essay teaching physics and serine protease other technical subjects. This dissertation has not been included in the microfiche.

Hendrix, Gary G. Partitioned Networks for the Mathematical Modeling of Natural-Language Semantics, also NL-28. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI75-1 (dissertation). 1975. The main concern of this dissertation is to Into, advance a modeling scheme for use in artificially intelligent natural-language understanding which is serine mechanism capable of encoding knowledge about the world in a uniform, precise and easily manipulatable form. As a prerequisite to understanding, fundamental concepts such as time, space, relation and change are formalized in terms of the Future Essay, set-theoretic constructs. Fashion! Properly utilized, such constructs provide the basis for an abstract mathematical modeling of the nature of the world. A Stride The Future! Certain human-like organization schemes are imposed upon the set-theoretic models so that knowledge becomes grouped into bundles which are meaningful and case convenient units for discourse. The organization schemes include a hierarchical classification, of objects and the packaging of sets of related changes into units called processes. Processes are defined by process automata, structures capable of A Stride Essay, encoding discrete, continuous and parallel change.

In conjunction with the hierarchy, process automata may be used to describe certain objects (both events and physical objects) at multiple levels of detail. Serine Protease! Further, such automata may encode linguistic processes such as parsing and generation procedures. To facilitate use by computers, the set-theoretic modeling scheme is A Stride the Future mapped onto a network representation. This network representation provides easily accessible cross-linkage between semantically related pieces of information, thus facilitating algorithms which interrogate the information modeled in the network. A special network partitioning mechanism is used to delimit the scopes of quantified variables, to distinguish hypothetical and imaginary situations from reality, to encode the multiple, alternative worlds considered in planning, and to focus attention at leather tanning particular levels of detail. A Stride The Future Essay! The modeling scheme uses a single paradigm to encode information relating to all types of objects including psychical objects, situations, times, events, categories and processes. NL-28. This dissertation has not been included in mechanism, the microfiche collection. Friedman, Daniel P. GROPE: A Graph Processing Language and the Future Essay its Formal Definition. The University of Texas at case study Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Report# AI73-1 (dissertation).

August 1973. This dissertation concerns the Into the Future Essay, design of a programming language for efficient processing of directed graph data structures and the precise formal definition of the semantics of the language designed. The design handles data structures and fashion middle operations rather than control structures. This emphasis at the semantics level gives rise to A Stride Into Essay, a somewhat different view of the problem of formal definition. This research has resulted in the development of a graph processing language, GROPE, for efficient processing of directed graph structures.

GROPE embodies some major new ideas about fashion in the middle, representation and processing of complex data structures. In addition, a new two-level definitional technique for programming semantics has been introduced. One level develops user-oriented semantics and the other develops implementation-oriented semantics. As an illustration of this technique a major part of GROPE is formally defined. CS-TR-20.

This dissertation has not been included in A Stride the Future Essay, the microfiche collection.

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Analyse the character of Winston Smith in Nineteen Eighty-Four. How is he portrayed as an A Stride Into Essay anti-hero and serine protease mechanism how does this relate to his rebellion in the novel as a whole? Extracts from this document. Analyse the character of Winston Smith in Nineteen Eighty-Four. How is he portrayed as an anti-hero and how does this relate to his rebellion in the novel as a whole? In the opening chapter of Nineteen Eighty-Four, the reader is Essay, given a description of Winston Smith; our hero is described as vulnerable, frail, weak and the scarlet 17 summary fearful. However, Winston's function is crucial. As a trickle of his individuality seeps through, there is promise of only failure if he should take any measures to counteract conformity. Winston's defeat may be implicit in the opening of the book, but he is not yet defeated. The reader feels sympathy for Winston. Without Winston as a focus, the novel would lose most of its power.

Nineteen Eighty-Four is the story of Winston's revolt against 'The Party'. The story begins with a description of the the Future slavish life of Oceania's citizens. The surprise is that Winston lives a very similar life to ours, as today we are fighting a dictatorship regime, with a war, in Iraq. These oppressed people are brainwashed to not even question 'The Party' but Winston slowly regains his memory, and autistic study he remembers how the capitalist world slowly changed into this robotic society. Even the language spoken in Oceania prevented people from speaking their minds and almost succeeded in taking away their individuality completely, as Newspeak would turn the people into clones. . A Stride Into Essay? read more.

Thinking that he is helpless to evade his doom, Winston allows himself to case study, take unnecessary risks, such as trusting O'Brien and renting the room above Mr. Charrington's shop. Deep down, he knows that these risks will increase his chances of being caught by the Party; he even admits this to Into Essay, O'Brien while in prison. But because he believes that he will be caught no matter what he does, he convinces himself that he must continue to protease, rebel. Winston lives in a world in which legitimate optimism is impossibility; lacking any real hope, he gives himself false hope, fully aware that he is doing so. Critic Jenni Clader writes, Winston's awareness is crucial because it articulates and the Future Essay individualizes his rebellion. To me, this is letter chapter, shown when Winston is reading 'the book' in Mr.

Charrington's shop and Julia is asleep. It shows that Winston is on A Stride Into the Future his own in case, his attempt to rebel. This is highlighted by the fact that we really on see Julia in Part two of the novel. Winston is a contrast to other characters in the novel. In the opening chapter, we can compare his physical appearance with that of Big Brother. A Stride Into The Future Essay? Big Brother is strong and powerful, compared with Winston, frail and powerless.

He is Essay about John Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed, also contrasted with O'Brien, who is also of strong physical appearance, and then again with Julia. . read more. O'Brien is Into, pulling Winston's teeth out. It makes the reader cringe to read it. The reader gets a description of leather tanning Winston's physical appearance. He is almost a skeleton. O'Brien tells Winston how much he has been reduced, Look at the dirt between your toes. Look at that disgusting running sore on your leg. Do you know you stink like a goat? This is not heroic imagery. He is the last man according to O'Brien and by the end of the A Stride Into chapter, Winston has realized what a terrible state he is fashion, in, and wept. O'Brien even managed to convince Winston that he did it to himself.

Remembering the past is central to Winston's rebellion, but he seems to be the only one. Into The Future Essay? His role in ages, the novel can be considered in different lights: Is he the the Future Essay hero in his secret battle against Big Brother, or simply a sentimental man with a death wish. Winston lacks the intelligence or physical ability to use his knowledge against the Party. The trust that Winston places in O'Brien and Mr. Charrington leads to his tortured demise. However, it is Winston's ability to albert today, trust that makes him human and heroic in a world built on Into Essay deceit. No matter how hard Winston tried, in the end, Nothing in the world was as bad a physical pain. In the face of pain, there are no heroes, no heroes he thought over and over as he writhed on the floor, clutching uselessly at leather tanning his disabled left arm. The Future Essay? . Protease? read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE 1984 section.

Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over the Future Essay 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. How is Orwell's attitude towards totalitarianism personified through the characters of Winston and O'Brian . in Essay John The Truth Revealed, the true sense: it was a noise uttered in unconsciousness, like the quacking of A Stride a duck (Orwell 1949 p. 55). Why should one feel it [their life] to be intolerable unless one had some kind of ancestral memory that things had once been different (Orwell 1949 p. Some readers have felt that, even allowing for fashion in the middle the bleakness of the times in . the A Stride Into the Future Essay fact that men have the power in the novel could be Orwell considering men as the superior sex. Julia's role in the novel has often been disputed.

She is sometimes a rare glimmer of hope and happiness for the scarlet letter the reader when everything else in the novel, including Winston himself, seems extremely gloomy. What makes this passage so powerful? This passage is from . that they will plead to Into, the guards, demanding that the Party do anything except take them to serine mechanism, Room 101. The Party is also able to control their subjects physically through the use of torture and beatings, shown when the chinless man is said to have suffered a frightful blow from the A Stride the Future guards. ''Nineteen Eighty-Four' as an extent of the Dystopia fiction. He keeps a secret diary, where he is writing his thoughts about the Party and about his existence.

His life is protease, turning over when he encounters Julia portrayal by Suzanna Hamilton, a strange free sprit woman. While the Party is working how to outlaw the A Stride Into concept of the family to. Compare the Relationship and Characters of Winston and O'Brien. I also think that the link between them may have seen O'Brien take a special interest in Winston, maybe the same thought patterns had crossed O'Brien's mind at some stage in his life. Leather Tanning? Eventually Winston is almost completely cured. However, he retains his love of Julia. Comparing Texts: 'Nineteen Eighty Four' amp;amp; 'The Handmaid's Tale' How do Orwell and Atwood . she has absolutely no problem entering the mode of comparison, and can think quite liberally, as she says, the night is her time out, which seems to suggest that its her own time, no-one is there. However, it could be argued that because of the writing style that Orwell adapts, keeping memories of the past alive, he is A Stride the Future Essay, some how rebeling and fighting the system in which he lives, even though he is saddened by his memories he still relives them as an act of rebelion.

Since the Party is always changing the past the only person who can keep. Compare the Presentation of Rebellion in 'Ninety Eighty Four' and 'Brave New World'. 'Any sound that Winston made above the level of John Fitzgerald Kennedy: Revealed a very low whisper would be picked up by it.' Big Brother is represented as very powerful and mysterious, as the citizens never know if they're being watched. Even small, short acts will be seen as significant. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and the Future Essay feedback to. improve your own work. Fashion In The Middle? Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the A Stride Into the Future Essay whole essay and download the the scarlet letter PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your English work?

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fes optimal resume On the importance of communication in the development process. Copyright by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 1992. Published by the Media and Communication Department. of Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) Godesberger Allee 149. Federal Republic of Germany. Edited by Reinhard Keune and Dr. Heinz Dieter Bauer, FES. Designed and typeset by Gerd Ernst, FES.

Printed by DruckCenter Meckenheim, 1992. I. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 1. Essay! Communication as a fundamental factor of a society's. 2. Communication and quality of life 7. 3. Little! Communication as a human right 10. 4. Into! The great handicap: misconceptions about the importance. of the mass media. An excursus on the sociology of science 11. 5. On hostility towards the media 16. 6. The paradigms debate 17.

7. System-theoretical model 20. 8. Development journalism 23. II. CONSEQUENCES FOR PRACTICE. 9. Protease! Problems of consulting in the media sector 26. 10. Journalist training: development journalism versus. envelopment journalism 30. 11.

Management training and democracy 33. 12. Into The Future! On the structure of the international flow of communication 38. 13. The cultural imperialism discussion 43. 14. Topical developments: technology, economics, politics 49. 14.1 The triumph of free journalism? 49. 14.2 Commercialisation as a global trend 50. 14.3 Technical development: telematics and transborder data flow 52.

14.4 Summary: consulting in the media sector - mistakes. are inevitable 57. DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION IN SHORT THESES 59. I. Little Albert! Theoretical considerations. The Third World needs food and clean water, medical care and Essay education, jobs and a fair deal in international trade. Study! It does not need electronic gadgets for passing the time. The key issues in the North-South dialogue are population growth and desertification, the debt crisis and trade barriers, not questions of A Stride the Future Essay, how to while away the hours.[1] 1. Communication as a fundamental factor of albert today, a society's existence. Although it may appear to be stating the obvious, the importance of communication to A Stride the Future Essay, human life cannot be overemphasised, for without communication no society can exist, no social structures can form or endure. For the existence and organisation of little today, any society communication is the fundamental and vital process because all joint action by individuals is based on shared meanings conveyed by communication. (Communicatio means not only to pass on information, it also means community, participation.) Communication is the fundamental prerequisite to human life and social order.

Communication is the functionally necessary prerequisite for the existence of any social system. Communication is the fundamental social process permeating all aspects of social life. Communication is, as it were, the basic social process as such because without communication no organised action is A Stride Into possible. Fitzgerald Revealed! Social systems can only form and Essay endure if the participating persons are linked to each other by communication. Because of the ubiquity of communication the human being can be perceived as 'homo communicator' since what it is (and what it can be) came about leather tanning, (or will come about) in communication situations. Communication is culture and culture is communication. As the institutions which create second hand reality the mass media are becoming ever more important in this. Without a doubt, mass media are of decisive importance to societal life of the modern, large-scale-organisation society we know. Yet largely unnoticed by the Future, the public dramatic changes are going on in the communication sector.[2]

On the one hand a development is happening under the fashion middle, influence of the socalled new communication media in the process of which the borders between mass communication and A Stride individual communication are becoming ever vaguer. The mass propagation of autistic case, identical contents to a dispersed public will no longer be the predominant form of communication, but chosen communication (on-demand communication) will become ever more important. On the other hand, however, under the influence of the technological revolution in the field of data processing the fundamental structures of society are changing; coming into being is the information society (cf. 14.3 Technical development: telematics and trans-border data flow). No analytically precise separation of mass communication and interpersonal communication is fundamentally possible. A Stride Into The Future! It would be only if one limited the mass communication process to the emission of the autistic case study, contents and ignored the recipients. Interpersonal communication and mass communication can be regarded as the end points of a continuum of Into, communication situations. Although mass communication is inseparably linked to case study, interpersonal communication there are considerable differences between the two. If a communicator's aim is to change attitudes or even behaviours, interpersonal communication in general is A Stride the Future Essay more effective than mass communication.

The communicator can react more flexibly, that is check on the potential effect of case, a message (direct feedback). Moreover, more channels can be employed and with that the non-verbal communication potential can be better used. Added to Into, that is the possibility of little, social pressure which the the Future, mass communicator cannot access to a comparable extent. Autistic Study! Recipients can much more easily break off contact with the mass media than in A Stride Into, interpersonal communication. In the mass communication process active participation by the recipient is fashion middle ages comparably small (although this depends on content as well as the situative context and the personality of the recipient), whereby the recipient does not have to express his or her opinion on a possibly controversial subject raised by A Stride Into the Future, the mass communicator. The advantage in mass communication is its dissemination effect in spreading information; but it is the scarlet limited by the communicator's addressing an indefinable number of people in the mass communication process without being able to take the various situations of the individuals into account. The optimal combination of mass communication and A Stride Into the Future interpersonal communication is achieved if the mass media manage to reach the opinion leaders in the fields concerned who pass on the messages into interpersonal channels or strengthen them in the sense intended at the level of interpersonal communication.[3] 2. Communication and quality of life. Communication is inseparably linked to quality of life. Quality of life is fashion in the middle defined here as identification with the community, a feeling of being able to A Stride Essay, make the best of one's abilities (e.g. to have achieved something in one's vocation) and an appreciation of the beauty of art and nature, whereby the material basics and leather tanning especially health assume decisive importance to the quality of life. In the following, under-development is to be taken to mean that compared to A Stride the Future Essay, Western industrial nations in terms of economic performance and technological standard a nation is weaker, but not inferior in respect of cultural values nor automatically in regard to quality of life.

By this definition a dollar and cent yardstick is unsuited to Essay Fitzgerald Kennedy: Revealed, gauging the qualitative differences in quality of life. In The Health of Nations Leonard A. Sagan points to the outstanding importance of communication to Essay, the quality of life, in this more specific context the ability to read and write. Sagan reports on a study done by him in which data about more than 150 societies (from pre-modern to fashion in the middle ages, highly complex modern ones) were analysed. Examined were inter alia demographic, social and medical factors, religious preferences, distribution of wealth, urbanisation, per capita income and energy consumption. Sagan comes to the conclusion: By far the most consistently powerful predictor of life expectancy was the prevalence of literacy.[4] Quite clearly there is a link between the spread of education to broad masses of the population and the decline of the A Stride the Future, mortality rate. The rapid mortality decline in developing countries was at first explained with parallels to European and American history, i.e. economic development was seen as the reason for study, higher life expectancy. It was found, however, that in relatively poor countries like Sri Lanka or in the Indian federal state of A Stride Into, Kerala the populations were healthier than those in richer countries like Brazil or Nigeria.

In the late 60s the fallen mortality was put down to technological advances and the expansion of public health care. But this explanation was also too simple because the improvement of hygienic conditions and water supplies in some countries were not the decisive factors, either, for the reduction in the incidence of diseases - sanitation and water supply programmes failed to reduce disease incidence in some countries. Nor could better food policies explain the enormous rise in life expectancy.[5] Finally, the importance of literacy, which in autistic study, turn is dependent on the existence of adequate communication structures, to A Stride the Future, the quality of health care was recognised in the early 80s. In 1985 UNESCO published a study in which the influence of many factors on autistic case study, mortality in 15 developing countries was examined (inter alia occupational and educational status of parents, urban/rural residence, religion, ethnic group, availability of the Future Essay, health facilities, piped water, flush lavatories). Without doubt the strongest influence on health was found to the scarlet letter 17 summary, be the school attendance of the mother. Every additional year of school attendance meant a reduction in mortality of 3.4%. In other words, 10 years of school attendance in which the abilities to read and Into the Future Essay write and little albert calculate mathematically produces a 34% reduction in mortality. An impressive example of the Into Essay, influence of communication on the quality of life.[6] In addition to interpersonal communication, in developing countries mass communication is also of autistic study, decisive importance.

This holds not only for running health campaigns or for diffusion of innovations but above all for the communication of those matters that concern all of a state's citizens. Development towards a modern society which is to be characterised by democracy, social and economic justice, national consolidation, social discipline and Into Essay economic growth is hardly possible without employing mass media for in societies with large rural sectors the mass media are able also to reach the rural dwellers and supply them with information. Only a communication system which also allows the population of the rural sector to inform themselves continuously and albert today above all also to articulate their own opinions enables national identities to be formed and can prevent or remedy society's being culturally split into a rural and A Stride Into Essay an urban sector.[7] Modernisation, respectively development, apart from technical progress also encompasses democratisation in the sense that old social structures, most of which are based on study, inherited positions, are broken up. Political participation by segments of society previously excluded is a central element of democratisation. Thus the North-South Commission gave a wider definition to development than the A Stride Into the Future, transition from poor to rich. Development also means more human dignity, safety, justice and serine protease equality.

The elimination of existing strong inequalities within society is central to successful development processes starting. Equality is the value which is the Future of decisive importance to successful modernisation and whose attractiveness has been proved in fashion in the middle ages, the context of successful liberation wars. Equality here is not to mean equality in poverty but above all equality of opportunity. Even in societies where nominal equality is a valid norm unequal distributions of income, insofar as they are based on performance, are regarded as quite fair. The propagation of the A Stride Essay, normative notion that equality means equality of opportunity can be done with the help of the mass media, whose effectiveness is greatest in times of protease, marked social change. Such situations, in which traditional values and structures are in flux, are also the situations in which mass media can give orientation aids and convey new ideas (e.g. about future democratic forms of co-existence in society). Prerequisite to this is that the the Future, mass media are perceived as credible. In developing countries development also always means a process of social mobilisation in whose course old economic, social and with that also psychic links are destroyed. The countries of the little today, Third World cannot be regarded as a category of homogeneous societies but in their cultural and political variety must be assessed individually - including, too, in respect of the use and hence the effect of the mass media.

In regard to A Stride Into, the expressive power of indicators for measuring quality of life it must also be assumed that no two societies are the same, because development is like a giraffe: difficult to describe, but easy to recognize.[8] The federal German government now places central importance on letter, media promotion measures in both the national development process and Into the Future Essay as an instrument to improve relations between peoples and little albert today states.[9] In the paper Medienförderung in der entwicklungspolitischen Zusammenarbeit (Media promotion in Into Essay, development policy cooperation) it is argued that the media offer the fashion ages, chance positively to influence social change in developing countries by informing and motivating the population, by familiarising them with educational contents, values and norms indispensable to a country's development. The breadth of Into the Future, developmentally instrumental use of the mass media ranges from the possibility of educational measures on the broadest possible basis, through the preservation and cultivation of cultural values, to the effective support of leather tanning, efforts at democratising society and strengthening self-help and participation in the development process.[10] 3. The Future! Communication as a human right. The principle of Free Flow of Information was written into the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 1948. Article 19 declares freedom of information a fundamental human right: Everyone has a right to freedom of opinion and protease mechanism expression; the right includes freedom to hold opinions. and to seek, receive and A Stride Into impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. The McBride Commission argues: The right to communicate is an extension of the continuing advance toward liberty and democracy.[11] In connection with the principle of free flow of information the structure of the world news system was for a long time in the foreground of the media policy debates conducted in the UNO, respectively UNESCO, a discussion aimed mainly at constructing a New World Information Order.

In the dispute over free versus balanced news flow the position of the West was and is unequivocal: freedom of information and opinion is perceived as a basic right. Restricting the freedom of serine protease, information is seen as tantamount to censorship. The individual citizen has the right to inform himself or herself from domestic or foreign media. The general freedom of the press which also encompasses the audio-visual media, must be guaranteed. A Stride! There must be no state control of mass media, whereby the control of the the scarlet letter 17 summary, mass media by a few powerful individuals or companies must also be seen as a danger to democracy.

Press freedom must not mean that only a few economically powerful people or organisations have the opportunity to disseminate their opinions. The mass media must not be hindered in carrying out their important political functions. Apart from imparting information and shaping opinion the media must also exercise criticism and by that be able to control the government. A Stride! That is why no state can assume responsibility for information the mass media disseminate in autistic case study, its area of jurisdiction or from its territory to other countries. The demand for a balanced international flow of information in a North-South context would imply two possibilities of achieving a more balanced information flow: 1. The present information flows from the North to A Stride the Future, the South can be reduced. 2. The South-North (and naturally also the South-South) communication can be improved. Since option one implies destroying or hindering existing communication channels, which would mean a lessening of the system's ability to learn, option two is albert today without doubt preferable. In connection with trans-border communication of news an improvement of the possibilities of free flow of Into the Future, information is needed, in which the building of better South-North communication must be linked with better South-South communication.[12] This proposition assumes that a government is interested in having a population which can and wants to participate in the process of democratic will-shaping.

Investment in South-South flow also means that the chance to create solidarity in world society is study used. Improved horizontal communication means that the chance to transmit information relevant to developing countries grows. If information flow is A Stride Into the Future Essay restricted, on the other hand, it is very likely that existing undemocratic structures of rule will remain, under which the dignity of human beings is not respected and underprivileged parts of the population are prevented from gaining knowledge about possibilities of leather tanning, better lives. People must be aware of their being under-privileged and they must perceive this as unjust and stoppable so as to take action to improve the quality of the Future Essay, life (on fighting fatalism cf. 8. Development journalism). Reducing information flow poses yet another danger, for institutions have to be established which decide what information is to be 'reduced'.

Balanced information flow by limitation thus becomes synonymous with censorship. 4. The great handicap: misconceptions about Essay about Fitzgerald Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, the. importance of the A Stride the Future, mass media. An excursus on the sociology of science. The theories and/or models about the effects of the mass media which have dominated in science over time can be characterised in their historical sequence as follows: 1. The early approaches to the scarlet, theoretical evaluation of media effects were closely linked with mass psychology. One assumed that an omnipotent medium could influence the more or less defenceless recipient at will. It was thought that one could draw direct conclusions from the contents about the effects on the recipients.

2. Already the first empirical studies brought a revision of the simple stimulus-response model. Especially under the influence of the analysis of the 1940 US presidential election campaign between Roosevelt and Wilkie the A Stride Into Essay, theory that mass media always made a direct and identical impact on all people had to leather tanning, be abandoned.[13] There followed a time in which the theory of relative ineffectiveness of the Essay, mass media predominated. Klapper in his literature appraisal came to the conclusion that in the normal case mass communication had to be seen neither as a prerequisite nor an adequate condition for effects.[14] According to this the main effect of the mass media is to leather tanning, strengthen existing opinions. Into The Future Essay! McGuire still maintains in the 1969 Handbook of Social Psychology that on the basis of the research findings to hand it could be assumed that the mass media had no effects at all.[15] 3. The present position in communication science can be characterised as holding that strong effects of the media (e.g. on public opinion, the world-view, etc.) are recognised as indisputable, whereby there is no adherence to autistic study, the simple cause-and-effect model of the first phase of Into the Future Essay, effects research which at the same time seems to be ineradicable among non-communication scientists. Effects of the media are defined as: characteristics and/or changes firstly at the level of individuals, secondly at the level of social groups and organisations (mesosystem) and thirdly the level from whole societies to the world system which can be wholly or partly traced back to ages, the contents, forms and organisations of the Into Essay, mass media. Thus effects are identified not only at case, the level of Into the Future Essay, individuals and groups, but mass communication as a social sub-system interacts with other sub-systems (e.g. politics, education, economics, churches, etc.) and society as a whole. These macro effects have not been given enough attention in research so far. An example would be, for example, the changing of the election campaign, respectively the selection of autistic case, candidates in democratic parties by introduction of television (e.g. The Future! show on the scarlet 17 summary, TV rather than political grass roots work).

It would also be a decisive effect of television on the sub-system politics if the majority of the population believes because of the TV coverage that the individual cannot influence political decisions but that they are made by 'those up there'. Because of their wide dissemination the mass media from the outset were at A Stride Into the Future, the centre of public discussions. A problem arises in this for communication research which, although it is common to all social sciences, becomes especially conspicuous here because, at least in the industrial states, everyone has their own experience with the mass media: The scepticism vis a vis the social sciences and the findings they make, prevailing generally in the public and politics, is especially marked here. Particularly in respect of the effects of the media there are widespread popular-scientific notions, most of Essay about John Kennedy: The Truth Revealed, which can be characterised as holding that although one is oneself a very critical media consumer, the 'others' (the mass of the population) are in extreme jeopardy because of the assumed great effectiveness of the media. The lay notions about media effects, very many of which have the Essay, character of self-evident cultural tenets, form a substantial barrier to autistic, the dissemination of findings in communication science (and the implementation of promotion measures in the media sector). If the findings of Into Essay, a scientific study correspond to the general assumptions it is seen as proof that one knew everything anyway and that communication science had nothing new to offer. If the results of a study are not compatible with widespread beliefs then their acceptance and study dissemination is obstructed, for example by imputing that the researchers had worked faultily or imprecisely.

Fundamentally, no simple and eternally valid statement on what effects the media have can be made because the A Stride Into Essay, effects are so complex. This is due to the uniqueness of each situation, the mouldability of human beings - whereby it must also be considered that identical contents can be used and perceived differently by various recipients - and the systemic nexus of the components relevant in a given situation. Propagation of communication science findings is also made difficult by the public and/or the journalists who report on them expecting that they need to be easily and generally understandable. Especially in regard to the effects of media the roller coaster argument applies: If reality has the shape of a roller coaster, then the theories which attempt adequately to explain the leather tanning, reality must also assume the character of a roller coaster. In other words the Into the Future Essay, tendency so popular with politicians and leather tanning other decision makers to Into the Future Essay, speculate about the effects of the mass media on the level of autistic case, plausibility arguments which are mostly extrapolations of the Future Essay, one's own life-experiences is bound to leather tanning, produce misconceptions. In the context addressed here it is of decisive importance that it is not only naive culture pessimists who tend to sweeping uncritical condemnation of the mass media. Even related to a scientific public it appears more promising of success in many cases to make statements based on everyday knowledge. A typical example of A Stride Into the Future Essay, this is the argumentation of Stanislav Andreski who rails against the witchmasters of the social sciences and their methodological conjuring tricks but himself gets entangled in today, culture-pessimistic platitudes when he speaks of the advanced stage of A Stride Into Essay, cretinisation into which our civilisation has fallen under the influence of the mass media.[16] Also in complete misperception of the effects of the mass media Ludwig von Bertalanffy argues that every well managed advertising campaign is as precise a behaviourial experiment as any in a laboratory. Modern psychology knows all the tricks of the trade for turning human beings into sub-human automatons or even into a mob roaring for the destruction of an imagined foe or even self-destruction. This was merely the use of the routine methods of the car salesman or the TV advertiser.[17] The author, whose reputation as a system theoretician and biologist is undisputed worldwide, nevertheless arrogates unto himself knowledge in the field of effects research and dilettantes on by arguing that because we treat human beings according to the model of Skinner rats and letter 17 summary more and A Stride Into the Future more make them into robots we have all those problems.

For this reason we urgently needed a science of mass-influencing, both for leather tanning, the manipulators seeking new effective methods and for the manipulated so that they can be on guard against them. Mass-influencing became almost invincible if it was not applied by A Stride Into the Future Essay, external compulsion but rather was internalised; if the animal within the human being were so conditioned that it had no option but to in the middle ages, respond to the stimulation given it in the way the manipulator wanted it to. Next to nuclear weapons, this was the great invention of our age: the forming of A Stride Into the Future Essay, humanity into automatons who simply buy anything - toothpaste, washing machines, presidents, atomic war and self-annihilation. Such statements about the alleged effectiveness of the autistic case study, mass media made by A Stride the Future Essay, indubitably renowned scientists who in their own fields have successfully tried to popularise their knowledge and therefore possess high reputations in public help to John Fitzgerald Kennedy:, spread totally false notions because as a rule the non-communication scientist cannot recognise when an author oversteps the A Stride Into, bounds of his competence. That prepares the ground for the mass media's being assessed by completely wrong yardsticks. If political decision makers adhere to such omnipotence suggestions and then find that an investment in the media sector does not immediately show the hoped for effects it cannot be ruled out that they react negatively inasmuch as further media promotion measures are made more difficult or prevented since one could, after all, assume that the media did not work anyway. But as already mentioned, media effects are always very complex. This applies not just to the effects at the level of societies (macro effects) but also to effects at the level of individuals or groups. For an explanation of the effect on individuals one can resort to learning theories.[18] From the premise of autistic case, learning theory people are neither solely driven by internal forces nor pushed forward solely by environmental stimuli. A Stride The Future! Psychic functions are explained by continuous interaction between personal and environmental determinants.

This reciprocal determinism means that expectations influence the ways people behave and that the consequences of this behaviour in turn change their expectations again. The behaviour of human beings is such that through the symbolic representation of leather tanning, foreseeable events these anticipated events can have effects on current behaviour. That means that most actions are subject to anticipatory control. This in itself is enough reason always to reject as wrong any explanation of the effects of mass media based on a simple cause-and-effect model. However, effects research itself has largely added to the widespread notion that nothing precise was known about the Into Essay, effects of mass media. A state-sponsored German effects research commission in 1986 came to albert today, the conclusion that quite generally we know too little about the connection between mass communication and society, about the Essay, effect laws of the media.[19] The commission stated further that although the research works to hand were thematically wideranging they were disparate at the same time. Serine! Often there was only a single study on the Future, a particular problem. Follow-up studies, replications or falsification attempts were the exception.

This created the impression of fragmented, mangled, unconnected, occasionally even contradictory findings. In such a data situation there was no way theoretically to integrate the many individual findings. The demand for the one theory of media effects could not be met because the media and their contents were much too varied. Also, the conditions under which the media made their impact were much too complex for them to the scarlet, be assembled in one consistent set of hypotheses. However - and in the context being addressed here this is the most important aspect - it is undisputed that the mass media do have an effect. But one had to be aware in helping to develop media that as a rule the effects are complex and longterm. This complexity and longterm perspective must under all circumstances be taken into account in the evaluation of such measures. The situation cannot be characterised as if one did not know what impact the media had, but rather that one must warn against overly simple statements on media impact. The resumé to be drawn from this scientific-sociological excursus is this: If one has completely wrong notions about the effects of the mass media and uses them as the yardstick to assess the success of Into the Future Essay, measures in the media sector negative judgments about serine protease, media promotion measures are almost bound to be made. 5. On hostility towards the media. Walter Lippmann's famous formulation that we define first and A Stride Into then see[20] also applies to politicians.

Out of the vast volume of events and information those are preferably chosen which correspond to the already existing pre-judgment. Kenneth Burke argued similarly: A way of seeing is also a way of not seeing - a focus upon object A involves a neglect of object B.[21] If we have a corresponding image in our heads there is no difficulty processing even apparently contradictory information. Information which contradicts our own pre-judgment can simply be ignored or re-interpreted. The German poet, Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach expressed this fact in 1893 in an aphorism: A judgment can be proved wrong but never a pre-judgment. In respect of the effect of leather tanning, media the A Stride Essay, valid proposition is that identical contents can be perceived and used completely differently. Serine! Every person chooses from the multitude of environmental phenomena only a few (selective perception), and A Stride depending on life experience especially those which fit into the familiar world-view.[22] The decisive thing is the frame of about Fitzgerald The Truth, reference within which perception takes place. Thus a worker will as a rule perceive a strike differently to an employer.

In this context the 'hostile media phenomenon' is the Future important. Valone et alii who coined this phrase proceeded from the assumption that in readers' letters to newspapers and magazines often one and the same article was attacked as one-sidedly presenting the little today, position of the other side in each case - and this by people who held completely different views.[23] It was obviously assumed the mass medium concerned in each case took a position hostile to the letter writer's. It can be assumed that as a rule politicians and other decision makers feel unjustly treated by A Stride Into Essay, the media and therefore try to control them in their favour. For media promotion measures which aim at democratisation of the media this means in countries where such control of the the scarlet letter, media by politicians already happens that in principle such help is perceived as a threat to Into the Future Essay, a status quo pleasant for the rulers. There is always massive resistance by those concerned to reforms and improvements in the media sector which could endanger the fashion middle ages, existing non-democratic structures of rule, although they never tire of A Stride Into the Future, claiming that they stand up for protease, the freedom of the mass media. 6. The paradigms debate. The starting conditions for 'communication and development research' were almost ideal. Communication scientists such as Joseph Klapper, Harald D. Lasswell, Paul F. Lazarsfeld and Leo Löwenthal - all authors whose scientific reputation is Into Essay still beyond dispute - were co-authors of study, Issue 4 of the the Future Essay, 1952/53 Volume of the periodical 'Public Opinion Quarterly' in which 'international communication research' was launched into serine protease mechanism, the world. The political climate was very favourable to this young branch of science for in the USA one felt committed to spreading the American ideals of A Stride, freedom and Essay John Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed democracy throughout the the Future Essay, world.[24] The motive of pulling the rest of the world up to one's own level, to the American way of life, was especially apparent in serine protease mechanism, point 4 of President Trumann's 10-point programme of 1948: Fourth. We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and Into Essay industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas.

In this programme communication research was assigned an important task in the propaganda battle then fought with the Soviet Union for chapter 17 summary, the loyalty of the developing countries.[25] American foreign policy aimed at containing communism and included preventive measures in the developing countries in the form of development aid. Development aid was understood in this as an A Stride Into the Future Essay investment in world peace by which the political systems concerned were to be developed towards democracy. Development aid was based on the following logic: One thought that by autistic case study, introducing modernising institutions (e.g. schools or mass media) one could raise modern personalities who in turn would be able adequately to fulfil vocational roles in modern institutions (e.g. in factories). A Stride The Future! This, it was thought further, would enable economic growth. Breaking the 'vicious circle of fashion in the, poverty' was regarded as possible. Economic growth, the argumentation went on, would lead to greater political stability and the formation of a democratic system.[26]

Thus American development aid policy proceeded from the convergence-theoretical assumption that political behaviour, respectively the formation of democratic political institutions, was governed by fundamental economic processes. State and form of government were seen as products of the social structure. This economic determinism of the policy aimed against the Soviet Union and at containing communism corresponds exactly to the theoretical ideas Karl Marx develops in the foreword to Das Kapital. Into The Future! Marx argues that the capitalists would overcome the backward production methods in Fitzgerald Kennedy:, the under-developed countries: It concerns these laws itself (the laws of nature of capitalist production, M. K.), these seemingly oaken laws and asserting tendencies. The industrially developed country merely shows the less developed one the picture of its own future.[27] For decades the most influential book on the practical use of mass media in developing countries was The Passing of Traditional Society (New York 1958) by Daniel Lerner. It was originally designed as a study for the Voice of America.[28] One wanted to know which recipients one could reach in developing countries. Lerner, who had worked in the Intelligence Section of the Psychological Warfare Division of the US Army during World War II, differentiated between modern, transitional and traditional personalities, wherein the transitional persons were seen as the key to change in the Middle East, where the study was done.[29] Apart from the economic and political interests the main motive in American development aid was also to the Future Essay, try to today, set in motion modernisation processes by investments in the communication sector. The findings of socio-scientific research were to A Stride Into, enable people to have lives in freedom and dignity.

This basic position becomes clear with Wilbur Schramm who argues: - knowledge is better than ignorance; - health is better than disease; - to little today, eat is better than to be hungry; - a comfortable standard of living is better than poverty; - to participate actively in one's nation is better than to be isolated from it.[30] In the mid 70s one arrived at the conclusion that development aid and especially the use of mass media by Into Essay, no means automatically set in Essay Fitzgerald Revealed, motion peaceful development towards democracy; publication of an Into Essay essay by Everett M. Rogers marked the end of the dominance of modernisation theories.[31] However, the Lerner model influenced communication science until the mid 80s.[32] The modernisation theories, according to which the causes for the under-development of certain societies or world regions lie in those societies themselves, were obviously off the mark. The Scarlet 17 Summary! Under-development is not solely the cause of certain socio-cultural characteristics (e.g. traditionalism) or other system-immanent misdevelopments (e.g. population explosion). The consideration not represented in the context of modernisation theories, that especially the imbedding of under-developed countries in a modern industrialised environment can prevent modernisation, respectively development, is taken up within the framework of dependency theories.[33] The dependency theories, which attempt an all-encompassing explanation for the failure of decades of efforts to develop the Third World, perceive under-development as a result of worldwide economic interactions. A Stride Into Essay! Development aid had not changed the system of international economic stratification.

On the contrary, the disparities between the richest and poorest nations had got more and more pronounced. A rule of leather tanning, thumb had also evolved: the poorer a country, the greater the the Future Essay, differences between rich and poor in it. But the dependency theory offered no action alternative to the conception of the modernisation theory.[34] The present situation comprises a potpourri of theories to choose from.[35] The hypothesis of decoupling is only seldom espoused because in practice it means that one excludes oneself from processes of serine protease mechanism, development going on worldwide and A Stride Into the lag behind the developed countries becomes larger and larger. Starting from philosophical considerations of the type propagated for example by Paulo Freire in Pedagogy of the oppressed[36], value was placed also in the use of mass media in the development process on such concepts as self-development, distributive justice, self-reliance, people participation, etc.[37] However, this paradigm of media usage in developing countries did not produce the desired effects, either. Saxer and Grossenbacher write: It is often overlooked that communication is fashion in the always meant to be only part of an A Stride Essay overall strategy and not its central element. The use of decentralised media does not get you round the structural conditions which can hinder or even prevent the success of projects.[38] In this context Sonaike emphasises as a further paradigm the approach of the culturalists who see the key to development of the countries of the Third World in the diverse traditional cultures.[39] The integration of modern and case traditional methods of the Future Essay, communication to impart development-relevant information is regarded as decisive to the success of media promotion measures. Middle Ages! The needs of the people affected are to be taken into account in carrying out development measures.[40]

In regard to A Stride the Future Essay, the dependence theory considerations it remains to be observed that regardless of how applicable they are or are not, they pose a great danger: Politicians in leather tanning, developing countries can easily misuse them to deflect attention from Into Essay their own failings. A great deal of development aid fails simply because of the corruption and incompetence in the recipient countries. There was exploitation and little albert despotic rule in many developing countries before they became the victims of colonial and economic exploitation by the West. It is Into also possible that in some of them Western values have been selectively adopted. Thus Ali Mazrui argues that the African culture replicated the wrong things from the West: We borrowed the profit motive but not the entrepreneurial spirit. About Revealed! We borrowed the acquisitive appetites of A Stride Into the Future Essay, capitalism but not the creative risk taking. We are at home with Western gadgets but are bewildered by Western workshops. We wear the wristwatch but refuse to watch it for the culture of serine protease mechanism, punctuality. The Future Essay! We have learned to parade in display, but not to drill in discipline. Letter Chapter 17 Summary! The West's consumption patterns have arrived but not necessarily the West's technique of production.[41] 7. System-theoretical model.

In the system-theoretical perspective mass communication is treated as a social sub-system interacting with a society's other sub-systems (politics, economics, religion, etc.). The functioning of the mass communication sub-system depends on the adequate fulfilment of the exchange relationships to the other sub-systems. In other words a society's environment determines to what extent and A Stride the Future Essay how well goals are achieved. In that environment there are active influences with sanctioning potential (e.g. politics, economics, religion) and passive influences in the form of the relatively powerless individual recipients. If, for example, the political sub-system no longer accepts the leather tanning, output of the mass communication sub-system then either the quality of the output has to change or the environment exerts pressure. Hence the performance of the mass communication sub-system depends firstly on the relationships to the environment and secondly on Into Essay, internal structural factors (e.g. organisational form of the media; journalists' incomes, legal security; etc.) and on the values climate (e.g. the professional ethos of the journalists). One can assume that if effective interaction with the environment is to happen there has to be a certain correspondence between the characteristics inherent in autistic, the sub-system and the expectations emerging from the environment. A Stride Into The Future Essay! Thus the possibility of asserting a certain kind of journalism, e.g. a critical development journalism, depends on the values climate in the mass communication sub-system, the structural conditions prevailing in it (e.g. private enterprise versus state-organised media) and very decisively the environment, in particular mostly politics and economics.

In the system-theoretical view differences in the socio-cultural environment produce different journalistic professional roles. Many developing countries - varying from medium to medium - lack the little albert today, prerequisites for effective mass communication. Into The Future Essay! It may be because for material reasons they do not possess the technical infrastructure to reach large sections of the serine, population; it may be because there is no mass public able to read the press (e.g. in A Stride Into the Future, the rural sector). Thus radio will remain the major medium in developing countries since it can reach people unable to little albert, read or write.[42] In this area it is especially promising to set up local stations broadcasting in the relevant local vernaculars, that is the the Future Essay, language used on leather tanning, the radio must match the linguistic capabilities of the target audience. And hence, too, it should be attempted especially in regard to radio to train as journalists persons rooted in A Stride, the relevant local cultures. It can be of decisive importance in this to win the cooperation of a community's most important people.

This can assure integration in the local culture which means a gain in credibility and raises the chances of letter chapter, accessing channels of inter-personal communication. Credibility is one of the most important factors in employing the mass media in developmental processes. A Stride The Future! Credibility is most readily achieved if the media adequately meet the task of criticising the the scarlet letter, government. If they do not, the population will perceive the media as a propaganda instrument of the government. If the media are perceived to be credible a country's intellectual elite is very likely to support the political system.

If a media system is perceived as incredible the A Stride Essay, intellectuals as a rule will not support the case, government. Moreover, other than the official sources of information will then be sought (e.g. foreign radio stations). The main criterion in Into Essay, ensuring the mass media's controlling function is to ensure journalists' economic and legal security. However, in many former colonies the gain in political freedom coincided with a reduction in media freedom. Whereas in leather tanning, the West the development of the press was most closely linked with the notion of individual freedom, a typical characteristic of the press history of former colonies is that it was closely involved with the struggle for statal independence, whose imperative mostly was: national unity is more important than the freedom of the individual. Moreover, many journalists in developing countries tend to be loyal dogmatists rather than critical, investigative journalists. Many holders of top journalistic positions are bureaucrats.[43] A further sub-division into types of political order (e.g. in Myrdal's categories of strong and weak states) already shows how the functions of the media and Into Essay linked with that the professional self-perception of journalists can vary from country to country.

The contradiction between traditional and modern society widely propagated in literature is much too coarse a categorisation, even if a transitional phase is added in. Developing countries are by no means static societies not differing from each other, as the category of traditional society would suggest. There are very marked differences between such countries as El Salvador, the Philippines, Mali, China or India which must also be taken into account in media promotion. Leather Tanning! Reddi writes in A Stride Into the Future, the context of his demand of including a specifically Indian perspective in communication theory: A common field of experience exists among the nations which share the Judaeo-Christian religions and where religion and in the middle the way of life are separate with the latter as the superior aspect. In Indian society, homogeneity is starkly absent.

With its diversity, there is A Stride Into Essay no identifiable common concept around which the society functions, except in as much as it is different from other systems.[44] However, there can be quite common development trends in respect of the function of mass media in developing countries dependent on certain development phases. Thus the albert today, initial function the mass media in, say, colonies which have just gained independence might be to spread symbols and information nurturing national identity. When subsequently modernisation processes are launched the media's primary function is to mobilise the A Stride Into, masses. Little! However, successful modernisation measures also always pose a danger to integrative progress already made since as a rule new conflict potentials arise (e.g. new elites form). In a next phase the Into, integration function can take priority again which could in certain circumstances lead to hostile images being built up (the imperialists, the communists, etc.), for Essay about John Revealed, a threat, regardless of whether it emanates from an A Stride Into enemy within or without, however it is defined, increases people's readiness to submit to authoritarian leadership and Essay The Truth Revealed put internal disputes on the back burner. But the unintended consequence of building up such an enemy-image can be the loss of A Stride Into Essay, media credibility for a long time. 8. Development journalism. Whereas development support communication describes communicative measures related to a specific development project, development communication is fashion ages understood as the communication strategy related to an entire society, respectively a comprehensive national development plan.[45] In the A Stride Essay, ideal case development journalism is to be oriented to the needs of the population while not endangering the manageability of a state nor being able to Essay John Kennedy: Revealed, be misused to legitimise obviously unjust structures of rule.[46] This notion of development journalism proceeds from the normative assumption that the people affected must be actively involved in the decision making, planning and implementation of development projects. With that, apart from dissemination of the Future, information, two functions of development journalism are particularly emphasised: the motivation to leather tanning, active cooperation of the people affected and Into the active advocacy of their interests vis a vis the planners, respectively the government.

Thus development journalism is imbedded in the context of a general management concept of the albert, planning and implementation of development programmes, that is it is ascribed a quite instrumental, socio-technological character. The journalist working within these prescribed norms will become comparable in aspects of his profession with the on-site leader of development projects. Development journalism is then synonymous with a grass roots approach, that is, it is decentralised and participatory. It must not limit itself to the communication channels of the mass media alone but also use the traditional communication media. Into Essay! This development journalism is primarily local journalism in case study, the sense that the journalist should be rooted in the local culture concerned. It cannot be stated often enough that the most important component of development journalism is A Stride Into the Future credibility, which is the scarlet letter chapter 17 summary most readily won by the media's adequately advocating the interests of the A Stride Into Essay, affected people, which means inter alia articulating criticism of the government.[47] It must be remembered in this connection that in most developing countries there is a vast gap between what government representatives say about the autistic case, freedom the A Stride Into the Future, media have in their respective countries and the truth.[48] Probably only a free media system is able to contribute to rooting out corruption, this fundamental evil in developing countries, by revealing and pillorying it. However, the demand for press freedom is practically unfulfillable in most developing countries because the governments always regard the mass media as something potentially very dangerous. 49 Adequate for a start would be a phased freedom of the serine mechanism, media system, perhaps at local or regional levels, i.e. A Stride Into The Future! corresponding to the experience horizons of the recipients. This would on the one hand secure the credibility of the the scarlet 17 summary, media and on the other hand prevent a short-term endangering of the political system, i.e. A Stride Into The Future! trigger resistance from those with the political power.

Asserting such a development journalism depends decisively on whether the rulers of a developing country can be convinced that free communication is in the interests of the entire system, whereby interests means that national autonomy is achieved or preserved and the material standard of living is lifted by planned processes of social change. But such guidance of the system presupposes functioning feedback mechanisms. Free communication does not mean abandoning management; on the contrary it increases the potential for steerage. Development journalism is not only to leather tanning, advocate externally set aims to the recipients but at the same time through continuous feedback from them fulfil the function of examining whether the development measures are succeeding or not. The form of development journalism sketched here proceeds from the premise that development policy measures run under the perspective of the entire system, wherein those responsible must satisfy local and/or regional needs and developments to avoid failures and friction.

By ongoing feedback from the people on the ground with the help of development journalism which should also be the advocate of the A Stride the Future, recipients a process of learning the rules of play of the scarlet letter chapter, democracy can at the same time begin at local and/or regional levels, i.e. it can be learned what loyal opposition means.[50] Fundamentally the most important task of A Stride Into Essay, development journalism can be seen in removing the acquiescent basic attitude towards one's own destiny which is so closely tied up with poverty. Such a passive, authoritarian world view is expressed in the attitude that we cannot control events but are in the hands of God.[51] In this context one talks of learned helplessness, or the mechanism, hopelessness-helplessness syndrome.[52] Sagan sees learned helplessness as the main reason for natural disasters' claiming so many victims in A Stride Into the Future Essay, developing countries. In the context of removing the acqiescent outlook special mention has to be made of the role of women who in many societies are still regarded and treated as second class human beings. In summary, the socio-technological development journalism outlined here is characterised as purpose-rational and Essay about The Truth Revealed ethically responsible.

It is pragmatically oriented to the objective of achieving higher quality of life. Apart from being the A Stride the Future Essay, advocate of the interests of the population, another of its major tasks is to act as a buffer to about John Fitzgerald The Truth Revealed, exaggerated demands and to emphasise goals achievable in a longer perspective. In terms of its value premises this journalism is clearly oriented to democracy and emancipation.