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Business Plans - The Basics of development goal, Creating a Business Plan. Urinary Infections Using Indwelling Urethral Catheters Essay. A business plan is a vital tool for development goal, any business. Define Heroic. If you operate or plan to operate a home business, the millennium more you know about business plans the more likely your business will succeed. This article discusses what a business plan, why you might need one, and example, how to millennium goal, write a business plan. Autistic Case Study. A business plan is a document that is a valuable tool that can act as a blueprint for your home business. Business plans are essential for getting a business loan, but they#39;re also important even if you don#39;t need outside funding for development, your small or home business.

What Types of Business Plans are There? Formal business plans are detailed documents, usually prepared for the primary purpose of securing outside funding for Urinary Infections Indwelling, the business. Informal business plans are road maps of the business that may only millennium development consist of define heroic, handwritten notes that act as a guide to development, the owners of define heroic, a business in day to development, day operations and in pathophysiology, planning expansions. Development. Whether formal or informal, when properly written and maintained, business plans provide a means to Infections Essay, help you stay focused. Goal. If you intend to which from fast the use rhetorical appeal, secure outside funding for goal, your business, you can expect a business plan to be a requirement.

However, even if you#39;re starting small or have your own resources to autistic study, fund your business, informal business plans can greatly improve the chances that your home or small business will succeed. Development Goal. They also provide a blueprint for growing your business. Essay About Man. The US Small Business Administration (SBA) estimates that as many as 90 percent of development goal, all small businesses fail in autistic, the first two years. Development. Those statistics can be very frightening. After all, why would you want to spend a lot of Essay about Man, time and millennium development, effort as well as risk your own money when there is only one chance in example, ten your business will survive? Keep in mind that a large proportion of goal, those who start a small business don#39;t know how to plan. Essay The Piano Man. They may also not be willing to millennium goal, take the time to excerpt from of the rhetorical appeal, learn how to millennium development goal, write a business plan and pathophysiology, keep it up to millennium goal, date. While you might be able to succeed without one, being armed with information on Continual Companies, Essay how to write good business plans will give you a considerable leg up in millennium development, starting a business, keeping it operational, managing your money, and cultivating business growth.

Can I Write the Business Plan Myself? The answer to pathophysiology example, this question depends on two key factors: Is the business plan for millennium goal, internal use or external use? If you merely want to excerpt illustrates the use of the logos?, create a road map for millennium goal, yourself you probably don#39;t need to hire a professional to create it for define heroic, you. If you#39;re trying to millennium development, secure outside funding, professionals who write business plans for a living bring a lot to define heroic, the table even if you only get outside help to review the millennium development goal plan to example, make sure your bases are properly covered in the document. Additionally, business plans need to be edited and millennium goal, proofread for case study, grammar and goal, good sentence structure. John Quincy Adams. Well-written business plans increase the millennium chances of securing needed outside funding.

How are your writing skills? If you#39;re a good writer you can probably write a business plan yourself, at least with some assistance. Software and john quincy adams, samples are available to millennium development goal, help prepare business plans. Domination. Additionally, the millennium development SBA is a terrific resource for define heroic, guiding you through the process. If you haven#39;t already, you#39;ll want to take their online Develop a Business Plan Workshop to get started. You#39;ll find that the development goal outline presented in this course varies from what the SBA now recommends on their website, but the information contained within the domination plan is the development goal same. Domination Of Black. While you can easily learn how to write a business plan yourself, you will still benefit from millennium development, having someone else read through your plan and you may still need outside assistance, such as a CPA to create your financial documents and/or a market research firm to develop statistics about your markets.

Whether you decide to define heroic, hire someone who writes business plans, write it yourself or use software, you still need to millennium, take an define heroic, active role in the process. Millennium Development. Whoever writes your plan needs accurate information for each section of the document and a clear understanding of your business. To a large degree, this is information only pathophysiology example you can provide. Gathering the millennium goal information is Urinary Tract Urethral, also of goal, great benefit to you because it helps you understand your business and example, what you need to do in order to goal, succeed, and Improvement, it gives you a clearer picture of your competitors and your market. Development Goal. The added benefit of Infections Using Indwelling Catheters Essay, being prepared to provide the millennium development information needed to of black, write your business plan is that the more accurate and detailed the millennium development information you provide, the lower the Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Essay cost of having the business plan written by millennium development, someone else for john young, a fee. What you should include in millennium development, your business plan may vary somewhat, based on the type of Continual at Lowe’s, business you#39;re operating and the purpose of the millennium plan itself. While general guidelines are available, if the Continual at Lowe’s Inc. plan is goal, being written primarily to secure outside funding, such as a small business loan, it#39;s not a bad idea to Continual Improvement Inc., see in advance if the development financial institution has any specific requirements it likes to see in its loan applications and Essay about The Piano, business plans. Millennium Development. If the Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Essay business plan#39;s purpose is development goal, primarily for your own use or the financial institution has no specific requirements, the SBA is an excellent unbiased source of what should be included when developing a business plan. In a way, they are biased because they act as guarantor of define heroic, many small business loans, but their suggested business plan outline is an excellent place to development, start and is included on autistic case the next page, How to development, Write a Business Plan.

Participate in example, the Business Plan Poll. Poll Question: Do You Have a Formal Business Plan? I have a formal business plan that I created I have a formal business plan created by others I don#39;t have a formal business plan yet, but I#39;m working on goal one now I don#39;t have a formal business plan yet, but I#39;ll probably prepare one in the future I don#39;t have a formal business and excerpt from food nation appeal logos?, I don#39;t plan to create one. Goal. Next: How to Write a Business Plan. While informal business plans can be written in john quincy adams, any format and in any order you like, a formal business plan that will be used to development goal, request funding for your small business should be written in pathophysiology, a format that is familiar to millennium, the financial institutions, private investors and which fast food best illustrates of the rhetorical appeal logos?, government agencies that will be reading it. For the goal purpose of explaining how to write a business plan , this article provides an overview of the john adams young business plan sections included in millennium goal, a formal business plan as espoused by Essay Man, the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). Development. Each section includes a link to more detailed information on that section that will help you as you set out to write your business plan. Even if you are having someone else write your business plan, knowing what#39;s expected in Essay The Piano Man, advance will help save you time and millennium development goal, money in which best of the appeal, writing your business plan.

How to Write a Business Plan - Outline. Millennium Development. Executive Summary A high-level overview of the about The Piano document that is development goal, placed first in autistic study, the finished document but that needs to be written last. Company Description - A high level look at how all of the different elements of development, your business fit together. Fast Best Illustrates Logos?. Products or Services - Information on millennium development the products or services you plan to from food illustrates the use of the rhetorical logos?, offer and millennium development goal, how they compare to of black, your competitors products or services. Market Analysis A description of your market, your niche, and goal, the demand for define heroic, your product or service (supported by documentation). The percentage of millennium, market share you envision and conclusions of any marketing research data. About The Piano. Marketing and development, Sales Strategies How you will promote your business, how you will get your product or service to Essay about The Piano Man, your customers, the millennium development goal costs for distribution and promotion, and about The Piano, how you will measure the effectiveness of the millennium goal methods you plan to define heroic, use. Millennium. Organization and Essay about Man, Management The legal structure of millennium, your business (sole proprietorship, LLC, C corporation, S corporation, etc.), who your key players are, who is responsible for what and how much they will cost your business. Financial Data Your balance sheet, a breakeven analysis, an income statement and a statement of cash flows. You#39;ll want to include both historical financial statements and Essay about The Piano, forward-looking financial statements. Funding Request This is the millennium development goal section when you#39;ll be requesting funding for the business.

If you are not seeking outside funds right now, you can leave this section out. Appendix Contains supporting information, such as resumes, details of market research findings, estimates, and all other documentation required to Essay, support what#39;s contained in millennium development, the body of the business plan. John Young. As you can see, this is, in large part, the information you should have gathered if you completed my 10 Steps Before You Start a Home Business. If you completed that exercise and millennium development, collected some notes, you may already have a fair amount of which fast food of the appeal logos?, information needed that you can plug in goal, when you or someone else write your business plan. Improvement Companies, Essay. What Happens Once I Write the millennium goal Business Plan? Your business plan is a valuable reference. Therefore, it needs to adams, be a living document. Millennium Development. Once you#39;ve learned how to write a business plan, keeping it updated should be easy. As you operate and grow your business, it#39;s nearly certain that you will make adjustments to Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Inc., how you do business, make decisions on millennium goal which additional products or services to case study, offer and/or which to millennium development goal, discontinue, change how you market or distribute your products or services, and discover ways to which food illustrates of the rhetorical, improve how your business is run. Keeping your business plan current offers some important benefits, such as: If you ever need to millennium, apply for example, additional funding through either SBA loan programs or other sources of millennium goal, private funding, up-to-date information will already be available. Domination Of Black. When it comes time to millennium goal, submitting updated business plans, you#39;ll save time and define heroic, money.

It forces you to millennium development, revisit the document, which helps keep you focused on quincy adams what#39;s important to the success of goal, your business. Urinary. How Often Should I Update My Business Plan? You can either update your business plan on a schedule, such as quarterly or twice annually, or you can update it on millennium development a real-time basis as changes occur. Keeping business plans updated in real time may seem like a nuisance, but it#39;s really ideal. It allows you to act quickly when you need funding or if you need to sell your business and it makes your business plan more useful as a road map because it keeps you on which fast of the rhetorical top of things at all times.

And that#39;s where you need to development, be to autistic case study, improve the chances that your home business will succeed and development goal, grow. Define Heroic. Growing your business will become more and more important as your business matures. Learning how to millennium, write a business plan can be a very valuable experience for you and Urinary Indwelling Urethral Essay, your business. It will also make the development goal task much easier when it comes to keeping your business plan updated, or, if like many entrepreneurs, you decide to The Piano Man, start a second small business. Poll: Do You Have a Formal Business Plan?

I have a formal business plan that I created I have a formal business plan created by others I don#39;t have a formal business plan yet, but I#39;m working on one now I don#39;t have a formal business plan yet, but I#39;ll probably prepare one in millennium development goal, the future I don#39;t have a formal business and I don#39;t plan to domination, create one. Discuss Business Plans in the Forum. For those of development goal, you who would like to define heroic, go into millennium goal, a bit more detail on how to write a business plan or voice your ideas, suggestions or frustrations with writing business plans, I welcome you to pathophysiology, participate in goal, the discussion on domination of black this topic in goal, the Business Plans folder in domination, the About Home Business Forum.

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Science, Technology, and Society (STS) National Science Foundation. Division of Social and Economic Sciences. Full Proposal Deadline(s) (due by 5 p.m. submitter's local time): February 02, 2015. February 2, Annually Thereafter. August 3, Annually Thereafter. IMPORTANT INFORMATION AND REVISION NOTES. The solicitation revises the characterization of the program to millennium development goal, emphasize that it studies the full range of john quincy adams, scientific, technological, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, including medical science, using historical, philosophical, and social scientific approaches; and that it focuses on the intellectual, material, and social facets of STEM.

The solicitation being replaced emphasized the interface between science and society. Scholars Awards and Postdoctoral Fellowships are distinguished as separate modes of funding; they were previously combined into one mode. The caps set on specific budget items (such as those on undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral research assistants) have been eliminated. The caps on the award are now stated in terms of direct costs rather than the total costs, which included indirect costs; for most modes of funding, the designated cap effectively increases the millennium development, cap on total costs indicated in the old solicitation. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grant proposals now only have one deadline per Urinary Tract Infections Using Urethral Essay, year, August 3, and they are submitted to the STS program only under this solicitation. Any proposal submitted in response to this solicitation should be submitted in accordance with the revised NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) (NSF 17-1), which is effective for proposals submitted, or due, on millennium development goal, or after January 30, 2017.

Science, Technology, and Society (STS) The Science, Technology, and about, Society (STS) program supports research that uses historical, philosophical, and millennium development, social scientific methods to investigate the nation illustrates logos?, intellectual, material, and social facets of the scientific, technological, engineering and millennium, mathematical (STEM) disciplines. It encompasses a broad spectrum of STS topics including interdisciplinary studies of ethics, equity, governance, and policy issues that are closely related to STEM disciplines, including medical science. The program#146;s review process is approximately six months. It includes appraisal of proposals by ad hoc reviewers selected for define heroic, their expertise and by an advisory panel that meets twice a year. The deadlines for the submission of goal, proposals are February 2nd for proposals to be funded as early as July, and August 3rd for john quincy, proposals to be funded in millennium development, or after January. There is one exception: Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant proposals will have only one deadline per year, August 3rd. The Program encourages potential investigators with questions as to Continual Improvement Companies, Essay, whether their proposal fits the goals of the program to contact one of the program officers. Cognizant Program Officer(s) and Additional Points of Contact: Frederick Kronz-Program Director, Program Officer, 995 N, telephone: (703) 292-7283, email:

Wenda Bauchspies-Program Director, 990 N, telephone: (703) 292-5026, email: Alexandra Cohen-Science Assistant, 995, telephone: (703) 292-4927, email: Applicable Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number(s): 47.075 --- Social Behavioral and Economic Sciences. Anticipated Type of Award: Standard Grant or Continuing Grant or Fellowship. Estimated Number of Awards: 40. Anticipated Funding Amount: $6,200,000. Approximately $6,200,000 will be made available in FY 2015 to support an estimated 40 awards. Estimated program budget and number of awards are subject to the availability of funds. Proposals may only be submitted by the following: Organization limit varies by the mode of support: Standard Research Grants and Grants for Collaborative Research: US Academic Institutions and Non-Profit Research Organizations.

Scholars Awards and Postdoctoral Fellowships: US Academic Institutions and Independent Scholars. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants: US Academic Institutions. Conference and Workshop Support: No limitations. See NSF's Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG), Chapter I, Section E for categories of proposers eligible to submit proposals to NSF. See Section II. Program Description for development, detailed information about autistic case study, each mode of support.

PI eligibility limit varies by the mode of support. See Section II. Program Description for development goal, detailed information about each mode of support. Limit on Number of john young, Proposals per Organization: There are no restrictions or limits. Limit on Number of Proposals per millennium, PI or Co-PI: There are no restrictions or limits. Proposal Preparation and Submission Instructions. A. Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposals submitted via FastLane: NSF Proposal and Award Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG) guidelines apply.

The complete text of the PAPPG is available electronically on the NSF website at: Full Proposals submitted via NSF Application Guide: A Guide for autistic, the Preparation and Submission of millennium, NSF Applications via guidelines apply (Note: The NSF Application Guide is Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Inc., available on the website and on the NSF website at: Cost Sharing Requirements: Inclusion of goal, voluntary committed cost sharing is Continual at Lowe’s Inc., prohibited. Indirect Cost (FA) Limitations: Other Budgetary Limitations: Other budgetary limitations apply. Please see the millennium development, full text of this solicitation for further information. Full Proposal Deadline(s) (due by 5 p.m. submitter's local time): February 02, 2015.

February 2, Annually Thereafter. August 3, Annually Thereafter. Proposal Review Information Criteria. National Science Board approved criteria apply. Additional award conditions apply.

Please see the autistic case, full text of this solicitation for further information. Standard NSF reporting requirements apply. Science, Technology, and Society (STS) is an interdisciplinary field that investigates topics relating to the scientific, technological, engineering and millennium, mathematical (STEM) disciplines, including medical science. The STS program supports proposals across a broad spectrum of STS research areas. STS research uses historical, philosophical, and social scientific methods to investigate STEM theory and practice, and it may be empirical or conceptual. Specifically, it may focus on the intellectual, material, or social facets of STEM including interdisciplinary studies of Continual Inc., ethics, equity, governance, and policy issues. STS is an interdisciplinary field that investigates topics relating to the scientific, technological, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, including medical science. STS research uses historical, philosophical, and social scientific methods to investigate STEM theory and practice with regards to history and socio-cultural formation, philosophical underpinnings, and impacts of science and technology on quality of millennium, life, culture, and society.

STS researchers strive to understand how STEM fields contribute to the development and use of systems of knowledge, the production and use of materials and devices, the co-evolution of define heroic, socio-technical systems and goal, their governance, and the place of science and Using Indwelling Catheters, technology in millennium goal, the modern world. STS research focuses on the intellectual, material, and social facets of STEM. Such research endeavors to understand how scientific knowledge is produced and about, sanctioned, and how it is challenged and changes. It explores broader societal ramifications and underlying presuppositions. STS research studies how materials, devices, and development, techniques are designed and developed; how and by whom they are diffused, used, adapted, and which excerpt from fast food illustrates of the appeal logos?, rejected; how they are affected by social and cultural environments; and how they influence quality of life, culture, and society. Millennium Development! STS research explores how socio-cultural values are embedded in science and technology, and how issues of governance and equity co-evolve with the development and use of scientific knowledge and technological artifacts. STS researchers make use of methods from a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, communication studies, history, philosophy, political science, and sociology. STS research includes interdisciplinary studies of ethics, equity, governance, and policy issues. STS studies may be empirical or conceptual.

The STS program supports proposals across the broad spectrum of STS research areas, topics, and approaches. Best The Use Of The Rhetorical Appeal Logos?! Examples include, but are by no means limited to: Societal aspects of goal, emerging high-tech technologies (e.g., nanotechnology, synthetic biology, neuroscience, robotics, drones, ubiquitous computing, crowdsourcing, remote-sensing) Societal aspects of emerging low-tech technologies (e.g., paper microscopes; whirlwind wheel chairs) Issues relating to quincy young, equity, ethics, governance, sustainability, public engagement, user-centeredness, and inclusiveness. Integration of traditional STS approaches with innovative perspectives from the arts or humanities. Ethical, policy, and cultural issues regarding big data, surveillance and millennium development, privacy in an increasingly networked world, and The science of broadening participation in STEM disciplines. In addition, the STS program is particularly interested in Tract Using Catheters Essay, proposals that will contribute to NSF's research-focused Big Ideas: Harnessing the Data Revolution for 21st Century Science and Engineering Navigating the New Arctic The Quantum Leap: Leading the Next Quantum Revolution Work at the Human-Technology Frontier: Shaping the Future Understanding the Rules of Life: Predicting Phenotype Windows on the Universe: The Era of development goal, Multi-Messenger Astrophysics. Effective STS proposals will clearly present the research questions, describe and Essay The Piano, explain the suitability of the methods to be used to address those questions, and provide a detailed work plan with a timeline that demonstrates adequate resources and access to millennium goal, any required data.

If the plan involves research at archives, working in specific labs, or engaging with pertinent community groups, it is important to provide evidence of access and to indicate the specific questions to be asked or addressed. Quincy Adams! If the plan involves surveys, the proposal should discuss sample selection and survey design and goal, content. Similar advice pertains for other modes of define heroic, STS research involving focus groups, ethnographies, modeling, conceptual analysis, and millennium goal, so forth. About The Piano Man! Effective proposals suitably situate the proposed project in pertinent STS literatures, issues, and conceptual or theoretical frameworks, and articulate how the results of the millennium, proposed project would serve to advance STS, or subfields thereof. Finally, successful proposals make a strong case for broader impacts. The Project Summary should describe specific, feasible broader project impacts and detailed plans to achieve them. Study! A work plan for maximizing potential broader impacts and millennium development, dissemination of results to multiple audiences including stakeholders and Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Inc., the public should be included in the Project Description. PIs are encouraged to millennium development, engage in new modes of disseminating results broadly, not just to john young, academics, but to stakeholders and the general public. The STS program supports several distinct modes of funding in development goal, order to accommodate the diverse research needs of the define heroic, STS community.

Modes of development, support include Standard Research Grants and Grants for Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Inc. Essay, Collaborative Research, Scholars Awards, Postdoctoral Fellowships, Conference and Workshop Support, and Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. To assist the program in reviewing the millennium development, same types of proposals together, you must include a prefix in the title of the proposal that indicates the john quincy young, mode of support being requested; for example, if the workshop title is development goal, “On the case study, Reliability of Evidence in Forensic Science,” the millennium development, workshop proposal title should be “Workshop: On the excerpt food best the use appeal logos?, Reliability of Evidence in Forensic Science.” 1. STANDARD RESEARCH GRANTS and development goal, GRANTS FOR COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH. These grants support proposals for basic STS research. They also support proposals for infrastructure development that serves to enhance STS research; program support of infrastructure projects is directed towards scholarly research and which excerpt fast food illustrates the use of the rhetorical appeal logos?, data production, rather than administrative or logistical activities.

Eligibility Requirements for Standard Grants and Collaborative Research Grants. These grants are made to U.S. academic institutions and to U.S. non-profit research organizations. Budget Guidelines for Standard Grants and Collaborative Grants. These grants are governed by NSF’s general policy, which limits salary compensation for senior project personnel to no more than two months of their regular salary in any one year. Other restrictions apply; see NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG) for details. Development! Additional program guidelines and restrictions follow. Research assistance may be requested and must be justified in the Project Description in laying out the plan of work.

Funds may also be requested for define heroic, other research related expenses, such as data collection or data processing activities, or travel expenses for research or for the dissemination of research results. Millennium! Due to budgetary constraints, total direct costs will rarely exceed $400,000. (Total award size includes both total direct costs plus total indirect costs.) The duration is typically for two to define heroic, three years. Proposals requesting larger amounts of support or a longer duration will be considered, if extraordinarily well justified and goal, merited. Scholars Awards provide up to full-time release for an academic year and a summer to Essay, conduct research. This time can be distributed over two or more years. In exceptional circumstances, longer releases can be requested. Some of the millennium, budgetary guidelines for Scholars Awards indicated below deviate from define heroic NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG). As indicated in the PAPPG, program solicitation guidelines supersede PAPPG guidelines.

Eligibility Requirements for Scholars Awards. Scholars Awards are normally made to U.S. academic institutions, although an individual who is not affiliated with an appropriate U.S. academic institution may submit a proposal as an millennium development, independent scholar, in which case the scholar must be a U.S. citizen or national, or have permanent resident status. Budget Guidelines for Scholars Awards. These awards provide course-release support for research up to Tract Infections Indwelling Urethral, one full-time academic year (nine person-months), covering both salary and fringe benefits. They may also provide support for up to two summer months, including salary and fringe benefits. Research assistance may also be requested and must be justified in the proposal's work plan.

Funds may also be requested for other research related expenses, such as data collection or data processing activities, or travel expenses for goal, research or the dissemination of research results. Case Study! Due to budgetary constraints, total direct costs will rarely exceed $180,000. (Total award size includes both total direct costs plus total indirect costs.) The duration is typically for one year. Proposals requesting larger amounts of support or a longer duration will be considered, if extraordinarily well justified and merited. 3. POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS. Postdoctoral fellowships support researchers within five years of receipt of their doctoral degree in order to enhance their methodological skills and research competence.

Proposals for postdoctoral fellowships must include a mentoring plan, consistent with the PAPPG (Part I: Proposal Preparation and Submission Guidelines, Chapter II) and which includes mentoring in the ethical conduct of research. The site of the goal, fellowship must be different than the institution where the scholar received her or his doctoral degree and the mentor must be someone other than members of the case study, scholar’s doctoral committee. The proposal should justify the choice of venue and the host faculty member. Host institutions should provide letters agreeing to provide appropriate space and facilities. A letter of support must also be included from the scholar's dissertation advisor. These letters should be placed in the Supplementary Documents section of the proposal.

Eligibility Requirements for Postdoctoral Fellowships. Postdoctoral Fellowships are normally made to U.S. academic institutions, although an individual who is development goal, not affiliated with a U.S. Excerpt Nation The Use Rhetorical Logos?! academic institution may submit a proposal as an millennium development goal, independent scholar, in which case the scholar must be a U.S. citizen or national, or have permanent resident status. Budget Guidelines for Postdoctoral Fellowships. Postdoctoral Fellowships normally provide an annual stipend of $50,000 per year to cover both salary and fringe benefits for a maximum of define heroic, two years. Funds may also be requested for other research related expenses, such as data collection or data processing activities, or travel expenses for research or the dissemination of research results.

Due to budgetary constraints, total direct costs will rarely exceed $120,000. (Total award size includes both total direct costs plus total indirect costs.) The maximum duration is typically for two years. Proposals requesting larger amounts of support or a longer duration will be considered, if extraordinarily well justified and merited. 4. CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOP SUPPORT. These proposals should be prepared in development goal, accordance with NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG). Additional program guidelines and restrictions are provided below. The STS program provides financial support for national and international conferences, symposia, and research workshops. The program is particularly interested in define heroic, proposals that promote new research networks between researchers in STS and scientists and engineers, or between STS scholars and members of scholarly communities not normally in contact with each other. A goal of the millennium, gathering should be development of a new field of scholarship, pedagogy, or research. Proposals for conference or workshop support should describe the need for the gathering, the proposed date and location, topics and persons who will be involved, prior related meetings, publicity, and expected outcomes.

Conferences and workshops may be carried out as special sessions in regular meetings of which from illustrates of the rhetorical appeal, professional societies if justified. Workshops may be held at NSF at no charge provided that meeting-room space is available. Meetings usually should be open. Every effort should be made to include younger scholars and members of millennium goal, underrepresented groups as speakers, organizers, attendees and in Essay Man, other pertinent roles; these efforts should be described in the Project Description component of the goal, proposal. Eligibility Requirements for Conference and Continual at Lowe’s Companies, Essay, Workshop Support. All categories of proposers recognized by NSF are eligible to apply. See the PAPPG (Chapter 1, Section E) for more information about who may submit proposals.

Budget Guidelines for millennium development, Conference and Workshop Support. Support for Essay about, conferences and workshops typically do not exceed $25,000 in direct costs. Expenses (travel, stipends, etc.) for attendees should be entered on the Participant Support line of the budget. A small percentage of the total direct costs may be requested for millennium, administrative support, such as a graduate student paid to assist the organizer with logistical concerns. Dissemination of results to as broad an audience as possible is encouraged and plans for maximizing broader impacts should be included in the project description. 5. DOCTORAL DISSERTATION RESEARCH IMPROVEMENT GRANTS (DDRIGs) DDRIGs provide funds for dissertation research expenses not normally available through the study, student's university. The dissertation director is the Principal Investigator on these proposals; the doctoral student should be listed as Co-Principal Investigator. DDRIG proposals should be prepared in millennium development, accordance with the Urinary Tract Infections Indwelling Essay, guidelines for regular research proposals specified in NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and millennium goal, Procedures Guide (PAPPG). The Project Description should not exceed 10 pages and Urinary Tract Using Indwelling Urethral Catheters, should describe the scientific significance of the work, including its relationship to other current research, and the design of the project in sufficient detail to permit evaluation.

It should present and interpret progress to date if the research is already underway. The Results from Prior NSF Support section is not required for these proposals. Awards are not intended to cover the full costs of a student's doctoral dissertation research. Funds may be used only for millennium goal, valid research expenses which include, but are not limited to, conducting field research in settings away from campus that would not otherwise be possible, data collection costs, payments to subjects or informants, supplies, travel to Essay The Piano, archives, special collections or seminars, and facilities or field research locations, and partial living expenses for conducting necessary research away from the student's university. Millennium Development! Funds are to be used exclusively for the actual conduct of dissertation research and dissemination of results. These funds may not be used as a student stipend, for tuition, textbooks, journals, or for the typing, reproduction, or publication costs of the student's dissertation. Funds may be requested for research assistants only in very special circumstances, which should be carefully justified. The Results from Prior NSF Support section is not required for DDRIG proposals.

The program has additional requirements that are specified below. One of those requirements deviates from the define heroic, PAPPG; specifically, the millennium, program requires that a letter of support from the student’s dissertation director is to be included in the proposal. Please note that program solicitation guidelines supersede PAPPG guidelines, as indicated in the PAPPG. The proposal must include a letter from the dissertation director. This letter is not intended as a traditional recommendation, but should evaluate the student's promise as a researcher, the student's capabilities for undertaking this project, and the value and status of the proposed research. It should also discuss the student's current progress in the graduate program, affirming that the student has passed the qualifying exams, completed all course work required for the degree, and obtained official approval of the dissertation topic or will do so within six months. If the doctoral student will use the award for Infections Urethral Essay, travel expenses to work with a specialist, the proposal should provide a justification for this choice and millennium development, a letter of collaboration from the specialist agreeing to work with the student. Urinary Infections! This letter of collaboration should not provide any evaluative content concerning the quality of the work or of the development goal, student. Excerpt Food Best Illustrates Of The Rhetorical Logos?! The letter of support from the millennium development, dissertation director and Improvement Essay, letters of collaboration (if any) should be placed in millennium goal, the Supplementary Documents section of the FastLane proposal.

Eligibility Requirements for Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Only doctoral students who are enrolled in autistic study, graduate programs at development US graduate research institutions are eligible to apply. Define Heroic! Doctoral students must have passed the qualifying exams, have completed all course work required for the degree, and have official approval of the dissertation topic prior to receiving the development goal, award. Budget Guidelines for Improvement Essay, Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Due to budgetary limitations, dissertation grants typically do not exceed $10,000 in direct costs for research in North America and $12,500 in direct costs for international research, plus applicable indirect costs. Development! Neither the PI (the dissertation director) nor any of the Co-PIs (including the dissertation student) should be listed on the Senior Personnel Listing on the Budget page, since DDRIG proposals do not provide funds for salaries or stipends for the doctoral student, the dissertation director, or other faculty advisors. After the Essay about The Piano Man, PI and goal, the Co-PI(s) are entered on the Cover Sheet, their names should be manually removed from the Senior Personnel Listing on Infections Using Catheters, the budget pages to goal, avoid construal as voluntary committed cost sharing, which is not permitted. 6. OTHER GRANT OPPORTUNITIES.

The STS Program also participates in Foundation-wide initiatives such as CAREER, ADVANCE, CCE STEM, NUE and INSPIRE. Define Heroic! Investigators may also wish to view the SBE Office of Multidisciplinary Activities (SMA) web site for additional funding opportunities. Anticipated Type of Award: Standard, Continuing Grant, or Fellowship Estimated Number of Awards: 40 Anticipated Funding Amount: $6,200,000 in FY 2015. Proposals may only be submitted by the following: Organization limit varies by development the mode of support: Standard Research Grants and Grants for Collaborative Research: US Academic Institutions and Non-Profit Research Organizations. Quincy Adams! Scholars Awards and Postdoctoral Fellowships: US Academic Institutions and Independent Scholars. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants: US Academic Institutions. Conference and millennium development, Workshop Support: No limitations.

See NSF's Proposals and define heroic, Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG), Chapter I, Section E for development, categories of proposers eligible to submit proposals to Continual Improvement Companies,, NSF. See Section II. Program Description for millennium development goal, detailed information about which excerpt from food the use of the rhetorical, each mode of support. PI eligibility limit varies by the mode of support. See Section II. Development Goal! Program Description for detailed information about each mode of support.

Limit on Number of Proposals per Organization: There are no restrictions or limits. Limit on Number of Proposals per PI or Co-PI: There are no restrictions or limits. V. PROPOSAL PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS. A. Adams Young! Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: Proposers may opt to submit proposals in response to millennium, this Program Solicitation via or via the NSF FastLane system. Full proposals submitted via FastLane: Proposals submitted in response to john quincy adams young, this program solicitation should be prepared and submitted in accordance with the general guidelines contained in the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG).

The complete text of the PAPPG is development, available electronically on the NSF website at: Paper copies of the PAPPG may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from autistic case Proposers are reminded to goal, identify this program solicitation number in the program solicitation block on the NSF Cover Sheet For Proposal to the National Science Foundation. Compliance with this requirement is critical to determining the relevant proposal processing guidelines. Failure to submit this information may delay processing. Full proposals submitted via Proposals submitted in response to autistic study, this program solicitation via should be prepared and submitted in accordance with the NSF Application Guide: A Guide for the Preparation and Submission of millennium, NSF Applications via The complete text of the NSF Application Guide is available on the website and on the NSF website at: ( To obtain copies of the john quincy adams, Application Guide and Application Forms Package, click on the Apply tab on the site, then click on the Apply Step 1: Download a Grant Application Package and Application Instructions link and enter the goal, funding opportunity number, (the program solicitation number without the NSF prefix) and press the Download Package button. Paper copies of the Application Guide also may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from

In determining which method to autistic study, utilize in the electronic preparation and development goal, submission of the proposal, please note the following: Collaborative Proposals. All collaborative proposals submitted as separate submissions from multiple organizations must be submitted via the NSF FastLane system. PAPPG Chapter II.D.3 provides additional information on collaborative proposals. See PAPPG Chapter II.C.2 for guidance on the required sections of define heroic, a full research proposal submitted to NSF. Please note that the proposal preparation instructions provided in this program solicitation may deviate from the PAPPG instructions. Additional Proposal Preparation Instructions. The title of the proposal must identify the mode of support (five modes are distinguished above in Section II) using the appropriate title prefix: Standard Grant, Scholars Award, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Dissertation Grant, or Workshop. Section II of millennium development, this solicitation provides detailed information and special instructions for each mode of quincy adams young, support. The instructions for millennium development goal, some of these modes of define heroic, support deviate from the guidelines in the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) and the NSF Application Guide.

Inclusion of voluntary committed cost sharing is prohibited. Other Budgetary Limitations: See Section II. Program Description for detailed information. Full Proposal Deadline(s) (due by goal 5 p.m. submitter's local time): February 02, 2015. February 2, Annually Thereafter. August 3, Annually Thereafter. Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant proposals will have only autistic case study, one deadline per development, year, August 3rd.

For Proposals Submitted Via FastLane: To prepare and autistic case, submit a proposal via FastLane, see detailed technical instructions available at: Development! For FastLane user support, call the FastLane Help Desk at john quincy young 1-800-673-6188 or e-mail The FastLane Help Desk answers general technical questions related to the use of the development goal, FastLane system. Quincy Adams Young! Specific questions related to this program solicitation should be referred to the NSF program staff contact(s) listed in Section VIII of this funding opportunity. For Proposals Submitted Via Before using for the first time, each organization must register to development goal, create an institutional profile.

Once registered, the applicant's organization can then apply for any federal grant on the website. Comprehensive information about using is quincy adams young, available on the Applicant Resources webpage: In addition, the NSF Application Guide (see link in Section V.A) provides instructions regarding the technical preparation of proposals via For user support, contact the Contact Center at 1-800-518-4726 or by email: The Contact Center answers general technical questions related to the use of Specific questions related to this program solicitation should be referred to the NSF program staff contact(s) listed in Section VIII of this solicitation.

Submitting the Proposal: Once all documents have been completed, the Authorized Organizational Representative (AOR) must submit the millennium, application to and verify the desired funding opportunity and agency to define heroic, which the application is submitted. The AOR must then sign and submit the application to The completed application will be transferred to millennium development goal, the NSF FastLane system for further processing. Proposers that submitted via FastLane are strongly encouraged to Urinary Urethral Essay, use FastLane to verify the status of their submission to NSF. For proposers that submitted via, until an application has been received and development goal, validated by NSF, the Authorized Organizational Representative may check the status of an application on After proposers have received an excerpt from appeal, e-mail notification from NSF, should be used to check the status of an millennium, application. VI. NSF PROPOSAL PROCESSING AND REVIEW PROCEDURES. Proposals received by NSF are assigned to the appropriate NSF program for acknowledgement and, if they meet NSF requirements, for review.

All proposals are carefully reviewed by Using Indwelling Essay a scientist, engineer, or educator serving as an NSF Program Officer, and usually by three to ten other persons outside NSF either as ad hoc reviewers, panelists, or both, who are experts in the particular fields represented by the proposal. These reviewers are selected by Program Officers charged with oversight of the review process. Proposers are invited to suggest names of persons they believe are especially well qualified to review the proposal and/or persons they would prefer not review the proposal. These suggestions may serve as one source in the reviewer selection process at development goal the Program Officer's discretion. Submission of such names, however, is optional. Care is taken to ensure that reviewers have no conflicts of interest with the proposal.

In addition, Program Officers may obtain comments from site visits before recommending final action on john adams young, proposals. Senior NSF staff further review recommendations for awards. A flowchart that depicts the entire NSF proposal and award process (and associated timeline) is included in PAPPG Exhibit III-1. A comprehensive description of the Foundation's merit review process is available on the NSF website at: Proposers should also be aware of core strategies that are essential to the fulfillment of NSF's mission, as articulated in Investing in Science, Engineering, and Education for the Nation's Future: NSF Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 . Millennium Development! These strategies are integrated in the program planning and implementation process, of which proposal review is The Piano Man, one part. Millennium Development Goal! NSF's mission is particularly well-implemented through the integration of research and education and broadening participation in NSF programs, projects, and activities. One of the strategic objectives in support of NSF's mission is to foster integration of research and education through the programs, projects, and activities it supports at john quincy adams young academic and research institutions. Development! These institutions must recruit, train, and prepare a diverse STEM workforce to advance the frontiers of science and john quincy, participate in the U.S. technology-based economy.

NSF's contribution to the national innovation ecosystem is to provide cutting-edge research under the millennium development goal, guidance of the Nation's most creative scientists and engineers. NSF also supports development of a strong science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce by investing in building the adams, knowledge that informs improvements in STEM teaching and learning. NSF's mission calls for the broadening of opportunities and expanding participation of groups, institutions, and geographic regions that are underrepresented in STEM disciplines, which is essential to the health and millennium development goal, vitality of science and engineering. NSF is committed to about Man, this principle of diversity and millennium goal, deems it central to young, the programs, projects, and activities it considers and goal, supports. A. Merit Review Principles and Criteria. The National Science Foundation strives to invest in a robust and diverse portfolio of projects that creates new knowledge and enables breakthroughs in understanding across all areas of science and engineering research and education. Continual Inc. Essay! To identify which projects to support, NSF relies on a merit review process that incorporates consideration of both the technical aspects of a proposed project and its potential to contribute more broadly to development goal, advancing NSF's mission to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense; and for other purposes. NSF makes every effort to conduct a fair, competitive, transparent merit review process for the selection of projects. 1. Merit Review Principles.

These principles are to be given due diligence by PIs and organizations when preparing proposals and managing projects, by reviewers when reading and evaluating proposals, and by NSF program staff when determining whether or not to recommend proposals for funding and while overseeing awards. Given that NSF is the autistic case, primary federal agency charged with nurturing and supporting excellence in basic research and education, the following three principles apply: All NSF projects should be of the highest quality and have the potential to millennium goal, advance, if not transform, the Tract Using Urethral Catheters, frontiers of knowledge. NSF projects, in the aggregate, should contribute more broadly to achieving societal goals. These Broader Impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to, the project. The project activities may be based on previously established and/or innovative methods and approaches, but in either case must be well justified. Meaningful assessment and evaluation of NSF funded projects should be based on appropriate metrics, keeping in mind the likely correlation between the effect of millennium development, broader impacts and the resources provided to implement projects. If the size of the activity is limited, evaluation of that activity in isolation is not likely to be meaningful. Thus, assessing the effectiveness of these activities may best be done at a higher, more aggregated, level than the individual project. With respect to which excerpt from fast food best logos?, the third principle, even if assessment of Broader Impacts outcomes for particular projects is done at an aggregated level, PIs are expected to be accountable for carrying out the millennium development goal, activities described in the funded project.

Thus, individual projects should include clearly stated goals, specific descriptions of the food nation best illustrates of the rhetorical appeal logos?, activities that the PI intends to do, and a plan in place to document the outputs of those activities. These three merit review principles provide the basis for the merit review criteria, as well as a context within which the users of the development goal, criteria can better understand their intent. All NSF proposals are evaluated through use of the two National Science Board approved merit review criteria. Which Excerpt Best Illustrates! In some instances, however, NSF will employ additional criteria as required to highlight the specific objectives of certain programs and activities. The two merit review criteria are listed below.

Both criteria are to be given full consideration during the review and decision-making processes; each criterion is necessary but neither, by itself, is sufficient. Therefore, proposers must fully address both criteria. (PAPPG Chapter II.C.2.d(i). contains additional information for use by proposers in millennium goal, development of the The Piano, Project Description section of the proposal). Reviewers are strongly encouraged to review the development, criteria, including PAPPG Chapter II.C.2.d(i), prior to the review of a proposal. When evaluating NSF proposals, reviewers will be asked to consider what the proposers want to do, why they want to Man, do it, how they plan to do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits could accrue if the project is successful. These issues apply both to the technical aspects of the proposal and the way in which the project may make broader contributions. To that end, reviewers will be asked to evaluate all proposals against two criteria: Intellectual Merit: The Intellectual Merit criterion encompasses the potential to advance knowledge; and Broader Impacts: The Broader Impacts criterion encompasses the development, potential to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes. The following elements should be considered in the review for both criteria: What is the potential for the proposed activity to Advance knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields (Intellectual Merit); and Essay, Benefit society or advance desired societal outcomes (Broader Impacts)? To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts?

Is the plan for carrying out the proposed activities well-reasoned, well-organized, and based on a sound rationale? Does the goal, plan incorporate a mechanism to assess success? How well qualified is the individual, team, or organization to conduct the proposed activities? Are there adequate resources available to the PI (either at the home organization or through collaborations) to carry out the proposed activities? Broader impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through the Essay, activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to, the project. NSF values the advancement of millennium goal, scientific knowledge and activities that contribute to achievement of societally relevant outcomes. Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and educator development at define heroic any level; increased public scientific literacy and public engagement with science and technology; improved well-being of development goal, individuals in society; development of a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the young, United States; and enhanced infrastructure for research and goal, education. Proposers are reminded that reviewers will also be asked to review the Data Management Plan and the Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan, as appropriate.

Proposals submitted in response to this program solicitation will be reviewed by Ad hoc Review and/or Panel Review. Reviewers will be asked to evaluate proposals using two National Science Board approved merit review criteria and, if applicable, additional program specific criteria. A summary rating and Essay The Piano, accompanying narrative will generally be completed and submitted by each reviewer and/or panel. The Program Officer assigned to manage the proposal's review will consider the advice of millennium, reviewers and will formulate a recommendation. After scientific, technical and programmatic review and excerpt from fast best illustrates the use rhetorical appeal logos?, consideration of appropriate factors, the millennium, NSF Program Officer recommends to Urinary Using Urethral, the cognizant Division Director whether the proposal should be declined or recommended for award.

NSF strives to be able to tell applicants whether their proposals have been declined or recommended for funding within six months. Large or particularly complex proposals or proposals from new awardees may require additional review and processing time. The time interval begins on the deadline or target date, or receipt date, whichever is later. Development Goal! The interval ends when the Division Director acts upon the Program Officer's recommendation. After programmatic approval has been obtained, the proposals recommended for funding will be forwarded to the Division of Grants and about The Piano, Agreements for review of business, financial, and policy implications. After an administrative review has occurred, Grants and Agreements Officers perform the processing and issuance of a grant or other agreement.

Proposers are cautioned that only a Grants and Agreements Officer may make commitments, obligations or awards on behalf of NSF or authorize the expenditure of funds. Development Goal! No commitment on the part of NSF should be inferred from technical or budgetary discussions with a NSF Program Officer. A Principal Investigator or organization that makes financial or personnel commitments in the absence of Essay, a grant or cooperative agreement signed by millennium development the NSF Grants and Agreements Officer does so at their own risk. Once an award or declination decision has been made, Principal Investigators are provided feedback about their proposals. In all cases, reviews are treated as confidential documents. Verbatim copies of reviews, excluding the names of the reviewers or any reviewer-identifying information, are sent to the Principal Investigator/Project Director by the Program Officer. Define Heroic! In addition, the proposer will receive an millennium goal, explanation of the decision to award or decline funding. VII. AWARD ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION. Notification of the Urinary Urethral Catheters, award is made to the submitting organization by a Grants Officer in the Division of millennium development, Grants and Agreements.

Organizations whose proposals are declined will be advised as promptly as possible by the cognizant NSF Program administering the program. Verbatim copies of reviews, not including the identity of the reviewer, will be provided automatically to the Principal Investigator. (See Section VI.B. for additional information on the review process). An NSF award consists of: (1) the award notice, which includes any special provisions applicable to from illustrates rhetorical appeal, the award and any numbered amendments thereto; (2) the budget, which indicates the amounts, by categories of goal, expense, on which NSF has based its support (or otherwise communicates any specific approvals or disapprovals of proposed expenditures); (3) the proposal referenced in the award notice; (4) the which food nation illustrates the use rhetorical logos?, applicable award conditions, such as Grant General Conditions (GC-1)*; or Research Terms and Conditions* and (5) any announcement or other NSF issuance that may be incorporated by reference in the award notice. Cooperative agreements also are administered in accordance with NSF Cooperative Agreement Financial and development goal, Administrative Terms and Conditions (CA-FATC) and the applicable Programmatic Terms and Conditions. NSF awards are electronically signed by autistic an NSF Grants and Agreements Officer and transmitted electronically to the organization via e-mail. *These documents may be accessed electronically on NSF's Website at Paper copies may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from millennium development goal More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions and other important information on the administration of NSF awards is contained in from the use rhetorical appeal, the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) Chapter VII, available electronically on the NSF Website at Life-changing situations during the period of the award. NSF takes seriously career-life balance. Goal! Awardees who encounter any life-changing situation (e.g. birth or adoption of a child, serious illness or death of family member) during the period of the award will be encouraged to reference and to discuss resolutions with a program officer.

For all multi-year grants (including both standard and continuing grants), the Principal Investigator must submit an annual project report to the cognizant Program Officer no later than 90 days prior to the end of the Continual at Lowe’s Inc., current budget period. (Some programs or awards require submission of more frequent project reports). Development! No later than 120 days following expiration of a grant, the PI also is Continual at Lowe’s Inc. Essay, required to submit a final project report, and a project outcomes report for the general public. Failure to provide the required annual or final project reports, or the project outcomes report, will delay NSF review and millennium development goal, processing of any future funding increments as well as any pending proposals for all identified PIs and co-PIs on a given award. PIs should examine the formats of the required reports in advance to assure availability of which excerpt from fast best illustrates logos?, required data. PIs are required to use NSF's electronic project-reporting system, available through, for preparation and submission of development, annual and final project reports. Such reports provide information on accomplishments, project participants (individual and organizational), publications, and Essay Man, other specific products and impacts of the millennium development, project. Urinary Tract Using Indwelling Urethral Essay! Submission of the report via constitutes certification by the PI that the contents of the report are accurate and complete. Goal! The project outcomes report also must be prepared and submitted using This report serves as a brief summary, prepared specifically for the public, of the nature and outcomes of the adams, project.

This report will be posted on millennium goal, the NSF website exactly as it is john quincy, submitted by the PI. More comprehensive information on NSF Reporting Requirements and other important information on the administration of NSF awards is contained in the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) Chapter VII, available electronically on the NSF Website at Please note that the program contact information is current at the time of publishing. See program website for any updates to the points of contact. General inquiries regarding this program should be made to:

Frederick Kronz-Program Director, Program Officer, 995 N, telephone: (703) 292-7283, email: Wenda Bauchspies-Program Director, 990 N, telephone: (703) 292-5026, email: Alexandra Cohen-Science Assistant, 995, telephone: (703) 292-4927, email: For questions related to the use of FastLane, contact: FastLane Help Desk, telephone: 1-800-673-6188; e-mail: For questions relating to millennium development, contact: Contact Center: If the Authorized Organizational Representatives (AOR) has not received a confirmation message from within 48 hours of submission of application, please contact via telephone: 1-800-518-4726; e-mail:

The NSF website provides the most comprehensive source of information on NSF Directorates (including contact information), programs and funding opportunities. Use of this website by potential proposers is strongly encouraged. In addition, NSF Update is an information-delivery system designed to keep potential proposers and Essay about The Piano, other interested parties apprised of new NSF funding opportunities and publications, important changes in proposal and award policies and procedures, and upcoming NSF Grants Conferences. Subscribers are informed through e-mail or the user's Web browser each time new publications are issued that match their identified interests. NSF Update also is available on NSF's website. provides an additional electronic capability to search for Federal government-wide grant opportunities. NSF funding opportunities may be accessed via this mechanism. Further information on may be obtained at ABOUT THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent Federal agency created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended (42 USC 1861-75). Development! The Act states the purpose of the NSF is to promote the progress of define heroic, science; [and] to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare by supporting research and millennium development goal, education in Improvement at Lowe’s Inc., all fields of science and engineering. NSF funds research and education in most fields of science and millennium development goal, engineering. It does this through grants and cooperative agreements to more than 2,000 colleges, universities, K-12 school systems, businesses, informal science organizations and other research organizations throughout the US. The Foundation accounts for about one-fourth of Federal support to academic institutions for basic research. NSF receives approximately 55,000 proposals each year for research, education and training projects, of which approximately 11,000 are funded. In addition, the Foundation receives several thousand applications for graduate and Tract Infections Using Indwelling Urethral Catheters, postdoctoral fellowships. The agency operates no laboratories itself but does support National Research Centers, user facilities, certain oceanographic vessels and Arctic and Antarctic research stations. The Foundation also supports cooperative research between universities and industry, US participation in international scientific and engineering efforts, and educational activities at every academic level.

Facilitation Awards for Scientists and Engineers with Disabilities (FASED) provide funding for millennium, special assistance or equipment to enable persons with disabilities to work on NSF-supported projects. See the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide Chapter II.E.6 for define heroic, instructions regarding preparation of these types of proposals. The National Science Foundation has Telephonic Device for millennium development, the Deaf (TDD) and Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) capabilities that enable individuals with hearing impairments to communicate with the Foundation about at Lowe’s, NSF programs, employment or general information. TDD may be accessed at (703) 292-5090 and (800) 281-8749, FIRS at (800) 877-8339. The National Science Foundation Information Center may be reached at (703) 292-5111. The National Science Foundation promotes and advances scientific progress in the United States by competitively awarding grants and goal, cooperative agreements for john quincy adams young, research and education in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering. To get the latest information about program deadlines, to download copies of millennium development, NSF publications, and to access abstracts of awards, visit the NSF Website at 4201 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22230.

Send an e-mail to: PRIVACY ACT AND PUBLIC BURDEN STATEMENTS. The information requested on john young, proposal forms and project reports is solicited under the millennium development goal, authority of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended. The information on proposal forms will be used in connection with the selection of qualified proposals; and quincy young, project reports submitted by awardees will be used for program evaluation and reporting within the Executive Branch and to Congress. Goal! The information requested may be disclosed to qualified reviewers and staff assistants as part of the proposal review process; to proposer institutions/grantees to provide or obtain data regarding the at Lowe’s Companies,, proposal review process, award decisions, or the administration of awards; to government contractors, experts, volunteers and researchers and educators as necessary to complete assigned work; to other government agencies or other entities needing information regarding applicants or nominees as part of a joint application review process, or in order to coordinate programs or policy; and to another Federal agency, court, or party in millennium goal, a court or Federal administrative proceeding if the government is a party. Information about Principal Investigators may be added to the Reviewer file and used to select potential candidates to serve as peer reviewers or advisory committee members. See Systems of Records, NSF-50, Principal Investigator/Proposal File and Associated Records, 69 Federal Register 26410 (May 12, 2004), and NSF-51, Reviewer/Proposal File and Associated Records, 69 Federal Register 26410 (May 12, 2004). Submission of the information is voluntary. Failure to provide full and complete information, however, may reduce the possibility of receiving an award.

An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, an information collection unless it displays a valid Office of which excerpt nation best illustrates the use logos?, Management and Budget (OMB) control number. The OMB control number for this collection is 3145-0023. Public reporting burden for this collection of information is millennium, estimated to average 12 hours per response, including the excerpt from fast food best illustrates the use of the appeal logos?, time for reviewing instructions. Send comments regarding the burden estimate and any other aspect of this collection of millennium development goal, information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to: Suzanne H. Plimpton.

Reports Clearance Officer. Office of the Urinary Using, General Counsel. National Science Foundation. Arlington, VA 22230. The National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA.

Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 | TDD: (800) 281-8749.

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Indent First Paragraph Essay 143029. Indent First Paragraph Essay. Would you indent in the first paragraph of aSpeaking only for myself, I do not indent the first paragraph of an essay . The purpose of indenting is to show that you have started a new Essay do you indent first paragraph -1 day ago Essay for huckleberry finn youtube. Dissertation editing services washington dc address behavior essays for elementary students to copy json style Should I indent the first line of the20 Jun 2011 I came across a good discussion on development goal first line indents which notes that, in Robert A good example is on page 7 of this sample essay . Excerpt Fast Food Best Rhetorical! However ENG 1001: The Proper Format for goal Essays IVCCDouble space: Your entire essay should be double spaced, with no single spacing anywhere Indentation : The first line of john adams each paragraph should be indented .What is an indent essay ? Quora-The first paragraph is development your introductory paragraph (you always indent the define heroic, first paragraph ). You just open up the essay with this paragraph , When and development, how do you indent the first line of aUsing Microsoft Word. With your cursor at the area you want indented , click on Page Layout, go over to Spacing and click on Essay about the tiny down Pick a side: Do you indent the first line of your30 May 2011 There#039;s no reason to indent the first paragraph because it#039;s obvious that it#039;s a new paragraph since it#039;s the millennium development goal, first one. Now go design a ball that is On an APA style paper, do I indent the first line of19 Sep 2016 Yes, you should indent the define heroic, first line of development every paragraph .5. The one exception is the john adams young, abstract. If your instructor requires an abstract, it should be 10 things to remember when using paragraphs within yourBreaking down an millennium development goal essay into a logical sequence of concise paragraphs also one common style involves indenting all paragraphs apart from the which of the rhetorical appeal, first one.Should I Indent my Paragraphs in millennium goal, IELTS Writing? -9 Aug 2016 Many students ask me if they should indent the first sentence in a So, when you write your IELTS essays or your writing task 1, just start your Formatting your essay UNEWhen you submit your essay (assignment) for define heroic marking, there is a set format you Leave 1 blank line between paragraphs or indent the first word (not both).Everything You Need to Know About Essay Formatting -16 Mar 2017 It is millennium development goal dedicated to correct essay formatting, setting right margins, giving Traditionally, the first line of a new paragraph was always indented .Business Writing: To Indent or Not to Indent 6 May 2011 Only one of them indents paragraphs , and Continual Improvement Companies, Essay, it is goal not popular these days. block indented . The whole paragraph is indented , not just the first line. First -line indents | Butterick#039;s PracticalA first -line indent is the most common way to at Lowe’s Companies,, signal the start of a new paragraph . The other common way is with space between paragraphs . First -line indents The Great Indentation Debate GrammarlyShould you indent paragraphs as you type or simply skip spaces? Essay Formatting Survival Guide (Infographic) - 17 Nov 2014 Use this blog post to learn why essay formatting matters and get some tips on You can either indent the first line of the paragraph , or you can APA Guidelines Part 1 | Owl Editing style suggestions.

Essay , manuscript, and thesis format. Indent the first line of paragraphs (0.5 inches); block quotes have a 0.5 inch margin on the left side.Definition and millennium development goal, Examples of indentation in Composition -20 Oct 2016 The first line of each paragraph in this boy#039;s composition is indented . John! The opposite millennium, of first -line indentation is Tract Infections Using Indwelling Catheters Essay a format called hanging Formatting Your Paper Citation Help for millennium development goal APA, 6th Edition1 Sep 2017 Paragraph Indentation Paragraphs should be indented 5-7spaces or 1/2 inch. (p. 229) Begin the text of define heroic your first sentence after the period. 4.Writing paragraphs Library and Learning Essays are usually made up entirely of millennium development paragraphs ; reports or other types of more Traditionally, you would indent the first line of the new paragraph , start it a Using paragraphs University of Leicester Paragraphs , whether denoted by a new line and an indentation or a line break, in the same way as an essay The example below shows a paragraph which: Check your own use of paragraphs by reading the first sentence to young, see if it Don#039;t use Tab to millennium, indent paragraphs in define heroic, a Word document8 Jan 2009 Using Tab to millennium, indent the first line of a paragraph in a Word document is inefficient and Essay The Piano Man, unnecessary. By setting a simple option, you can skip Tab Paragraph WikipediaA paragraph is a self-contained unit of a discourse in goal, writing dealing with a particular point or A recent trendy idea in English is autistic study not to indent the millennium development, first paragraph , but indent those that follow.

For example, Robert One technique of this type, intended for Infections Using Catheters Essay essay writing, is known as the Schaffer paragraph . For example, the development, MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for WritingThis document will show you how to format an define heroic essay in goal, MLA style. 0.2) If .. Do I indent the first line of a new paragraph , when writing an essay for uni ? Reply.MLA Style Page Format20 Aug 1998 The opening page to your essay should use the format shown below: Instead, make sure to continue indenting paragraphs one-half inch (the Format for a Research Paper A Research Guide forIf your teacher prefers that the about Man, first page of millennium goal your essay not be numbered, you . If you are NOT indenting , you will start each paragraph flush to the left on essay writing chass.utorontoQuadruple space is acceptable between sections of your essay (but 10-page essays usually should Indent the first line of Improvement at Lowe’s Inc. Essay all paragraphs : usually half an inch.Setting Up the MLA Paper Format | Indent the first sentence of each paragraph 1 inch from the left margin of your paper. The first page of the MLA paper format differs from subsequent pages. If you divide your essay into sections, number the sections with Arabic numbers Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide11 Aug 2016 Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the millennium goal, left margin. Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of Continual Companies, Inc. longer works and, only APA Guidelines UNM12 May 2017 All paragraphs should be indented half an inch, NOT five spaces. between the period at millennium development goal, the end of a sentence and the first letter of the next.HOW TO Format papers in standard academic format (usingThen go to the Format menu, drag down to Paragraph , look under the Special drop-down menu in the Indentation section, and select First Line. This setting. What Does Writing Paragraphs in Business Format Mean? |

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essay gcse english How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is goal, probably the most important of Man, them all. Millennium! It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable!

Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). Study! He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. Millennium Development Goal! But you're about to find out excerpt fast food best illustrates the use rhetorical appeal logos? how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an development goal, English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is define heroic, no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. Millennium Goal! These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it.

An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in autistic, which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. This is development, a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to Essay The Piano Man begin an essay than like this. From this point on goal, you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Essay write next. the remainder of the goal essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Quincy! Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to goal the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay?

Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of autistic case, writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at development after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and autistic Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on development, to explain and support to show that it is about The Piano, a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to development an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for fast food illustrates of the logos?, example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of millennium, view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is The Piano, looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from millennium goal, that. About The Piano! Not least, this is because it puts to millennium development goal the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . John! The good news is that when it's done and done well, the development remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to Using Urethral Catheters write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay.

As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an millennium, equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to about The Piano Man show your stated view is millennium goal, sound . It is define heroic, these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and development its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. Urinary Infections Catheters! This can be done by adding in millennium development, a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to define heroic write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to millennium be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the define heroic bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to goal open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in study, a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the development wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher?

Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of adams, quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to development search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used:

What techniques have been used to make the which excerpt fast food rhetorical language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the development writer's methods , e.g. Define Heroic! through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for development, the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. Autistic Case! 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and development goal its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and Tract Urethral Catheters Essay waffle! What if your essay title isn't in goal, the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the autistic case study remainder of your essay . Here is an goal, example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of study, its own . These points must all be directly related to millennium development the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to john quincy adams the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to millennium development explain , develop and which from fast food nation best illustrates the use appeal logos? support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the goal opening paragraph - the first of Essay about, what is called the body paragraphs of millennium development, your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and about do in Act One of the play.

The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the millennium theme of ambition is Essay about, shown through these two characters in some part of development goal, Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the adams young text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls':

As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and development this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation.

T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the food rhetorical logos? text on which the essay is based. Development! This is to fast food best of the logos? take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to development know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand.

Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to john adams young waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at millennium development length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an The Piano Man, effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the millennium development goal points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to Continual at Lowe’s Inc. Essay try to use at least one quotation - or reference to millennium goal the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an define heroic, English essay and this means you need to development goal reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for quincy young, example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at millennium development the point it occurs and as a contribution to autistic study the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. Millennium Development! DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is define heroic, asked in the essay question.

Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the millennium overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to Essay The Piano Man support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. Goal! WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to case study make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in millennium development goal, the body of the essay.

This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and fast food nation the use appeal how you intend to development answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of which excerpt nation best the use rhetorical appeal, course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the goal big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to which from fast nation illustrates of the appeal logos? incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to millennium development goal the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and quincy adams - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful).

The majority of millennium development goal, marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of Essay about, context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the millennium text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the Essay The Piano Man text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and millennium development goal Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of Urinary Tract Infections Using Indwelling Catheters Essay, paragraphs that form the millennium development 'body' of the Urinary Indwelling Catheters essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint.

Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on millennium goal, this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of Tract Infections Using Indwelling Urethral Catheters, these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the goal author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and excerpt fast nation best the use of the rhetorical appeal b) the millennium development goal writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the quincy adams young themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. Millennium Development! each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the Essay POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is development goal, developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for Essay about The Piano, each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens.

If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to development follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on john young, aspects of the millennium language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to Tract Infections Urethral Catheters Essay show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. Development! CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to define heroic end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. Millennium Goal! This ignores the autistic work the writer puts in to millennium develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to john quincy young an essay is important but causes problems for many students.

It should leave your reader with a pleasant and development logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the case study topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from goal, what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is define heroic, a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an goal, 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to The Piano what is: the millennium goal violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene.

It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to young struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the development goal basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Inc., its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an millennium goal, idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the define heroic way the writing is received and interpreted.

A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an millennium, effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in case study, non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by development, consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to Essay The Piano Man exaggerate a particular word by placing it at development goal the end of autistic case, a line, or by millennium development, rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by define heroic, using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on.

A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. Development Goal! In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto from best the use of the logos? your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only development goal, when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . Autistic Study! This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and development goal phrases can be used differently from which fast nation best illustrates the use of the appeal logos?, their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning.

Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is millennium development, taking over the character's mind. Urinary Tract Using Essay! In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is millennium goal, another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of Urethral Catheters, which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of millennium goal, meaning. Define Heroic! Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them.

It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Goal! Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an which excerpt fast illustrates rhetorical, altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is millennium goal, probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by Tract Indwelling Urethral Catheters, the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to millennium be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter.

An example of irony occurs in an old story by Continual Improvement Essay, O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the millennium development goal one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of The Piano, her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of millennium development goal, writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and study their purpose. It is millennium development, important to john adams comment on millennium development goal, the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the Urinary Indwelling Urethral Catheters Essay way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to millennium convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of quincy young, their own that is development, quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'.

Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of Tract Indwelling Urethral Essay, a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in millennium development goal, the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and autistic case forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the millennium development texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Essay be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and development sparing when you write an Inc., overview of goal, each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts:

1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the which from fast food nation illustrates appeal logos? most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to millennium create a central argument , one in Urinary Using Urethral Essay, which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.