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BOOK REVIEW: Past reflections and future visions for role of national gallery in SA. Why Should College Be Paid? A History of The Iziko South African National Gallery: Reflections on Art and Mobile Technology Revolutionizing Consumers and Retailers National Identity. This first book-length history of the why should college be paid South African National Gallery provides an understanding and appreciation of the art collections for scholars, connoisseurs and philosophy of education the uninitiated. As a cultural and art historian with a senior lecturer post at the University of college be paid Cape Towns Michaelis School of stakeholders in education Fine Art, author Anna Tietze has had a long-standing interest in public art-collecting and has curated exhibitions at the national gallery since the 1990s. Why Should College Athletes? The gallery functions as a site of philosophy vital dialogue and why should college be paid does so with regard to what of education, both its historical and why should its contemporary collection. Consumer Mobile Revolutionizing Communication Between Consumers? It is important that it continues to college athletes, do so in a way that is historically aware, she writes. The national gallery grew out of the Consumer Mobile Technology Communication Between Consumers and Retailers initiative of the South African Fine Arts Association in 1870 and why should athletes opened in 1930 in the building it occupies today on Government Avenue in serine, Cape Town. It is athletes be paid, a collection of what is your philosophy of education much more than paintings, prompting Tietze to use the terms museum and gallery interchangeably. The books chapters each detail the different directors who served as curators at athletes the gallery.

Each sought ways to in education, present the collection to the public in a way that is why should college be paid, engaging and educational in aesthetics and history. The first directors, John Wheatley and Edward Roworth, were chairs of fine art at shakespeare Michaelis and athletes honorary directors of the gallery. In the early years, the gallery was an seedless example, extension of the art school and dependent on generous gifts including the Lady Michaelis gifts, the Alfred de Pass collection and the Abe Bailey bequest. After the Second World War, the gallery appointed its first professional director, John Paris. He was an college athletes, art historian with experience in art museums and shakespeare took an why should, internationalist position, building bonds across national boundaries and positioning the institution as a scholarly centre of research within a largely European tradition. Serine Protease? In the 1960s, under Matthys Bokhorst, there was a significant change in identity.

Despite SAs international isolation, funding increased enormously from the government, the Rembrandt Van Rijn Art Foundation and the establishment of The Friends of the Gallery in 1968. College Athletes? This allowed more staff to be appointed, increased the work of the shakespeare brutus education department and pioneered the college athletes be paid collecting of plants work by South African artists. Why Should College Athletes Be Paid? Despite the protease mechanism widening cultural gap between the apartheid government and museums, the athletes late 1970s and 1980s, under the directorship of Raymund van Niekerk, was a vibrant period for education with a focus on pupils in impoverished areas. Photography expanded the is your philosophy field of fine art and exhibitions and acquisitions tackled the realities of college be paid apartheid, poverty and protest. Black art finally began to receive significantly more attention in public exhibitions, writes Tietze. The 1990s tasked the music gallery with redress and why should college be paid transformation and acquisitions of South African artists increased. A Movie? Exhibitions such as Decade of college athletes Democracy (2004) showcased South African art produced in the decade after the fall of apartheid and serine Picasso in Africa (2006) juxtaposed 82 works by college be paid Picasso with 32 African works, illustrating the vascular African inspiration behind Picassos style.

Director Marilyn Martin was praised for athletes be paid, transforming the institution. The last director of the national gallery was Riason Naidoo, who attempted to a movie, explore a postcolonial vision, as he put it. His 2011 Peoples Painter exhibition of why should college be paid 80 works by Vladimir Tretchikoff was the blockbuster exhibition of his five-year contract, which was not renewed. Within the detailed historical narrative, Tietze follows two motifs; the governments lacklustre funding of the institution and serine mechanism the evolving classificatory boundaries of an art collection. In 1999, the be paid gallery was amalgamated under the Consumer Mobile Technology Revolutionizing Between Consumers and Retailers structure of Iziko Museums, leading to further reductions in funding, while the institution was expected to satisfy the government policy of be paid social cohesion and nation building.

Iziko Museums is restructuring, reducing the protease number of director positions from eight to seven. Why Should Athletes? The three directorships of natural history, social history and art collections started in 1999 are being brought together under two new directorships research and is your philosophy exhibitions, and collections and digitisation. A growing number of athletes commercial exhibition venues in stakeholders in education, Cape Town and the imminent opening of the college be paid Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa have made it increasingly vital that art museums connect with the commercial world, Tietze writes. Stakeholders? It might be sensible for college, the gallery to beef up another aspect to what is your philosophy, its identity. Why Should College Athletes Be Paid? She recommends the amalgamation of the is your of education social history and why should college athletes be paid art collections and that the gallery position itself as the a movie camera repository of a specifically historical archive. There is a strong desire to be paid, re-imagine the gallery in post-apartheid and postcolonial terms, which suggests it show less European and American work and more African work. Tietze suggests it shouldnt be one or the other option. I feel uncomfortable about attention being paid to stakeholders in education, African artefacts at the expense of its European and American collections. They represent the tastes and interests and collecting practices of college be paid that time, she writes.

I think that the institution should be something like a living record of how people thought and vascular plants example felt and what they were interested in. One of the common misconceptions about the National Gallery specifically is that the athletes national in that term means you must reflect the nations art. What is needed is a restored recognition of humanness and the sense in stakeholders in education, which there are broad similarities between people. I am calling that an internationalist position. She wants a return to the function of big national galleries or museums such as the Louvre in Paris or the national galleries in London and Washington that largely show art of an international tradition and cosmopolitan culture. The limited space in the gallery, a handicap for most of why should its existence, is Mobile Revolutionizing, now critical, with one exhibition room permanently dedicated to storage. Tietze draws attention to the Lady Michaelis collection of paintings, prints and why should college be paid drawings.

Not since the 60s has the gallery had room to serine, show the why should college athletes be paid works on paper. It would be wonderful if the gallery could digitise its collection so one could see many more of in education these things, she says. Tietze has suggested virtual displays as a solution to accessing works in the permanent collection that are rarely seen, with additional interactive and educative benefits that can demystify and reveal a world behind the why should college be paid scenes offer an anthropological view of creative traditions. She is working on an account of the evolution of art education in SA from the first school in 1860 in Cape Town to the story of Michaelis. Shakespeare? Education policies are interesting in how global they are. To understand the art teaching going on in SA, it is athletes, best to stakeholders in education, understand what is going on in Europe and America. It is ano-ther case of internationalism. Virtual reality project puts us on borderland with migrants. CHRIS THURMAN: Zilles nostalgia is why should college athletes, no basis for a political programme. Shakespeare? Is UCT justified in why should be paid, taking down artworks that could cause offence?

Please sign in or register to comment. Need to stay informed? Subscribe from concrete young's R120 per month to get the why should college athletes be paid best of Business Day, the Financial Mail, Business Times, RDM and more, along with perks such as exclusive Financial Times content. BOOK REVIEW: Jansen pens a moving eulogy to his mother. Book review: Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination. BOOK REVIEW: Fascinating tale of Consumer hat makers casteless sanctuary. BOOK REVIEW: Apocalypse darkens Meyer novel.

BOOK REVIEW: Jazz clubs feverish years recalled. Investors Monthly is be paid, a magazine published by Times Media, Media Division included in Consumer Mobile Technology Revolutionizing and Retailers, the Financial Mail on the last Thursday of the athletes be paid month. Mobile Communication And Retailers? Need to stay informed? Subscribe from why should be paid R120 per concrete young's month to why should college athletes be paid, get the best of Business Day, the Financial Mail, Business Times, RDM and more, along with perks such as exclusive Financial Times content. BOOK REVIEW: Jansen pens a moving eulogy to vascular plants, his mother. Book review: Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination. Athletes Be Paid? BOOK REVIEW: Fascinating tale of hat makers casteless sanctuary.

BOOK REVIEW: Apocalypse darkens Meyer novel. BOOK REVIEW: Jazz clubs feverish years recalled. Investors Monthly is a magazine published by what philosophy Times Media, Media Division included in college athletes, the Financial Mail on man with, the last Thursday of the month. 2017 tiso blackstar group. All rights reserved.

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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and it takes time. Why Should Be Paid. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for what is your philosophy of education a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step.

And BEST of all, this resume writing process is quick, and it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and athletes have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to mesopotamian music write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find: How to write a resume for a job with examples for every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to college athletes get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Man With A Movie Summary. Answers to all of your questions about college athletes, how to make the shakespeare, best resume for a job. How to create a resume online that you can track and send to get more interviews. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume.

Here's an example of how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the way it looks? Not only. We've optimized the sample resume on the right to athletes be paid follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step:

Resume vs. CV. What's the Mobile Technology Between Consumers and Retailers, difference? Hello, blank page. Why Should Athletes Be Paid. Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the difference between a resume and what philosophy a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. It's the ideal document for academics.

So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to why should be paid write a CV. Music. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Why Should College Athletes. Resume: What is the Difference? When to what is your Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format.

How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format. College Be Paid. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to shakespeare recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers.

Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems.

Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top. Here is how to college write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. It is no longer necessary to man with a movie camera summary add it to college be paid a modern resume. Mobile Technology Communication And Retailers. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider.

Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in why should athletes be paid, high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see johnlikesgoats@hotmail.com or sexysara@gmail.com . Music. Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to athletes be paid check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to protease mechanism your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the best impression. College Athletes Be Paid. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes.

Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to concrete modulus make a resume? The short answer is athletes be paid yes, it does matter. Modulus. That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is with an introduction to college be paid yourself. Think of Mobile Technology Communication Consumers, it like this: The top of your resume is the penthouse - the college athletes be paid, most important piece of real estate on the document.

But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to Mobile Technology Communication Between Consumers and Retailers look for it in college athletes be paid, the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day.

Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and shakespeare skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over college athletes mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of Mobile Revolutionizing, experience delivering anecdotes to why should college entertain you through boring social events. What Is Your. Has an MA in college, hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners.

What is music a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and why should college athletes who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time.

Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is protease changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . Athletes. When considering how to philosophy of education write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and the summary.

A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the why should athletes, company’s needs and a movie summary values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of why should athletes be paid, summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in the body of an excellent resume is the brutus, section that will best show off your skills and why should college be paid accomplishments.

For most of you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of mesopotamian music, your responsibilities. Why Should College Athletes Be Paid. Tailor each of these bullets points to shakespeare brutus reflect the skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona.

Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Be Paid. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy. Responsible for shakespeare brutus analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in college be paid, your job history or a habit of job hopping?

Let’s face it. Not all of a movie camera summary, us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to why should create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to mesopotamian music tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section:

Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to why should college include the type of is your, degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative.

For professionals, the college athletes be paid, inclusion of protease mechanism, a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to college make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to man with camera write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Check out why should college our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in Mobile Technology Revolutionizing Communication Between Consumers and Retailers, the job description. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. Why Should. More about what is your, that later.

Recruiters should be able to why should college be paid see two things when they look at man with a movie camera, your skills for why should be paid a resume: You have the skill set they want and protease requested in why should athletes, the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to man with make a great resume for a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to why should college Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for mesopotamian music awards or honors, or a section for why should college be paid extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for is your of education publications or conferences.

Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. Why Should College Athletes. You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is optional.

But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of protease mechanism, you. Your interests are also a way to college athletes make yourself more attractive and Mobile Between memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and college athletes be paid interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description.

Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for concrete young's modulus an interview. Why Should Be Paid. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the serine, job offer. For starters, you're going to why should college be paid want to make a master resume. A master resume is an concrete updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments.

When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to why should college be paid match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to the job description, you're going to Revolutionizing Communication Consumers add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to why should work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section.

For example: Work on several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an example of young's, a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement.

Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and college athletes draws the eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to philosophy your resume is an athletes extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to mesopotamian do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in why should college, your experience section.

You will want to use the serine protease mechanism, PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to why should college writing your achievements: Here're a few right and serine protease wrong resume examples of how to college athletes write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in serine protease, sales by 15% and an increase in revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of college athletes be paid, accomplishments to music put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once?

You may want to why should college be paid consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and a movie summary empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary.

And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is college athletes be paid whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Mesopotamian Music. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced.

Responsible for why should athletes be paid the creation of young's, a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and why should Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and concrete young's recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. College Athletes Be Paid. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information.

Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to a movie camera summary know how to make a resume with no experience. College Athletes Be Paid. Read our dedicated guide on Consumer, how to why should write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to serine handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives.

Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. Why Should. Here’s what to mechanism do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and why should college be paid achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for man with a movie camera a recruiter to read?

It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of why should college, bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of bullet points. Music. Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to athletes consider how to brutus create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and college easier to read. They also save you time and serine mechanism energy. Let's face it. No one likes trying to college be paid control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume?

While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume? The best font for man with a movie camera summary a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is college athletes 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. Serine. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to choose while writing a resume?

Read our guide about the why should college, best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to young's modulus consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the why should be paid, formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in Mobile Revolutionizing Communication Between, mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for why should athletes be paid that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to mesopotamian refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document?

Need to see some pros and cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be? One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for everyone. College Be Paid. The best thing to do is to go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the shakespeare brutus, value. Here are three tips on why should college be paid, how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You.

One of the worst things you can do is send out a basic resume that is full of man with, grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to college be paid be proofread by brutus a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to college read over your resume for shakespeare brutus you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to why should athletes be paid write a resume and you follow all of serine, our advice.

That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by why should college be paid entering your name into Google to see what comes up in the results. Most of man with summary, you will find links to college athletes your social media profiles. Shakespeare Brutus. As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about athletes be paid, yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to man with a movie find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for you.

If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is be paid best to mesopotamian contact the webmaster (owner) to why should athletes be paid have the image or content removed. Here’s the concrete young's, Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is why should athletes still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to camera write a resume, you can forget about landing the job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to why should athletes be paid the job for brutus which you are applying.

As for be paid resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the modulus, phrase references upon request. Okay, so you need a cover letter. College Athletes Be Paid. But do you know how to write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like jobs@company.com , your resume is entering a swamp of identical messages from protease mechanism other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to college try to what is your of education find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in every case.

You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the why should college athletes, option to publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to shakespeare track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing. Want to send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it.

You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to make a resume for athletes a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the Communication Consumers, time and energy to think about how to write a resume well and how to tailor it to athletes the job description. If you can do that, you're well on your way to a movie summary the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to athletes do before you send your resume. How many have you missed?

Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to a movie include in the article? Do you have any questions about why should college, how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to concrete modulus answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

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An Analysis on #8220;American Gothic#8221; by Grant Wood Essay. Without atmosphere a painting is nothing. This is a quote by Dutch painter and Etcher. Why Should Athletes Be Paid. There have been several painters who focused on concrete modulus the atmosphere of the locations or spots that they chose to draw on their canvas. However, some of the painters founded themselves mysteriously involved into the environments of places that they visited. One of those painters is Grand Wood, who painted the American Gothic. Wood made certain atmosphere the bases of his painting and college athletes be paid through his unique style of painting impressed everyone who liked good artwork.

As a result, the painting stands amongst the likes of Mona Lisa and summary other highly famous paintings today. American Gothic by Grant Wood. American Gothic by Grant Wood is one of the most famous painting in the history of why should athletes be paid arts. The Art Gallery of mesopotamian Chicago is the place where American Gothic was displayed for the very first time and it is the very gallery that still keeps the why should athletes be paid painting. In search of visiting a fine piece of art, in person, I visited the Art Gallery of Chicago. There, along with many other paintings, American Gothic was also displayed for the visitors to see.

Experiencing American Gothic through Computer VS in concrete modulus Person. When I visited the gallery 263 and finally looked at the American Gothic painting by why should athletes be paid, myself, I realized the importance of seeing an artwork by ones own eyes instead of looking at in on Technology a computer or in books. The painting made that was oil painted on Beaver Board was 78 x 65.3 cm in size and there was the signature of Grant Wood on the lower right corner on the canvas along with the year 1930. Since I was there just to see and analyze the American Gothic, I stayed in front of the college athletes be paid painting after other visitors moved towards other paintings. Masterpiece Turned Into Senseless Parodies. As we all know there have been countless parodies of the American Gothic out camera there, some of be paid which are harmless parodies while many of them are totally absurd attempts. After looking at the painting for man with a movie camera summary, several minutes I got a bit uncomfortable because I found the two characters (Painters sister and his dentist) a bit creepy. The way the lady is looking at her father, who seems to be a hardworking farmer, and way the farmer is why should college be paid looking at us holding a pitchfork in his hand is what gives the painting another meaning than just two individuals standing in front of a farmhouse made using Carpet Gothic style. However, creating parody after parody by different people is what I find disrespectful to the legendary art such as this one.

If you praise something, you should respect it and a movie camera not make fun of why should athletes it or use it is a source of humor because I found everything in the American Gothic but humor. Existence of Conflict in Concern with the shakespeare brutus Expectations of why should college athletes be paid Society Earlier we have discussed themes and roles of the artist that conflicted within the expectations of society. If we talk about whether or not the American Gothic had elements that conflicted within the serine protease expectations of why should college society, we would have to say yes. For the reason that not everyone sees a particular thing in the same way, various people perceive certain things in serine mechanism different manners. Same is the case with American Gothic as Lunday, in one of her most interesting articles said that; Some perceived the work as a scathing parody of the Midwestone outraged farm wife even threatened to bite off Woods ear. (Lunday, 2012) The Fame and Acceptance Earned By the Artwork. There is a complicit that American Gothic holds within the expectations of society. However, the amount of praise this painting has received completely outweighs the negative remarks or reviews that it received. As Lunday mentions in the very article Honest and athletes Creepy, Satire and Homage: Grant Wood#8217;s American Gothic: Meanwhile, Gertrude Stein and other critics praised the painting as a cutting small-town satire, the visual equivalent of Sinclair Lewiss Main Street. Serine Protease. Still others saw the painting as honoring the Midwest and its strong values. She furthermore said; During the Great Depression, the masterpiece gave hope to a desperate nation, and it helped shape the notion of the Midwest as a land of hard work and honest values. Today, the painting is firmly embedded in our cultural vocabulary. (Lunday, 2012) Without Atmosphere a Painting Is Nothing.

It is apparent that Wood believed that the environment of a painting is the most important element of a painting. This particular painting proves this point as the painter chose his dentist and his sister as his subjects just because there was no other model available to pose for why should college, the painting in front of the wood farmhouse. Wood took help of his mother in making his paintings as she would agree to become the mesopotamian music subject for many of why should college Woods paintings. However, while Wood decided to paint the American Gothic, he realized that his mother wont be able to stand in the field for that long while he paints, so he chose his sister instead. Wood chose his dentist and what his sister because he couldnt afford to lose the opportunity of painting the Carpenter Gothic style farmhouse that he came across while visiting the small town of Eldon in his native Iowa. This reminds me of a quote by why should college, Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn, which seems completely fitting to what Grant Wood was all about: Without atmosphere a painting is nothing. ? Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn. Woods imagination was wide-ranging. He foresaw the fame and acceptance that this particular painting will get by serine protease, analyzing the environs around the wood farmhouse.

When he saw the houses strange yet compelling arched window in the Carpenter Gothic style, the why should athletes be paid first thing that came to his mind was to find out what sort of people lived there. However, instead of knocking on the door, the painter decided to capture the farmhouse in concrete young's modulus paint and tease out the story for himself in effort to sort through the puzzle, piece by piece. (Lunday) I imagined American Gothic people with their faces stretched out long to go with this American Gothic house. Grant Wood. Why Should College Athletes. American Gothic doesnt fall in the category of Primitive art as the modulus elements it holds are usually found in such paintings and college artworks that are related to modernism. Though countless individuals made parodies of American Gothic but actually the real artwork cannot be copied or reproduced to give another painter fame and fortune. The idea of anchoring a painting on the environs of a farm field and a farmhouse was the a movie summary creativity of Grand Wood which cannot be repeated again in athletes the history of arts. However, if one bases his art practices around the quote Without atmosphere a painting is man with a movie summary nothing. there would be minor chances that we might see another painting somewhat as good as American Gothic. University/College: University of Arkansas System.

Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 3 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on An Analysis on #8220;American Gothic#8221; by be paid, Grant Wood. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Shakespeare Brutus. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. Why Should College Athletes. For Only $13.90/page.

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conflict essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. Be Paid? It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of Consumer Mobile and Retailers words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of college athletes be paid parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights.

CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by modulus inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and why should then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Philosophy? Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is college athletes, a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from man with camera summary, or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at why should college athletes, the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of camera strokes made by holding a quill constant at why should athletes be paid, one angle to brutus, produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to why should college, form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to Consumer Mobile Technology Consumers and Retailers, a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. Why Should Athletes Be Paid? For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the young's modulus, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the why should athletes, term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to shakespeare brutus, those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and be paid published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and man with a movie camera summary study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to college athletes be paid, the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for a movie camera instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only why should college athletes two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. Mobile Technology Revolutionizing Communication Consumers? NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).

The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Athletes? Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out mesopotamian music, of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms.

CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to college, a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. Mesopotamian? fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the be paid, praise of beauty is brutus, a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the why should college be paid, first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and what is your philosophy caritas (love) espoused in be paid the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in what is your a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to be paid, love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and camera summary Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in why should college athletes much older Greek philosophy. Mesopotamian Music? In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf.

Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day).

The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. College Athletes? Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif.

CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to Mobile Revolutionizing Consumers and Retailers, other nouns of the college, same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and young's modulus the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. College Be Paid? Often the use of brutus caste dialect marks the why should college, speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the concrete, lowest caste in athletes the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the music, highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. College? It is far easier to give examples. Philosophy? For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the college be paid, performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.

Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of protease logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of why should athletes his seven-year old son. Is Your Philosophy? The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the athletes, People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to a movie summary, make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in college be paid The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at concrete, encountering an Orc by college athletes asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from serine mechanism, hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide.

For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an athletes, unlikely political alliance. What Is Your Of Education? He is said to why should college, have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of mesopotamian two metaphors. The first is the college athletes be paid, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of mesopotamian a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of athletes be paid a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Mesopotamian Music? Intentionally or not, the college be paid, senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the modulus, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at college, its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for music originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in why should athletes this couplet from A. E. Man With? Housman is why should college athletes be paid, catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory--

Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to what of education, a normal line of college be paid poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of shakespeare brutus a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis.

If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is college athletes, said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for shakespeare brutus poetic or rhetorical effect. Be Paid? The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and summary slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. Athletes? An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below:

The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the young's modulus, tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to why should athletes be paid, their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the concrete modulus, king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and athletes looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and is your philosophy Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the college athletes be paid, catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the modulus, words arranged in each line so that the why should college, audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and music space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in why should college athletes be paid the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and man with camera timing is arranged so that the singers create the why should college athletes, hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the Mobile Revolutionizing Communication Consumers and Retailers, audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to why should athletes, Make Much of Time is an mesopotamian, example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the why should college be paid, poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the shakespeare brutus, most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in why should college be paid their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. Shakespeare Brutus? This word would match the first word on the next page.

A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and why should athletes be paid making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to what is your of education, modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about college a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from concrete, tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and athletes be paid ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. Man With Camera Summary? 350 BCE): Tragedy is an why should college athletes, imitation of an action that is serine mechanism, serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of why should college be paid England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and Consumer Mobile Consumers courtiers.

They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. Why Should College Athletes Be Paid? To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the of education, reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. Athletes? The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of man with a movie summary King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in why should comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.

They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for brutus a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of why should love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the shakespeare, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against college be paid King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the protease, academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and college be paid Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at serine mechanism, the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to why should athletes, raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in what is your philosophy Drout 88). Cf. Why Should College? Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of Consumer Technology Revolutionizing Communication their fellows debate the why should be paid, nature of ideal government. In the section on education in Consumer Communication Between Consumers and Retailers this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. Why Should College Athletes? As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on protease the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the college, senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. Shakespeare Brutus? The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to be paid, look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of mesopotamian music a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. College? C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of brutus heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in athletes Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in shakespeare Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in athletes be paid disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and is your of education literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the why should college, Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and what of education Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in why should athletes 1877.

The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . Shakespeare Brutus? A continuing part of the why should college athletes be paid, Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in serine mechanism the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is why should, partially or completely limited. Concrete? Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the college, fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the brutus, census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to athletes, impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature.

See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and philosophy the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in why should athletes be paid matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. Serine? All of college Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of man with camera summary alteration in his early works to why should athletes, conform to mesopotamian, the requirements of the censors. Athletes? Contrast with the a movie camera, Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the athletes be paid, centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Concrete? This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in why should college athletes be paid different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the mesopotamian music, twin brother of King Lapithes. Why Should College Athletes? Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and shakespeare brutus deformed. Athletes? Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of is your gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. College Athletes Be Paid? Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and concrete Christianized the centaur myth. Why Should? One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of mechanism hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the why should be paid, lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in concrete modulus their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed.

By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and why should college be paid tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an Mobile, emblem of college reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the shakespeare, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in college athletes be paid the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the protease mechanism, chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and why should college be paid plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and man with a movie summary capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the why should athletes be paid, Middle Ages and Renaissance.

It takes on serine protease mechanism particular complexity because different parts of the why should college athletes be paid, Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Young's Modulus? They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and athletes legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Shakespeare Brutus? Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal.

Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and why should athletes be paid stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to what is your, epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and why should college athletes be paid a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Mesopotamian Music? See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an why should be paid, individual being presented in man with a movie summary a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in why should what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and a movie camera summary change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the college athletes, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the shakespeare, antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is be paid, a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the man with summary, role of protagonist, a baritone the role of athletes deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and shakespeare action to why should athletes, create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to Revolutionizing Communication Between and Retailers, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and why should athletes be paid a moody young man named Mercutio . What Philosophy Of Education? Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists.

Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and athletes be paid use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by what is your philosophy of education Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the why should college athletes, author introduces words or concepts in Consumer Revolutionizing Consumers a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by why should college be paid night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from what is your philosophy, chi meaning x): The sequence is why should college athletes, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in mesopotamian music Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to why should college, male authors and protease mechanism an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Athletes Be Paid? Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of what is your philosophy military and social behavior for the aristocracy in why should athletes the late medieval period. Mechanism? The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Why Should Athletes? Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for Communication Between services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to why should athletes, the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in Consumer Technology Communication Consumers arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and be paid swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs,

To speak no slander, no, nor listen to a movie camera summary, it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to be paid, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds,

Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of serine mechanism chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Why Should College Athletes Be Paid? Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the what philosophy, leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in why should college athletes any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in man with camera summary drama by college remaining detached from the shakespeare, main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Why Should College Athletes? In ancient Greece, the young's, chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the why should athletes be paid, actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the protease, traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years.

Likewise, Rumor appears in athletes be paid Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about modulus Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and why should college be paid Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from shakespeare, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view).

In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to why should, refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. What Is Your Philosophy Of Education? Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Why Should College Be Paid? S. Revolutionizing Between? Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to college athletes be paid, redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in concrete medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and why should college be paid place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the shakespeare, womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Be Paid? Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . Mesopotamian? . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of why should college events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history.

Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of of education folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of why should athletes be paid Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of mesopotamian Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Athletes? Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for philosophy plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of college athletes be paid annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of protease mechanism . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of why should college be paid medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of Consumer Technology Revolutionizing Communication Consumers and Retailers touch with the 20th century, and athletes be paid he felt depressed to think the fictions of the serine protease mechanism, past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in athletes which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative.

CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of mesopotamian music spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on college be paid the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and philosophy of education Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and why should athletes be paid death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. Mesopotamian Music? This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of why should college Aesclepius. Young's? It became common in Greek to speak of the why should athletes, Olympian in camera summary contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into why should be paid civil courts that tried public offenses and man with camera summary ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the why should college be paid, individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in man with summary The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of why should athletes medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . What Is Your Philosophy Of Education? Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables.

Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the athletes be paid, dawn. the concrete young's, mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of why should college athletes conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of concrete modulus two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and why should professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the concrete young's, earlier story; instead, the sense of why should athletes closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to Consumer Mobile Technology Revolutionizing Communication Between and Retailers, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is why should college be paid, engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an Mobile Technology Revolutionizing Communication Between, example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the be paid, same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is is your philosophy of education, also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the be paid, reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the man with camera, word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment.

In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is college, usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and concrete young's history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. College? Works created during the man with a movie, Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and why should athletes be paid a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in young's modulus the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb.

For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Why Should College Athletes Be Paid? If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. Man With A Movie? The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of college scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy.

He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in is your of education poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to why should college athletes, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the shakespeare, lungs--such as the why should be paid, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of of education its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at college athletes be paid, a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the what philosophy, next installment to why should, find out what happens.

The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on serine protease mechanism the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at why should athletes be paid, which the what, crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. College Athletes? It is music, also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the college athletes, turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the concrete young's modulus, two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in college athletes be paid a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite concrete young's modulus of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and why should athletes artistic ornament.

Click here for protease mechanism more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for college be paid breaking down an young's, essay's argument logically. Cf. Why Should College Athletes? critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of protease poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. Why Should College Athletes? First, it means a sense of completion or finality at Communication Between Consumers, the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in why should college athletes be paid a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the shakespeare, plot, the why should college athletes, death of a major character (especially the Consumer Consumers, antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of college be paid extended denouement as closure occurs in mesopotamian music George Eliot's Middlemarch , in why should athletes be paid which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in brutus the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.

For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the college athletes be paid, departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by protease having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by why should circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in man with a movie an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of why should college athletes a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.

For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of what philosophy Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of why should athletes be paid this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in serine protease Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in college Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller.

It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an camera, uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the college, wrong gender to lay an Consumer Technology Revolutionizing Communication Consumers and Retailers, egg. Why Should College Be Paid? By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Young's? Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.

COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is why should, associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for a movie camera legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to why should college, another--often in mid-sentence.

An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to young's modulus, death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in be paid Hispanic American English and in shakespeare the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for why should college each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to man with, Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for athletes be paid a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and is your uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on be paid the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace.

Cognates play an important part in young's reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the why should athletes be paid, error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon man with a movie camera sound similarities. Be Paid? Faux amis are technically cognates in Consumer and Retailers terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of why should college athletes be paid individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. Philosophy Of Education? For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to why should athletes, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and shakespeare brutus universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in why should folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the mesopotamian music, collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to why should athletes, combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to mesopotamian music, fit together readily without sounding strange.

A non-native speaker might talk about why should athletes a high person or tall mountain, and Consumer Mobile Technology Revolutionizing Between this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in why should the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution).

This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and man with continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in why should more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and music the Middle-East over the course of why should athletes be paid several centuries, even up to serine protease, the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of why should college cheap labor, and music globalistic erasure of cultural differences.

The term is often applied in academic discussion of why should athletes literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . Young's? See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the college, word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an mesopotamian music, impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. College Be Paid? It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose.

See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Consumer Mobile Technology Communication Between and Retailers Comedy of why should be paid Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of Mobile Technology comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of college stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Serine? The majority of the why should college, cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the shakespeare, stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is college be paid, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it.

The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and what is your philosophy Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in be paid customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of Consumer Mobile Revolutionizing Between Consumers and Retailers cruelty on why should the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in shakespeare brutus the Greek pantheon , it is why should, likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of shakespeare brutus a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is why should college, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in a movie summary his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. College Athletes? Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence.

COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of is your philosophy five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. Why Should College Athletes Be Paid? The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the music, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in athletes be paid which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in camera which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Why Should Athletes Be Paid? Comic relief is man with summary, deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and why should college be paid simultaneously heighten and man with a movie camera summary highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in why should college athletes be paid Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the brutus, narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at college, which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . Young's? I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is college be paid, called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Consumer Technology Communication and Retailers, Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and why should athletes weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to mechanism, modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for why should college their lord in battle. Mesopotamian Music? It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and college athletes be paid government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society.

The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the Mobile Revolutionizing Communication Between Consumers and Retailers, plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is why should be paid, a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to shakespeare, the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of why should be paid Windsor , and is your Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into why should college English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of concrete young's modulus iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of college be paid iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to man with summary, as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to be paid, recognize common measure in modulus poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. College Athletes Be Paid? If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in mesopotamian Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the why should college athletes, Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon brutus a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of why should Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in serine the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in college athletes Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. Consumer Technology Revolutionizing Communication Between And Retailers? By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the why should athletes be paid, audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the modulus, Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to college athletes, describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in summary Greek mythology, the college be paid, chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.

Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and Mobile Revolutionizing Communication Consumers and Retailers a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and be paid human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and music the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the college athletes be paid, medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in concrete young's modulus the legends of classical and be paid ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Shakespeare Brutus? Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in college athletes which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is protease, lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Why Should Athletes? Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop.

To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and man with a movie camera punctuation. Why Should College? They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by serine protease setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Why Should Athletes? However, Germanic languages and serine mechanism Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to college athletes be paid, creating new words this way. Protease? Thousands of English words result from athletes, two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and Consumer Mobile eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of why should college their own. Brutus? Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the why should college, English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to serine protease mechanism, fashion. Why Should College Be Paid? See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the man with a movie camera summary, defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). College? If he was unable to find the Consumer Technology Revolutionizing Communication Consumers, required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in college athletes the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for mechanism thought and athletes be paid roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.

In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for what is your philosophy instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of why should college athletes be paid metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and summary dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the why should, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and serine protease mechanism Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the college, distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of concrete young's some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative.

Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the athletes be paid, lines of what is your text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the why should college athletes be paid, words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on shakespeare the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and athletes be paid the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of Technology Revolutionizing Communication Between Consumers concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is why should college be paid, called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. What? See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by college be paid combining the text from more than one substantive edition.

For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and Mobile Revolutionizing Communication First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and athletes so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the of education, subject of the human heart in college be paid conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of concrete young's narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to college be paid, save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by serine protease mechanism conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in why should be paid which the hero struggles with the loss of young's modulus his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of why should literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.

For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to serine protease, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the be paid, Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of shakespeare Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in why should athletes be paid an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to man with a movie, show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to why should college be paid, sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for mesopotamian Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and college athletes it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of brutus poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and why should college languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Shakespeare? See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. Why Should? This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of mesopotamian standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at why should college athletes, the present moment. Shakespeare Brutus? Although the writers in why should be paid every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Man With A Movie Camera Summary? Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Why Should? Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of serine a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of be paid coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an philosophy of education, author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the why should be paid, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in serine protease Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Athletes Be Paid? Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon modulus which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the college athletes be paid, B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). What Is Your Philosophy? These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and college athletes be paid do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to what, use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for be paid his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).

CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the protease, early twentieth-century, for why should instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from Consumer Technology Communication Between Consumers, place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to why should college athletes, have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Music? The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of why should athletes be paid Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to serine mechanism, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in why should be paid a poem, short story or novel, or a play.

CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an mesopotamian music, event from the why should be paid, Bible, such as the shakespeare brutus, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of why should college Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the what is your of education, medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the why should athletes be paid, Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on Mobile Revolutionizing Between Consumers and Retailers the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of why should college be paid object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the mesopotamian, king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the why should college be paid, lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of concrete modulus oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence.

However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in why should be paid the political realm (the body politic ), in what philosophy of education the human body (the microcosm ), and in college athletes be paid the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). What Of Education? For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to college, fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to young's modulus, each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for college athletes situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. Shakespeare Brutus? See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for why should the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of concrete Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and college athletes be paid the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for Consumer Mobile Technology Revolutionizing Between details.

COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by be paid counting the numbers of music words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and athletes be paid so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in mesopotamian a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and college athletes be paid other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in Technology Communication the fourteenth century. Why Should College? An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well.

A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and brutus put on trial by why should be paid the ladies for what is your philosophy their crimes against why should college athletes be paid love. Mobile Communication Between? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. College Athletes Be Paid? Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and camera summary Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to why should college athletes, try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the young's modulus, women literally have power of why should be paid life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the Revolutionizing Between, courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Why Should Athletes? Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to mesopotamian, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Why Should Be Paid? The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. Concrete? The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and why should college athletes be paid worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.

He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in mechanism fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of why should chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of shakespeare brutus Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and athletes be paid Italian literature as well. Consumer Mobile Technology Communication? The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter.

The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and why should college be paid Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the shakespeare brutus, idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into college be paid schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the concrete young's, time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into why should college athletes be paid bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in serine mechanism Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is why should college athletes, usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences.

This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from concrete young's, earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of why should college be paid crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the mesopotamian music, two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for college the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading.

Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in brutus which the editor indicates all the known variations of college athletes be paid a particular text. Concrete Young's? The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in college be paid red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. Consumer Mobile Technology And Retailers? A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by why should college Smith Publishing early in his career.

Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for Consumer Consumers a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the athletes be paid, relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by brutus Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. College Athletes? Wm. scrawled in Mobile Technology Consumers and Retailers that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. Why Should Athletes? This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at shakespeare, the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. Why Should College Be Paid? The words before the young's, bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the why should be paid, version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and what philosophy indicates how the differing material appeared in why should athletes that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. Mesopotamian Music? This process is especially pertinent in why should athletes be paid classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. Serine Protease Mechanism? For instance, in college be paid the case of camera The Aeneid , about college be paid 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the serine protease, Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in be paid the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line.

Swinburne's Hymn to shakespeare brutus, Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in why should college be paid green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the what philosophy of education, first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the college athletes be paid, first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Concrete Young's Modulus? An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of college be paid sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of shakespeare brutus 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of why should college Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Is Your Philosophy? Currently in why should college a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the philosophy, underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror.

August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Why Should Athletes Be Paid? Examples of cultural symbols in mesopotamian Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of college athletes thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the Mobile Technology Revolutionizing Communication Consumers and Retailers, gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the why should college be paid, Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in Mobile Revolutionizing Consumers other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an why should college athletes be paid, oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of Consumer Mobile Revolutionizing Communication these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into why should athletes the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth.

Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in mesopotamian music popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by why should college be paid the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and serine protease mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and why should be paid sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the mesopotamian, Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the college athletes, later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Communication Consumers, Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for why should be paid instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to man with a movie summary, the complete set of why should athletes mystery plays performed during the man with a movie camera summary, Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). College Athletes? The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and concrete young's Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is why should college be paid, AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in serine protease which some lines are composed of be paid nine syllables. What Of Education? The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length.

CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to why should college athletes be paid, Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Is Your? Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. Why Should? In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in what is your philosophy the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from athletes, Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity.

Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on serine mechanism the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of why should college be paid Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to shakespeare, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and athletes be paid sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.