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Personal values, belief and auteur directors, attitudes Essay Sample. As human beings, we all have our own values, beliefs and attitudes that we have developed throughout the course of our lives. Our family, friends, community and the experiences we have had all contribute to our sense of who we are and Essay Importance of Agriculture, how we view the world. As community services workers, we are often working with people who are vulnerable and/or who may live a lifestyle that mainstream society views as being different or unacceptable. Auteur. If, as community services workers, we are to provide a service that meets the needs of Mean? Essay, our target groups and auteur directors, helps them to feel empowered, we need to be aware of scientific examples, our own personal values, beliefs and attitudes and be prepared to adopt the directors professional values of our industry—and not impose our own ideas on our clients. What are values? Values are principles, standards or qualities that an individual or group of people hold in high regard. These values guide the What Does Essay way we live our lives and the decisions we make. A value may be defined as something that we hold dear, those things/qualities which we consider to be of worth.
A ‘value’ is commonly formed by a particular belief that is related to the worth of an idea or type of behaviour. Auteur. Some people may see great value in saving the world’s rainforests. However a person who relies on the logging of a forest for their job may not place the same value on the forest as a person who wants to literary save it. Values can influence many of the judgments we make as well as have an impact on the support we give clients. Auteur. It is important that we do not influence client’s decisions based on a Constitutional, our values. Auteur. We should always work from the basis of supporting the client’s values.
Activity: What are some of my values? 1.Manners—are they old fashioned? Do they hold a high or low value in your life? 2.Pride—are there things you need to be proud of? Do you value pride or do you value humility? 3.Clothes—how important are clothes at work? At play? 4.Behaviour on the sports field—what behaviours do you value? Sportsmanship? Winning? Team spirit?
Individuality? 5.Family life? What do you value about family life? Write down some of the values you hold in tanah pamah, these areas. Talk to friends and auteur, family members. Ask them these same questions. Does Right Mean?. Do the answers differ? Where do values come from? Our values come from a variety of sources.
Some of these include: •peers (social influences) •the workplace (work ethics, job roles) •educational institutions such as schools or TAFE. •significant life events (death, divorce, losing jobs, major accident and trauma, major health issues, significant financial losses and so on) •major historical events (world wars, economic depressions, etc). Dominant values are those that are widely shared amongst a group, community or culture. Directors. They are passed on of Agriculture, through sources such as the auteur directors media, institutions, religious organisations or family, but remember what is considered dominant in one culture or society will vary to the next. Using the sources listed above, some of your values could be: •family—caring for each other, family comes first •peers—importance of What a Constitutional Right Essay, friendship, importance of doing things that peers approve of •workplace—doing your job properly; approving/disapproving of ‘foreign orders’ (doing home-related activities in work time or using work resources for auteur home related activities) •educational institutions—the valuing or otherwise of learning; value of self in relation to an ability to learn (this often depends on on Caravaggio, personal experience of directors, schooling, whether positive or negative) •significant life events—death of loved ones and scientific essay, the impact on what we value as being important; marriage and the importance and role of marriage and children; separation and divorce and the value change that may be associated with this (valuing of self or otherwise) •religion—beliefs about ‘right and wrong’ and auteur directors, beliefs in gods •media—the impact of My Kitchen, Essay, TV, movies, radio, the Internet and auteur, advertising on what is important in our lives, what is valued and not valued •music—music often reflects what is occurring in society, people’s response to things such as love and relationships which may then influence the What Does development of our values •technology—the importance of technology or otherwise; the auteur importance of computers and Essay, developing computer skills •culture—a cultural value such as the importance of directors, individuality as opposed to conforming to Essay groups •major historical events—not wasting anything, saving for times of draught, valuing human life, patriotic values. It is important that you develop an directors, awareness of what you value, as these values will be important in informing your relationships with clients, co–workers and employers.
The following is on Caravaggio, a list of common dominant values in Australian society. Tick the values that apply to you and then select the ten most important values you ticked and rank them. (1 = most important, 10 = least important) Click here for the list (.doc 12 KB) Did you learn something about directors, yourself that you didn’t expect? What is important here is your ability to halangan pamah be able to identify the values that are. important to you.
It is important to be conscious of our values. This knowledge helps us to: •ask ourselves why we are doing what we are doing. •identify the consequences of our actions for ourselves and others (including clients and co-workers) •consider other and better options if necessary. It is important to not only have a knowledge of your value system, but to understand that your values underpin your beliefs and beliefs underpin behaviour. How we behave is a reflection of our beliefs and our beliefs are a reflection of auteur directors, our values. Exploring your values. We are all influenced in varying degrees by on Caravaggio, the values of our family, culture, religion, education and social group. Knowing your own values can help you work effectively with clients, resolve conflicts and support the organisation’s philosophy of care appropriately. Wherever our values come from directors they make us the unique person we are today!
Answer the following and then think about what it tells you about halangan, yourself, where your values have come from and how people with different backgrounds and life experiences would answer these questions. There are no right or wrong answers—just answer honestly and be willing to explore and reflect upon your own values. •With what race do I identify? •Do I know people from a different race to me? •Do I believe people from auteur directors different races should live together? •What would life be like if my skin colour was different?
•What do I think about marriages and relationships between people from different races? •How many friends do I have from the opposite sex? •If I was a different gender how might life be different? •What is my religion? Do I believe in it? •What is my family’s religion? •Are most people in my community from this religion? •How does my religion influence my life? •What culture do I identify with?
•What do I like and dislike about halangan tanah, my culture and traditions? •What other cultures interest me? Do I like learning about them? Why? •What is my first language? •What other languages do I speak?
•Who should decide what language people should speak? •What political party do I support? Why? •Do I believe in directors, the death penalty? Why? •What are my views on abortion? Why? •What are my views on homosexuality? Why? •What are my views about illegal drugs? Why?
•What are my view about voluntary euthanasia? Why? Reflect on your answers about where your values have come from. 1.What did this activity tell you about your values? 2.Can you identify some other factors/significant life experiences that have contributed in Essay on Caravaggio, shaping your values?
3.Why have you decided to become a worker in the CSI? 4.How do you think your values will guide your actions as a worker in auteur, the CSI? The aim of this activity is to make you aware of issues that could arise in the workplace and My Sanctuary, the differing values workers can have. Directors. There are no right or wrong answers, so when completing this activity try to be as honest as you can. Read the following scenarios and frankenstein literary devices, rate your reactions by ticking the box which best defines your reaction.
Stan and auteur, Russell have become good friends in the residential care facility. They enjoy each other’s company and like to essay read pornographic magazines together. Stan usually buys the auteur magazines, but one month Stan did not come into the hostel for care as he usually did. Russell wanted some new pornos to read so he asked Penny the pamah care worker to buy him some magazines. She agreed and brought some for him. What do you think about Penny doing this for Russell? I think this is auteur directors, not okay. I think this is Essay, okay. Wayne is a 49 year old volunteer at an aged care home.
He is an directors, Anglo-Australian, with a disability. He works with Anh, the recreation officer. She Vietnamese and frankenstein, is 20 years old. Wayne and Anh have been going out together and Wayne has told Anh that he loves her. Auteur Directors. How do you feel about Anh and Wayne being partners? Rate your feeling according to their ages: I think this is What Does a Constitutional Right, not okay. I think this is directors, okay. Rate your feeling according to My Kitchen, Essay their cultural backgrounds: I think this is okay.
I think this is auteur directors, not okay. Rate your feeling according to the fact they work together: I think this is not okay. I think this is okay. Dawn is a 50 year old woman with Downs Syndrome, and is a resident at a residential aged care facility. Does Mean? Essay. She masturbates in auteur, the common lounge area at the facility. She needs to scientific essay examples be shown a private place to do this and it is your role to take her to a private room, next time she is masturbating. How do you feel about auteur directors, this? Rate your response according to the factor of Dawn masturbating:
I think this is okay. I think this is not okay. Rate your response according to the factor of your role as a worker assisting her in this situation. I think this is okay. I think this is not okay. This activity was useful in helping you identify some strong beliefs you hold. It is good for scientific essay examples you to be able to reflect on these and auteur directors, think how they might impact on Essay Importance, your role as a care worker. For example, if you think that all older people and people with disabilities have a right to auteur express their sexuality, regardless of the way they choose do that, you will want to ensure their privacy and dignity is respected.
Remember, clients have a right to receive a professional service regardless of the attitudes, beliefs and values they hold. After answering the questions, you might find it useful to revisit your answers and identify where your attitudes have come from. This will help in What a Constitutional Mean?, preventing your personal attitudes from impacting on the way you work with clients. What is a belief? Beliefs come from real experiences but often we forget that the original experience is not the same as what is directors, happening in life now. Our values and beliefs affect the quality of My Kitchen, My Sanctuary Essay, our work and all our relationships because what you believe is auteur, what you experience. Scientific Essay. We tend to think that our beliefs are based on reality, but it is our beliefs that govern our experiences. The beliefs that we hold are an directors, important part of our identity. They may be religious, cultural or moral.
Beliefs are precious because they reflect who we are and how we live our lives. As a care worker in the community services industry, the pre-existing beliefs you may have could be related to stereotypes that have developed for you around issues like sexuality, alcohol and other drugs, ageing and disabilities, independence, health, the rights of people, your idea of health and what it’s like to halangan tanah be older and/or disabled. These stereotypes could affect the way you interact and work with clients. This is because you have assumptions about what your clients can and can’t do for themselves, the way they should think about issues and what is best for them. If you make assumptions as a worker then you are denying clients their rights, respect and dignity. As a worker this would be regarded as a breach in your duty of care towards clients. The need for older people and people with disabilities to express their sexuality does not necessarily diminish over time.
The desire for intimacy can in fact intensify. The development of new relationships may occur as a result of living in a residential care setting or as people’s social networks change over time. Auteur. The right to halangan tanah express sexuality is a quality of life issue and is part of one’s self-identity. The way people choose to express their sexuality may change over time in a variety of ways. Intimate relationships enhance a person’s quality of life and contribute to their feelings of well being. As a care worker it is important to auteur respect a person’s right to express their sexuality in a way which is appropriate for them.
What is an Essay, attitude? The word ‘attitude’ can refer to a lasting group of feelings, beliefs and behaviour tendencies directed towards specific people, groups, ideas or. An attitude is a belief about something. It usually describes what we think is the ‘proper’ way of doing something. The attitudes that we feel very strongly about are usually called values. Other attitudes are not so important and are more like opinions. Sometimes our own attitudes can make us blind to other people’s values, opinions and needs. Attitudes will always have a positive and negative element and directors, when you hold an attitude you will have a tendency to behave in a certain way toward that person or object.
You will need to be aware of your own personal values, beliefs and Right Mean? Essay, attitudes and how they might impact on your work. It is important to consider the mapping of your own life – what have been some significant events that have shaped you, what qualities you admire in yourself and others, what beliefs are important to you, what you value and auteur directors, so on. Some examples of these may be personal features such as strength of character, helping people, respect, honesty, wealth, success, health etc. What we believe are important qualities, or what qualities we admire in ourselves and others, generally reflect our life experiences and the values which we established in our early years through the influence of family, teachers, friends, religion, our culture, our education. Given that all of us have differences which have been shaped by our life experiences, we can understand that we will all have different sets of Does Right, values and directors, beliefs. We do not all think about issues in the same way! To work effectively it is critical to understand your own values and beliefs and to understand the importance of not allowing them to affect the What a Constitutional Mean? Essay way in which you work with clients. Directors. Remember they are your values and may be quite different to the values held by your clients.
In order to remain professional it is necessary to leave your personal values out of the client/worker relationship. This means that it is important that you allow clients to Essay Importance make decisions based on their own values and beliefs rather than decisions that reflect what you think they should do. When we are carrying out auteur our daily duties at pamah work we rarely think about our attitudes, we are immersed in auteur, work itself and often remain unaware of just how different our attitudes could be to others around us. As previously defined an attitude is simply a belief, and describes what we think is the proper way of doing or thinking about something. Attitudes vary in essay, intensity. When we feel strongly about something attitudes are called values. Attitudes that are less important to auteur directors us are called opinions. For example we may feel strongly that older people should give up their jobs when they reach a certain age, so that younger people can get work. Strong attitudes are often very emotional and can cloud our judgement in meeting other people’s needs. My Sanctuary Essay. This means that some people or clients may be denied their rights to be allowed to make their own choices and decisions about their life.
The influence of attitudes. Our attitudes develop over time and auteur, not only reflect where we have come from i.e. the influence family, friends and frankenstein literary devices, experiences have had on directors, our attitudes, but also how we will proceed with our life in My Kitchen, My Sanctuary, the future. Directors. Attitudes are therefore a powerful element in our life, are long enduring and hard to frankenstein literary change—but not impossible! The problem with attitudes. One of the problems with our attitudes is we often ignore any information which is not consistent with them—we become selective in the way we perceive and respond to auteur events and issues—and lose our ‘objectivity’ about the world. By developing insights about our attitudes we reduce the risk of making decisions at work based on our unconscious, pre-existing perceptions, allowing us work more professionally with clients. Awareness of personal attitudes. It is good practice to think about your attitudes and beliefs: it helps you to understand yourself better. A Constitutional Right Mean?. It is beneficial to reflect on your life, identify some of the auteur directors significant events that have shaped you, consider what qualities you admire in halangan, yourself and others and be mindful of auteur directors, what values and are important to you. Your identity has shaped the person you are today! Here is a checklist that will help you assess how your identity has developed. (.doc 25 kB)
The exercise you have just completed will have given you some sense of where your own identity has come from. Think about this as you answer the following questions. 1.From the values you chose above, list the Importance ones that would apply to your role as a care worker. 2.Why is auteur directors, it important for community services workers to have a sense of their own identity and where it has come from? 3.What issues can you identify for frankenstein literary devices yourself in having to work with people and clients who have grown up differently form you, have a different identity and therefore different beliefs? Taking into account personal values and beliefs. One of the directors responsibilities of literary, workers is auteur directors, that we do not impose our own values and beliefs on the people we work with. That is, that we don’t provide options and services based on what we feel is right, but that we work with people in relation to halangan pamah what is right for them. We should always remember that it is their life and only they should make decisions about how they should live their life. If you try to impose your own moral values on clients, you are likely to make them feel judged and to damage their self-worth.
Moreover, they are likely to reject you and to auteur reject your values too. If you are able to accept your clients, with whatever values they have, you may well find that as time passes they move closer to halangan tanah pamah you in their beliefs. This is inevitable because we are, whether we like it or not, models for our clients and we have a responsibility to be good models. Regardless of who the client is, and regardless of his or her behaviour, he or she deserves to be treated as a human being of worth. Auteur. If you respect your clients, they will, through feeling valued, be given the What Does a Constitutional optimum conditions in which to maximise their potential as individuals.
It is essential that you are aware of your own values and beliefs so that you do not impose them (deliberately or unintentionally) on the people you are working with. In order to leave your personal values out of the auteur client/worker relationship, you need to halangan tanah pamah aware of the auteur impact they may have when you come across clients that do not behave in ways that you agree with—that is, clients who have different values and beliefs to you. You may find that with such clients you become judgemental or notice that you are encouraging clients to scientific make a decision that reflects what you think they should do (based on your values and beliefs) rather than working with the client to come up with their own ideas about how to resolve the issue. That is why it is so important to have ethical standards, so that we are operating by a professional set of guidelines, not what we personally think is right or wrong. Activity: Professional values. What would you consider to be the values and attitudes that are critical for someone who works in the community services industry? Respecting the beliefs, attitudes and values of others. Everyone is entitled to their own values, attitudes and beliefs. It is important to accept and respect that other people may well have different attitudes, values and beliefs than you. We do not have the auteur directors right to expect that others change their values, attitudes and beliefs just because they are different to Does Right ours. It is quite possible that you may face situations at work that either challenge or compromise your own values, attitudes or beliefs when working to support people with a disability.
It is not always easy to avoid communicating your beliefs and directors, values to clients, but it is something you need to be very aware of. Halangan Tanah Pamah. It can be very easy to influence clients in subtle ways. Simple things like body language, gestures, the auteur way you say something, or even actions, can give a client the tanah impression you agree or disagree with their values or beliefs. A disability support worker, Sally, was assisting Harry, a client, to decide what movie he was going to auteur see on Essay on Caravaggio, the weekend. Harry loved horror films. Sally hated them. During the conversation Sally shook her head every time Harry pointed to a horror film in the paper. In the end Harry decided to go and auteur, see a comedy. Mean?. Even though Sally did not directly say that she disapproved of Harry’s movie choice, when she shook her head she indicated that she did not approve of Harry’s choice. The support you give to clients should be, as much as possible, in line with their values, attitudes and beliefs, while also in line with your community services organisation and directors, the law. Impact of devices, values and philosophies on service provision.
The way that the above values and philosophies are acted upon in services affects the quality of the service provided to clients. The more these values are promoted and reflected in the way the service operates, the more positive the experience for the client. Activity: Identifying the impact of values and auteur, philosophies on service provision. Phong is a 29 year old Vietnamese man who was injured in on The, a serious car accident eight months ago and sustained a brain injury. Directors. This means that he has great difficulty with his short-term memory and with organising his thoughts. He also needs to What Does Right Essay use a wheelchair because of a neck injury.
Phong is now living back at home with his family. Most of his friends don’t come around anymore and directors, Phong hardly gets out. He is unable to return to work as a mechanic. Phong has been referred to a community access program, designed to examples help him deal with his brain injury and directors, integrate back into the community. Is this the perfect essay for you?
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Nov 16, 2017 Auteur directors,
essay on diglossia Psichari (1928) - In what is auteur perhaps the earliest use of diglossia, this writer refers to the situation of Greek at the end of the 19th century, describing Greece as a country that doesn#146;t want its language. This observation refers to the fact that while Dimotiki (popular language, people#146;s language) is used as the everyday medium of communication, Katharévusa (pure language) is used for writing, and My Kitchen, Essay reflects Classical Greek more than the popular form. Marçais (1930) - This writer described the situation in the Arabic world in the thirties, when the auteur directors, gulf between spoken Arabic dialects and tanah the classical standard was particularly large. Since then, a third version of Arabic has arisen to serve as the standard for use in public discourse.
Ferguson (1959) - This linguist was responsible for publicizing the term in a famous 1959 Word article. Swiss German, Haitian Creole. Fishman (1967) - The widespread nature of Paraguayan bilingualism caused Fishman to hypothesize that diglossia could occur in directors any situation where two language varieties, even unrelated ones, are used in functionally distinct ways. Ferguson's definition - the side-by-side existence of literary devices two structurally and historically related language varieties (a High variety and auteur a Low variety, referred to as H and L) throughout a community, each of a Constitutional Mean? which has a distinct role to play (examples found in Greece, Egypt, Haiti, and Switzerland) Function - H is the more elegant, formal variety. L is used for less politically important functions. Prestige - Attitudes toward H are more positive than towards L. Directors. H is the prestigious variety and essay L is the stigmatized variety. Literary Heritage - H is associated with a long literary tradition.
H is always used in writing. L fulfills few written functions. Auteur. It may be found in frankenstein literary cartoons or in the speech of characters in auteur directors novels. Acquisition - L is always acquired as a first language. H is on The Importance always learned in a formal, educational setting. Standardization - Dictionaries and grammars document the form of H. L usually has no such support. Stability - Diglossia is a long-lived phenomenon.
Latin-Spanish diglossia survived from approximately 700 to the end of the first millenium. H and auteur L borrow from one another, although L forms are shunned when using H. Grammar - The morphology of L is often simpler than that of H. Essay. Cases and auteur verb inflections are reduced; from African-American vernacular, fifty cent instead of fifty cents. Lexicon - A striking feature of diglossia is the existence of paired lexical items, where L and H have different terms for the same object; from Paraguayan Guaraní, silla instead of apyka (chair) Phonology - H preserves the underlying phonological system, and L diverges from it, typically having evolved away from the classical form over many hundreds of years; from Vulgar Latin, specla instead of specula (mirror) Everyone in a community knows both H and L, which are functionally differentiated. On The Importance. (Haiti)
An unstable, transitional situation in which everyone in a community knows both H and L, but are shifting to H. (German-speaking Belgium) Speakers of H rule over speakers of L (colonial Paraguay. A completely egalitarian speech community, where there is no language variation. (Humanity before the Tower of Babel) Hudson (1990) has pointed out that Fishman#146;s reformulation of the concept of diglossia is problematic, because the direction of language evolution in a classic diglossic situation is opposite to that in the case of widespread bilingualism. Ferguson#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ L. The Low variety takes over the outdated High variety; in Greece for example, Katharévusa has been modified over the years to reflect much more closely the vernacular currently in use. The same phenomenon has occurred in directors the Arabic world. Fishman#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ H. The Low variety loses ground to the superposed High variety; in almost all situations of societal bilingualism, the L language loses ground to the H language. The H language is usually spoken by those in economic and political power.
In the United States, some Spanish-speakers reserve their languages for different functions, Spanish in the home and English in public. This is similar to classic diglossia, but over time, Spanish gives way to English. Children end up learning the H variety and leaving the L variety behind. By the fourth generation following immigration, the traditional language is present only in small ways: phrases and a few cultural features are all that remain. Individual Bilingualism - The existence in the mind of an individual of two (native) languages; as Fishman conceives of it, a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Societal Bilingualism - The use in a society of two languages; conceivably, there could be a society in Essay on Caravaggio which two languages are used but where relatively few individuals are actually bilingual; as Fishman conceives of it, a sociolinguistic phenomenon. Stable Bilingualism - The persistence of bilingualism in a society over a period of auteur directors several generations. Although no situation of bilingualism is perfectly stable, Paraguay constitutes one of the most interesting examples of this phenomenon. Over the last nearly 50 years, the relative proportions of monolingualism in Spanish and Guaraní and of Spanish-Guaraní bilingualism have remained essentially unchanged; however, the census figures mask a highly dynamic situation. Intergenerational Language Shift - The successive loss of the traditional language by younger generations.
Typical Pattern of Intergenerational Language Shift in Immigrant Communities: first generation - Immigrants dominant in home language and know host language of scientific essay host country to varying degrees. second generation - Children of immigrants born in or who move to host country before age 16 often fluent bilinguals. third generation - Children of bilinguals may learn traditional language, aspassive bilinguals, understanding only and dominant in the host language. fourth generation - Children of passive bilinguals have no competence in traditional language, except phrases and isolated words. code-switching - changing from one language to another: Sometimes I start a sentence in auteur directors English, y luego termino en espanol. situational switching - a change in topic, person, or place could lead to a switch from one variety to the other. metaphorical switching - a switch from Ranamål to Bokmål in a public setting could have the effect of signalling solidarity between the Essay on The Importance of Agriculture, interlocutors.
code-mixing - speaking in one language, but using pieces from another. Shopper - ?Dónde está el thin-sliced bread? Clerk - Está en aisle three, sobre el second shelf, en el wrapper rojo. style-shifting - variation within a language (changing between Standard English and African-American Vernacular) language borrowing - permanent incorporation of words from one language into the lexicon of another language. Many English words come from auteur directors other languages: domain analysis - Domains of verbal interaction may be defined in part by person, place, social context (situation or level of formality) and topic. Halangan Pamah. Sociologists of auteur language analyze language choice by Does a Constitutional Mean? Essay, domains. Varieties in a diglossic or bilingual situation are functionally differentiated by domain. place - location of conversation (topic); this is probably the most significant defining element of a given domain.
Language choice in bilingual situations (and diglossic situations) changes according to place of auteur directors discourse. Which of the places below would be more likely a setting for use of Right Spanish in the US? person - roles of auteur directors interlocutors in frankenstein literary devices a conversation; these roles tend to directors, be played in certain settings, which in turn are associated with a given language; in a situation of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US, where would the following roles be played, and in what languages would communication occur? context, or level of formality (also referred to as situation) - language choice depends on the social context. Looking at the examples below, you might speculate as to which language, Spanish or English, would be used in a given context in the US.
evening meal (formal, at home) lunchtime chat (informal, in government cafeteria) pillow talk (intimate, at home) introduction (formal, in neighborhood) arraignment (formal, in My Kitchen, Essay court) topic, or subject of conversation - topics tend to be discussed in given circumstances, and in auteur bilingual situations, a given language will be used to discuss a given topic. cost of vegetables. reason for tardiness. whether evidence proves guilt. documentation of deductions. speech accommodation theory - All people have at least a few styles in their linguistic repertoire.
Then they must make choices about which variety to My Kitchen, My Sanctuary Essay, use with a given person in directors a given situation to realize a certain goal. linguistic repertoire - the on Caravaggio, linguistic varieties that an auteur individual has at her or his disposal. speech accommodation - adjustments that one makes to What Right, speech in directors response to the speech of another. convergence - the choice of a language variety to make communication easier, to show solidarity. foreigner talk - use of circumlocutions, paraphrase, concrete words, simplified syntax and morphology, more standard pronunciation, raising one's voice. motherese or baby talk - simplified language designed to halangan, be comprehensible to a child.
divergence - the choice of a language variety meant to make communication more difficult, to show sociocultural distance; a native speaker may speed up, use abstract words or words that are known to be difficult to understand to nonnatives, or lower the volume of auteur directors speech. An example of societal bilingualism (or Fishman-like diglossia) Frisian (summarized in Fasold 1984) Friesland, a province in northeastern Holland, is bilingual: Dutch-Frisian. Frisian is notable for being the closest linguistic cousin of the English language. Population - 550,000 (4% of the Netherlands) Religion - First church service in Frisian held in 1915; first Frisian Bible published in 1943. Frisian 83% speak; 97% understand; 69% read; 11% write. Dutch and Frisian not mutually intelligible. Dutch and Frisian in a situation of halangan tanah Fishman-type diglossia, but with functional leakage . The following data (from Pietersen 1978, reproduced in Fasold 1984)) are from a survey by the Frisian Academy in directors 1969.
At that time, as shown below, 28% of the scientific, leaders surveyed used Frisian at home with the family. Nearly all farmers used Frisian at auteur directors home. All of the groups surveyed reported using more Dutch with notables (ministers and doctors, for example), but even in the more formal context, Frisian is used. The situation is frankenstein certainly not perfectly diglossic, even in Fishman#146;s sense, but the pattern is clearly one that relegates Frisian to more informal situations and Dutch to more formal situations. A hallmark of diglossia, according to auteur, Hudson#146;s interpretation of Ferguson#146;s conceptualization of the essay examples, phenomenon, is that variation in language use depends not on who you are but instead on the social situation in which you find yourself. Auteur Directors. In the bilingual situation in Friesland, who you are certainly does have an Essay on The of Agriculture impact on language use. People of higher social class tend to use Dutch, even in directors the home, whereas people of lower social class tend to use Frisian, even in formal situations. functional leakage - partial overlap of language uses in a diglossic or bilingual situation: in Friesland, leaders use Dutch in literary devices informal situations and farmers use Frisian in formal situations. History of auteur directors Frisian Language Policy. 1907, study of frankenstein literary Frisian allowed outside of auteur directors school. 1937, Frisian allowed as school subject.
1938, Frisian Academy established. 1955, Frisian allowed in the courts (spoken only) 1972, Frisian obligatory in schools, beginning in Essay on The Importance of Agriculture 1980. Determination - Determination refers to the decision-making process that is used to decide what languages will be promoted in a country or province. Dutch is used for most public purposes, and has been historically. Standardization, Orthography and auteur directors Vocabulary - Frisian is basically a spoken but it also written and used to publish books. Government - Government is in Dutch, Frisian allowed in courts. Education - Frisian required in My Kitchen, My Sanctuary Essay primary schools; Dutch predominates. Frisian-medium education does no harm, although progress in Dutch is slower for first three years. Frisian is a well developed small-group standard language. Educational language planning follows social and political rather than educational criteria.
Criteria - Fasold (1984) states that if educational benefit were the auteur directors, criterion, the Frisian language program would be an unnecessary expense, because all children know Dutch; the benefit is political. Attitudes - Frisian rated more highly than Dutch; there is an active Frisian preservation movement. Essay. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize that the language is associated with rural values and the farming life. In Friesland cities such as Leeuwarden, Dutch is directors heavily predominant. The most significant example of Does a Constitutional Mean? societal bilingualism in the US involves Spanish and English. Think of attitudes in the US towards Spanish. Are they the same as in Friesland?
Why do you suppose bilingualism provokes such an uproar in the US when in Friesland the auteur directors, situation is apparently much more positive? (Hint: Consider the historical relationship and linguistic relationship between the two languages involved.) Some Data on What Does a Constitutional Mean?, US Spanish-English Bilingualism. The claims published by proponents of official US English that US Hispanics are refusing to learn English are examined here in light of data produced in academic research and by the US Bureau of the Census. Directors. The purpose of this analysis is to use little-understood sociolinguistic aspects of pamah national US English-Spanish bilingualism to refute incontrovertibly the claims of directors many official English boosters, but at the same time to Essay on Caravaggio, reveal the dynamic effect of change in language use on ethnolinguistic identity. In 1990, of the 230,445,777 persons in the U.S. who were age five or. Mother tongue of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Percent who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Table 1. US Language Use, 1990 (Persons 5 years and over: 230,445,777) over, 31,844,979 spoke a language other than English at home (see Table 1).
Of these, 13,982,502, or approximately 6% of the U.S. population reported not speaking the directors, English at the level #145;very well.#146; The census bureau reports that over 75% of nonnative English speakers claim to speak English at least #145;well#146;. This means that of the 32 million non-native speakers of English, slightly fewer than eight million, or 3.5% reported speaking English less than #145;well.#146; Even someone who reports that his or her English is only #145;fair#146; can hardly considered to be a non-English-speaker, so this method of determining acceptable English proficiency is conservative. Nonetheless, even using this conservative estimate, 96.5% of the country speaks English #145;well#146; or #145;very well.#146; Within this national context, the halangan tanah, figures in auteur directors Table 1 show that while the proportion of US Hispanics who report speaking English #145;very well#146; is somewhat higher than that of the total population of non-English-mother-tongue Americans, a higher proportion of the Essay, US population of Asian/Pacific origin is auteur directors of limited English proficiency (as defined by this overly conservative method). The figures in Table 1 also reveal that although speakers of many other languages were also living in and immigrating to scientific examples, the United States, speakers of Spanish constituted the overwhelming majority of auteur directors individuals claiming a language other than English as their mother tongue. Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson have refined a number of relevant measures which simplify the job of understanding language shift.
The most basic and easily understood is count , which is simply the total number of individuals in a given group . In Table 2 the U.S. and U.S. Hispanic counts are presented. The figures are indeed striking. The historic increase in the numbers of United States Hispanics that occurred during the last decade was actually eclipsed in some respects by on Caravaggio, the increase in Hispanics during the seventies, which alerted the supporters of official English to the challenge that their language faced. In 1970, the total U.S. population count was 203,302,031, and Hispanic density , defined by Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson as the auteur, proportion of the population that is My Sanctuary of Hispanic origin , stood at only 3.9% (see Table 2). Auteur. Just over Essay, 12% of those Hispanics had immigrated to theUnited States during the previous decade. By 1980, of the total U.S. population of directors 226,545,580, 6.4% was Hispanic. The Hispanic population had increased by 5,536,017 to 14,608,673.
United States Count (USC) Hispanic Density (HC/USC) Hispanic Immigrant Count (HIC) Hispanic Immigrant Density (HIC/USC) Table 2. U.S. Hispanic Count and Density, 1970-1990. The data on the increase in the U.S. Hispanic count may be analyzed in greater detail in order to allow for a more complete understanding of this important demographic shift of the seventies (see Table 3). Frankenstein Literary. By comparing the 1970 and 1980 figures on density and count, we can derive two rates of increase . The first is an increase in Hispanic count, calculated by auteur, expressing the difference between the 1980 and 1970 figures as a proportion of the 1970 count: 14,608,673-9,072,602)/9,072,602 = .61.
Multiplying this figure by 100 allows one to a Constitutional, express the increase as a percentage of the 1970 figure: 61%. The rate of increase in Hispanic count dropped to 50% in the next decade. A second rate of auteur directors increase is in what Bills, Hernández-Chávez, Hudson, refer to as 'density,' that is, the percentage of the entire population that is Hispanic (see density figures in Table 2). The rate of increase in Hispanic density from 1970 to 1980 was 64%. During the next decade the rate of increase was much less at 38%. Another factor that has contributed to the perception in the early eighties that the population of U.S.
Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, was increasing rapidly, was the on Caravaggio, tremendous influx of immigrants to directors, the United States. In 1970, only frankenstein, 0.5% of the U.S. population had migrated from Hispanic countries during the previous decade (this is labeled Hispanic Immigrant Density in Table 2). In 1980, 0.6% of the U.S. population had migrated from Hispanic countries. Table 3 shows the auteur directors, increase from of Agriculture 1970 to 1980 in Hispanic immigrant density to be 20%. Certainly this increase was even more noticeable in border states. Hispanic Immigrant Count. Hispanic Immigrant Density.
Table 3. Directors. Rates of Increase in U.S. Hispanic and Hispanic Immigrant Count and Density, 1970-1990 . These figures are also important in halangan explaining the nascent fear in the early eighties that English was under siege, since recent immigrants typically do not speak English as well as those who have lived here ten or more years. During the eighties, the increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density was even more dramatic, and lends further support to the idea that the increased linguistic evidence of Hispanic presence fueled the anti-immigrant and English-only movements of the eighties. What is especially remarkable about the data in Table 3 is the large difference between Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant rates of increase. Whereas the rate of increase in total Hispanic count and density dropped, the rate of increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density rose. To the auteur directors, casual observer, the effect was a notable increase in the use of Spanish in the United States during the seventies and especially during the eighties. The above analysis of the on The Importance of Agriculture, effect of rising Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant count and density shows the basis of some of the fears of those associated with U.S. Directors. ENGLISH, but an important question has been left unanswered. Are U.S. Hispanics clinging to their mother tongue?
Hispanic count and density are not direct measures of language behavior and therefore cannot be used to answer this question. Bills, Hernández-Chávez, and Hudson identify two useful measures of language maintenance and shift by Hispanics. They include Spanish loyalty , the halangan tanah, proportion of a group that is Spanish speaking ; and Spanish retention , the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty . Data on directors, loyalty and retention based on pamah, U. S. census data are presented in Table 4. These measures can be used to present a more accurate picture of maintenance of Spanish in the United States. A glance a Table 4 will reveal that among young and old Hispanics alike, the vast majority report using Spanish. Directors. During the 1980 census, approximately 11,117,000 Spanish speakers were counted.
This figure was later revised upward to pamah, 11,549,000. Of these individuals, a total of 2,952,000 aged 5-17 spoke Spanish. The total population of Hispanic youth between ages 5 and 17 was 3,965,000, so their level of language loyalty was 74%. In 1990, 4,142,000 youths between the ages of 5 and 17 were reported to speak Spanish. Since there were 5,370,000 Hispanic youths, that represents a loyalty coefficient of 77%, an interesting increase in youth language loyalty of 3.6%, but hardly the massive shift fears about auteur, which were expressed repeatedly in U . My Kitchen, My Sanctuary. S . Directors. ENGLISH Update . The data from the adult population directly contradicts claims that Hispanics are turning away from English. Scientific Essay Examples. In 1980, out of a total of 8,981,000 U.S. Hispanic adults (18 and older), 8,164,000 spoke Spanish, a language loyalty rate of 91%. In 1990, out of directors a total adult Hispanic population of 14,956,000, 12,770,000 spoke Spanish, so the adult loyalty rate dropped to 85%.
The figures in Table 4 show that the rate of retention (referred to on the chart as #145;youth/adult loyalty#146;) of Right Mean? Essay Spanish has actually increased by just over 10%. Since retention is the auteur directors, ratio of scientific examples youth loyalty to adult loyalty, the increase to a large extent is due to the decrease in adult loyalty, which makes retention by the younger generation appear all the more striking. This calls for caution in comparative use of the retention ratio when adult loyalty is not constant. Data on Hispanic and Spanish-speaking count, density, and loyalty probably serve only to confirm the fears of U.S. ENGLISH boosters, and indeed they have embraced the new figures as evidence to bolster their cause. 16 The statistics welcomed by U.S. English were merely increases in non-native count and density, which are not good measures of language maintenance. Even measures of language maintenance do not provide an auteur adequate response to what is perhaps the essay, most ardent claim by supporters of official English, that Spanish speakers have stopped learning English. In order to directors, answer the question of U.S. limited English proficiency (LEP), 1980 data are analyzed first. A section follows to clarify the Essay on Caravaggio, problem of directors comparability of 1980 and 1990 census summary data.
Finally, Total Hispanic Count 5 years old and over. Total Spanish Speaker Count 5 years old and over. Total Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 5-17 years. Spanish Speaker Count 5-17 years. Youth Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 18 years old and over. Spanish Speaker Count 18 years old and on The over. Adult Language Loyalty.
Youth/Adult Loyalty Ratio. Table 4 - Changes in U.S. Hispanic and Spanish Speaker Count, Loyalty, and Retention, 1980-1990. 1990 data are analyzed and compared with those of 1980. Data on the issue of Hispanic ability in English are displayed in Table 5. The bureau of the census provided summary data on those Spanish speakers who reported no difficulty with English in 1980. Auteur. Of the 14,609,000 Hispanics, approximately 11,117,000 age five and older reported speaking Spanish, and 2,708,000 (24% of Spanish speakers, 18% of all Hispanics, and 1% of the U.S. population) reported difficulty with English. Pamah. During the previous decade, approximately 1,408,000 Hispanics had immigrated to US. Assuming that recently immigrated Hispanics have difficulty with English, by subtracting the number of recent immigrants from the total number of LEP Hispanics, a core of 1,300,000 long-term LEP (LTLEP) speakers of Spanish can be identified.
To the extent that the assumption concerning the directors, English ability of immigrants is wrong, the number of enduring monolingual Spanish speakers could be even greater. The procedure establishes a minimum limit to the count of LTLEP, the occurrence of which may be due to halangan, linguistic isolation, economic marginalization, lack of motivation, or lack of auteur educational opportunity. Just as other counts are not useful indicators of language maintenance or shift, the LTLEP alone is not adequate. Three indices of LTLEP density need to be derived. The number of non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics is derived simply by subtracting the number of essay examples immigrants from the Spanish-speaking Hispanic total. Dividing the LTLEP count by this figure, we obtain an auteur index of LTLEP density among non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics of 13%. This is an important figure, for it responds to the fear that supporters of official English had in the early eighties that those who had lived for an extended period of time in the U.S. and halangan tanah pamah persisted in auteur using Spanish were rejecting English. That fear is simply unfounded.
87% of long-term U.S. Hispanic residents have no problem whatsoever with English. It is certainly not accurate to Essay on The Importance, assert that because 13% of resident Hispanics have trouble with English that the entire minority is directors turning its back on English. Critics of the US Hispanic presence almost unfailingly refers to all Hispanics without distinguishing on the basis of ability in Spanish, so it is halangan tanah pamah appropriate that an index of LTLEP density among all Hispanics should be calculated. As can be seen in Table 5, the result is auteur .09 or 9%. This figure takes into account the frankenstein literary, fact that many Hispanics do not speak any Spanish at all, a fact that is certainly not emphasized by those who whip up fear against Spanish-speakers and their descendents. Finally, since critics of bilingualism publicize the putative threat that the Hispanic refusal to learn English represents to directors, national unity, it is important to calculate the scientific examples, proportion of U.S. citizens who are Spanish-speaking LTLEP.
The 1.3 million LTLEP Spanish speakers in 1980 represented just under 6/10ths of one percent of the American population. This, plus the newly arrived immigrants, in concrete, demographic terms, was the directors, size of the What Mean?, threat that was faced in the US in the early nineties. Census statistics are found in widely disseminated publications such as the World Almanac or the auteur, Statistical Abstract of the United States . Since the 1980 summary described Hispanic ability in frankenstein devices English in terms of auteur directors reporting no difficulty with English, and the 1990 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of not speaking English #145;very well,#146; the scientific essay, impression caused is that Hispanic ability in directors English has declined over the last decade. Rate of Increase. Total Hispanic Count. Total Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Total Immigrant Count.
Total Hispanic LEP Count. LEP Density among All Hispanic Spanish-Speakers. LEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LEP Density in Essay on Caravaggio U.S. Population. Total Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Count. LTLEP Density among Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanics. LTLEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Density among All U.S. Population.
Table 5. Hispanic Limited English Proficiency and Long-Term Limited English Proficiency, 1980-1990. It is directors now easy to confuse two different statements about language ability. U.S. citizens in 1990 were asked to locate their language ability along a dimension ranging from #145;very poor#146; to #145;very well.#146; The 38% of Hispanics who did not choose the category #145;very well#146; did not necessarily rate themselves as #145;very poor,#146; #145;poor#146; or even #145;fair#146; (refer again to Table 1). In fact, as noted above, according to Barringer the bureau of the census reports that when the category #145;well#146; is added, the number of English speakers among non-native Americans jumps to 75%. It is this figure which will be used below to on The of Agriculture, calculate 1990 Hispanic LEP.
The problems of comparability notwithstanding, a reasonable procedure can be formulated to determine in a future study the auteur, extent to which Hispanics and others who have been in the United States for a decade or more continue to Does Right Essay, be limited in English proficiency (LEP). Using the census estimate that 75% of nonnative speakers of English speak the language #145;well#146; or #145;very well,#146; we can assume conservatively that 4,228,000 of the directors, 16,912,000 Spanish-speaking Hispanics were LEP in literary 1990. Note that this figure is only roughly comparable with the 1980 census summary statistics, which reported ability in terms of having no difficulty. Until more detailed summaries are available from the census, indices of LEP and auteur LTLEP density will have to halangan pamah, be based on these more conservative figures. The data on LEP and LTLEP density from 1980 are even more revealing in comparison with those of the subsequent census. In 1990, as shown in auteur directors Table 5, 21,900,000 of the total U.S. population of 248,710,000 was Hispanic. The 4,228,000 Hispanics who in 1990 reported speaking English less than #145;very well#146; or #145;well,#146; represented only a slight increase in LEP among Hispanics (6%); however, in the United States the increase in LEP Hispanics jumped 100%.
The huge increase in Spanish LEP as a percentage of the U.S. Essay On The Of Agriculture. population was due largely to the 2,799,000 Hispanics who had immigrated during the previous decade. Auteur Directors. When this figure is subtracted from the LEP count, only 1,537,000 Hispanics are LTLEP, an 18% increase over Does Right Mean?, the LTLEP count from the previous decade. Reiterating the limited usefulness of count for determining language maintenance and shift, we turn to the figures on LTLEP density. LTLEP density among non-immigrant Hispanics actually dropped , as did LTLEP density among all Hispanics. Whereas LEP increased 100% in the U.S. as a whole, LTLEP increased only 9%. Many Americans worried about the imagined Hispanic refusal to learn English when in fact the percentage of LTLEP Hispanics dropped by 15%. The statistical analysis of the census above reveals two facts germane to the issue of auteur U.S. ENGLISH perceptions of sociolinguistic reality. The first fact is the difference between adult and youth language loyalty evident from What Mean? Essay Table 4. Auteur. This interesting attitudinal change was reported in literary devices the New York Times to be documented in a study of 5000 eighth and ninth grade children of immigrants, by Johns Hopkins sociologist Alejandro Portes, who discovered high ratings of self-proficiency in English among Mexican-Americans and auteur Cuban-Americans (85% and 99%, respectively).
These figures for Mexican-American children, in fact, correspond nearly exactly to the 1980 census data that indicated that 85% of a Constitutional Right Essay Hispanic youth reported no difficulty with English. Auteur Directors. These figures indicate that there has been no shift from English. A Constitutional. Portes makes the discovery in his study that 56% of the auteur directors, Mexican-American children prefer Spanish over on Caravaggio, English, despite their high level of English proficiency. The census analysis also reveals a striking difference between LTLEP density among Hispanics and in the U.S. as a whole. The impressive progress in English by Hispanics resident in the U.S. for ten years or longer has been completely overshadowed by the historic increase in Hispanic immigrants. Table 6 presents data which shows that the rate of immigration remained relatively steady during the auteur directors, sixties and Essay of Agriculture seventies. During the last decade the auteur, rate of immigration doubled. A series of events conspired to drive Hispanics to the U.S. in frankenstein literary devices search of economic and political refuge. Fully two-thirds of the increase, one million immigrants, came from Mexico, which during the eighties endured a prolonged economic crisis.
Political upheavals in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Columbia added another 330,000. The real culprits responsible for the historic increase in auteur the number of Spanish speakers are poverty and war. Table 6. Hispanic Immigration to the United States, 1960-1990 (not included: Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay)