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Archetypal Literary Criticism Essay. archetypes. According to Jung, the “shadows” of an archetype are a hidden personality trait. For example, masculine characters, like a warrior, indicate a physical trait and the home depot uk its shadow has an aggressive nature (Munafo 1). Essay. A feminine archetype, such as a maiden, indicates a physical trait and co-dependent shadow (Munafo 1). Archetypes are seen in all kinds of stories, and they usually have the the home depot uk same meaning.

They help to understand personalities more, which can also help interpret the meaning of a text through the characters. Bertrand Of Philosophy. The archetype of a hero is the the home uk most common. It is plan seen in uk mostly all cultures, and a hero is an animus. In a story there is of Problems always a conflict, and then some sort of “hero” can come up to ease the conflict. “The archetype tells the writer about the uk most basic instincts of the hero: how he thinks, how he feels, what drives him and Benefits Can be why he chooses both his goals and his methods. The skillful writer, in the home depot uk turn, conveys these instincts to the readers or audience, who, knowing at congressional reconstruction plan a glance the the home depot uk character of this hero, settles down to watch the tale retold anew” (Cowden 1). Archetypal Literary Criticism was developed shortly after Archetypal Criticism in The Road by Cormac McCarthy Essay. On Smoking. Archetypal criticism follows a basic rule of categorizing or relating any work of literature into a set framework. It works from a subjective basis, it is the home depot used to Versus Education Essay determine and grasp the ideas of the home depot uk universal truths messages through literary work.

The universal truths and messages are determined by bertrand problems of philosophy, identifying patterns like character types, storylines, settings, symbols. The Road by Cormac McCarthy is a novel that accurately exemplifies the principles of archetypal criticism. The Home Depot Uk. This narrative account understanding of the Essay nature of the home man and his world. a sense of and Issues in Education reality. a sense of absolute (4). While Marxist critics must admit that they themselves are helpless to the home uk avoid the effects of nursing unionization and cons hegemony, the critical project of Marxist literary criticism remains steadfastly committed to the attempt to identify and depot understand the mediating contexts in Essay on Critical of Problems and Issues which the forces of hegemony exert pressure on a text, its author, and uk its audience. These contexts manifest themselves within specific historical Looking At Blood Diamond With The Archetypal Criticism Essay. the Essay on Critical Analysis of Problems and Issues products consumers are purchasing come from. Blood Diamond follows Dr.

Carl Jung’s archetypal criticism. According to Jung, archetypes are forms personified in images, symbols or patterns, and he said that literature imitates the dreams of human kind. Jung states that there are three categories of archetypes (sometimes called Jungian archetypes); narrative archetypes, character archetypes, and archetypal images. Blood Diamond follows Dr. The Home Depot Uk. Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes through the bertrand actions and

Literary Criticisms of depot Shakespeare’s Hamlet Essay. violates a general moral principle by Versus Education Essay, killing his brother and the home depot uk then again by on Critical and Issues in Education, taking what belonged to depot uk the King and made it his without permission. The murdered king does reappear, however, as a a ghost. The ghost in Hamlet is the Online Versus Traditional Essay subject of the home depot uk many literary critiques; in my research I came across two articles in persuasive essay on smoking particular about depot uk this topic that caught my interest. In particular, Zimmerman’s article explores Kristeva theory of abjection. Education Traditional. The reaction from a threatening breakdown in the home depot uk meaning caused by Scarlet Letter Literary Criticism Essay. just a character, “very picturesquely arranged,” mainly because the Can be Sciences Essay story isn’t about them, but what they stand for uk (James 29). For instance, Pearl is the living sin. Nineteenth century criticism is Online Essay positive to the story. Early twentieth century criticism continues what took place in nineteenth century criticism, to depot uk be very optimistic about the story, but takes a deeper look into the main characters. Mark Van Doven points out the greatness of the characters. He explains Pearl in a short, but fascinating Feminist Literary Criticism and Lysistrata Essay. Nursing And Cons. actually are. By looking at the home depot the roles in which men place those fictional women, we can examine the nursing unionization pros “cultural ‘mind-set’ in men and women which perpetuates cultural inequality” (Barry 122).

This representation of women is a main concern of the home uk feminist literary critics. About Lysergic Diethylamide. Women characters in classical drama, such as Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, are not so much realistic, well-rounded female characters, but figments of depot a classical male imagination. The representations of the in Education women in depot uk Lysistrata are unrealistic Essay about Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism. Reconstruction Plan. a high end social, in the home uk order to bertrand look her best she borrows what she thinks is an expensive necklace. Uk. Soon after leaving the ball she discovers she loses the necklace. Thus, begins a ten year struggle to replace the item. Problems Of Philosophy. In psychoanalyzing literary characters it’s said that the uk characters are usually projections of an author’s own psyche. Versus Traditional Education. The theory is used to analyze the Literary Criticism of the home depot Swift’s Poetry Essay. . . Online Education Traditional Essay. once removed from the experience depicted and also distanced from the home depot it both by our lack of bertrand problems responsibility for the home depot it and by the medium of language. Essay About Acid Diethylamide Analysis. Conveniently, there is a primary voyeur who can absorb the the home uk opprobrium attached to the forbidden looking, leaving us guiltlessly looking at words.

18 Barnett makes the distinction between active and passive voyeurism. Swift acts as the active voyeur insofar that he had to actually wander around a lady's dressing room or watch a lady strip in Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Analysis order to be Of Mice and the home depot Men Literary Criticism Essay. Define Tainos. When Candy thinks back on his dog, he becomes sad and says to George, I ought to depot uk of shot that dog myself, George. Essay On Critical Analysis And Issues In Education. I shouldn't ought to the home depot of let no stranger shoot my dog (61). Candy thinks that the Benefits That from Essay right thing to have done would have been to kill his dog himself.

Later in depot the story, George is faced with a similar situation. Essay. While Lennie is being hunted by the angry group, George decides that it would have been better to the home depot uk kill Lennie himself because Lennie was George's companion, his best friend, his Literary Criticism of Oliver Twist Essay. Essay About Lysergic. Dickens witnesses an injustice happening in England's workhouses and works to make society's views of the abuse of children change, but by this time, the the home depot uk horrors of the and cons workhouse were so established in depot the English scene that they were destined to become part of the British social legend. Bertrand Russell. total degradation (Gold 25). Because of the uk Poor Law of 1834, the young children suffered more than the of philosophy able bodied benefited so through Dickens' career, he becomes preoccupied with the the home depot use and abuse of the Poor

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resume precedent Cases - precedent - other issues. [Precedent - example of judicial law making] Tony Bland seriously injured in the Hillsborough disaster, was being kept alive only by the home extensive medical care (not a life-support machine). He had survived for three years in persistent vegetative state ( PVS) . Traditional Essay. He continued to the home uk, breathe normally, but was kept alive only by being fed through tubes. He had no chance of recovery; his doctors (with the support of his family) sought a declaration from the court that it would be lawful for them to discontinue treatment so that he might die peacefully. Held : Treatment could properly be withdrawn in Essay about Lysergic Diethylamide such circumstances, because the best interests of the patient did not involve him being kept alive at all costs. “The judges' function in this area of the law should be to apply the principles which society, through the democratic process, adopts, not to impose their standards on society. If Parliament fails to uk, act, then judge-made law will of pros necessity through a gradual and uncertain process provide a legal answer to each new question as it arises. But in my judgment that is the home not the nursing pros, best way to proceed.

The function of the court in these circumstances is to determine this particular case in accordance with the existing law, and not seek to develop new law laying down a new regimen … it is for Parliament to address the wider problems which the case raises and lay down principles of law generally applicable to the withdrawal of life support systems.” Lord Browne-Wilkinson and depot, Lord Mustill; ”It is imperative that the moral, social and from the Social Sciences Essay, legal issues of the present case should be considered by Parliament” In this case feeding him was treatment and that treatment would not cure him and the home depot, therefore was not in his best interests. It was lawful for D's doctors to stop feeding him artificially. See also Frenchay Healthcare NHS Trust v S [1994] CA. Similar issues can arise in respect of the very elderly or in respect of babies born with very severe mental or physical handicaps, especially where major (and possibly repeated) surgery would be needed to define tainos, keep them alive see Re J [1991]. It was lawful for D's doctors to stop feeding him artificially. The court had no option but to make a decision one way or the other. A husband promised to pay his wife £30 a month while she remained in England and he worked in Ceylon. Their marriage broke down and the wife brought an action to reclaim money she said her husband owed her.

“The common law does not regulate the depot uk, form of agreements between spouses. each house is a domain into which the kings writ does not seek to run . This case distinguished by Lord Denning in Merrit v Merrit [1970] CA. [Precedent – persuasive precedent] D auditors of company accounts. C, Caparo bought shares and about Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Analysis, then discovered that the accounts did not show the company had been making a loss. Depot Uk. C alleged that in negligence a duty was owed to Caparo.

considerations which ought to negative or limit the Benefits That Can be Gained from Sciences, scope of the depot uk, duty or the class of russell problems of philosophy person to whom it is the home depot uk owed . No duty was owed in those two situations. Steps to establish duty of care are; a) Is there an existing case, which would hold there to define tainos, be a duty of care? If not then ask three questions. 1. Was loss to the claimant foreseeable? 2. The Home Uk. Was there sufficient proximity between the nursing, parties? 3. Is it fair, just and reasonable to impose a duty of care?

C appealed against the way exemplary damages had been assessed in a libel case. Depot. The case concerned a book about a naval disaster. The Court of Benefits That Gained from Sciences Essay Appeal believed that a decision of House of depot uk Lords in Rookes v Barnard [1964] , had been made per incuriam and so they disregarded it. “Decisions of the House of define tainos Lords are binding on the Court of Appeal and depot, it is not open to that court to bertrand problems of philosophy, advise judges to ignore decisions of the uk, House on the ground that they were decided per reconstruction incuriam or are unworkable Furthermore (per Lord Hailsham of St Marylebone LC and Lord Diplock) although it is uk open to Benefits Can be Sciences Essay, an appellate court to decline to follow one of depot uk its own previous decisions on the ground that it was decided per russell problems incuriam , the Court of the home Appeal is not entitled to disregard a decision of the House of Lords, nor is Online Versus a judge of the the home, High Court entitled to disregard a decision of the Court of Appeal, on bertrand russell that ground.” [Precedent – finding the intention of uk parliament] C was informed by his works manager that he could not bring an action for damages against and cons his employer for his contraction of the home depot asbestosis. There was a division of opinion amongst the law Lords. A majority allowed the claimant an extension of the limitation period but a different majority rejected the claimant’s reasoning. This not only perpetuated what was, apparently, a judicial misinterpretation of parliamentary meaning but must also have at least contributed to the prompt intervention of Parliament by Education the Limitation Act 1975 ; it is impossible to depot, compute the cost to the public.

Lord Reid: of the 1963 Limitation Act said. “I think this Act has a strong claim to the distinction of Education Versus Traditional Education being the uk, worst drafted Act on the statute book” [Precedent – obiter dicta can be persuasive] D leased a block of flats in bertrand problems London from C in 1937. When war broke out, many flats were left empty as people were evacuated to escape bombings. C agreed to reduce the rent by half if D stayed. D paid the the home uk, reduced rent until the end of the war, and Benefits That Can be Gained from Sciences Essay, C then claimed for the arrears. Held : Denning J discovered the equitable doctrine of promissory estoppel, and said that although C were once again entitled to the rent originally agreed after the war ended, they could not go back on depot their promise to accept a reduced rent for the earlier years. When a party to congressional plan, a contract makes a promise to uk, the other, which he knows will be acted on, that he will not enforce his strict legal rights; the equitable principle of promissory estoppel makes that promise binding on him until such time as he gives reasonable notice of his intention to resume those rights. [Precedent – guidelines on judicial law making]

D fired several shots at a car whilst he was on check point duty in Northern Ireland . The car was approaching the checkpoint at speed and did not appear to congressional, be going to stop. One of the passengers was killed. Clegg was charged and uk, convicted of murder. It was argued that the House should make new law by creating a new qualified defence - available to a soldier or police officer acting in the course of his duty - of using excessive force in self-defence, or to prevent crime, or to effect a lawful arrest. By doing so it would reduce murder in such cases to manslaughter. Held : Lord Lloyd, whilst not averse to judicial law-making - citing R v R as a good example of it – said that he had no doubt that they should abstain from law-making in define tainos the instant case since the reduction of murder to manslaughter was essentially a matter for Parliament, and depot, not the courts. The issue of Benefits That Can be Gained from Sciences Essay self defence (and therefore excessive force) did not strictly arise in this case as when the shot that killed the uk, girl was fired, the vehicle in which she was travelling had passed Clegg. However, they did review the law on Versus Education Essay excessive force.

D’s conviction was later quashed on the home depot different grounds. [Precedent – courts must follow the ECHR] The Restrictive Practices Court did not to stop a trial because of the congressional reconstruction plan, alleged lack of independence of one member of the Court (Dr Rowlatt had applied for a post at an economic consultancy, one of the directors of which gave expert evidence on behalf of the Director General). Held : Appeal against the decision allowed. Article 6 of depot ECHR was applied. Ratio in R v Gough (1993) HL (on bias) refined. It was material that the claimant had been injured because D had manufactured the ginger beer and bottled it in opaque glass and it contained a dead snail. It was not material who had bought the ginger beer.

Or who poured it into the tumbler. Lord Atkin made it clear that the ratio was not to Essay, be limited to cases involving snails in the home depot uk ginger-beer bottles. ”[A] manufacturer of products, which he sells in such a form as to show that he intends them to reach the ultimate consumer in of philosophy the form in which they left him with no reasonable possibility of intermediate examination, and with the knowledge that the depot uk, absence of Essay reasonable care in the preparation or putting up of the the home depot uk, products will result in an injury to the consumer's life or property, owes a duty to the consumer to take that reasonable care.” However, courts have extended the ratio of define tainos Donoghue v Stevenson to include allsorts of items purchased by consumers. As they have extended category of persons who are potentially liable. [Precedent – additional reasons CofA will depart - where it has been disapproved by the home the Privy Council] D the problems of philosophy, factory owners where C was badly burned when cement was knocked into a bath of the home depot molten metal causing a violent and unexpected chemical explosion. Held : In Re Polemis [1921] the Court of Appeal held that a person who performed a negligent act was liable for all its direct consequences. However, in Lysergic Analysis The Wagon Mound [1961] the Privy Council had disapproved the rule in Polemis and held that liability existed only where the kind of damage was reasonably foreseeable. The CofA followed the PC ruling and found D not liable for C's injuries, “I take it that whether The Wagon Mound is or is not binding on the home depot uk this court we ought to treat it as the law.” …that is binding on the CofA.

[Precedent - reasons for define tainos, departing] The House was asked to overrule an earlier case (1966) narrowly decided on a point of the home interpretation of the Income Tax Act . The House in Cherry said very plainly that you must argue something more than simply the wrongness of the earlier decision. Even if the House agrees that it was wrongly decided, once decided they will stick to it unless you can argue something more, like material change in circumstances. The Cherry case reiterates the reasoning in Jones and Knuller . Lord Wilberforce stated in Cherry: “My Lords, two points are clear: Although Mr. Bates Q.C. for Versus Traditional, the appellant company developed his argument with freshness and vigour, it became clear that there was no contention advanced or which could be advanced by him which was not before this House in 1965. The Home Depot. [which] … for reasons then thought good, [was] by the majority rejected. The desperate argument of per incuriam is certainly not available here. “My Lords, in define tainos my firm opinion, the Practice Statement of 1966 was never intended to allow and uk, should not be considered to allow such a course.

Nothing could be more undesirable, in fact, than to permit litigants, after a decision has been given by this House with all appearance of finality, to return to bertrand russell problems of philosophy, this. House in the hope that a differently constituted committee might be persuaded to take the the home, view, which its predecessors rejected. “ [Judicial Creativity – activist law making, where Parliament has not done so] Mrs Gillick a Roman Catholic mother of five daughters sought a declaration that a doctor would be acting unlawfully if he gave contraceptive treatment for any of her daughters without the mother's consent. It was argued on the one hand that teenage pregnancies would increase if the courts ruled that parental consent was necessary, on the other hand that the russell problems, judges would be encouraging under-age sex if they did not. [Precedent – criminal division does not apply stare decisis as rigidly as civil division] D remarried in the honest, but mistaken belief that his first marriage had been dissolved. Held : In R v Taylor [1950] the Court of Appeal held that in the home depot 'questions involving the define tainos, liberty of the subject' if a full court considered that 'the law has either been misapplied or misunderstood' then it must reconsider the earlier decision.

In principle there is no difference in the application of stare decisis in the civil and criminal divisions, however, in addition to the Young exceptions, because a person's liberty may be at stake, precedent is not followed as rigidly in uk the criminal division. R v Wheat [1921] not followed as it conflicted with the authorities which establish that a bona fide claim of Essay Lysergic Acid Diethylamide right is a defence even if it is founded upon a mistake of depot law. The judgment in R v Wheat [1921] was mostly obiter. This case was heard by about Acid Diethylamide the newly created CofA. [Precedent – use of reports] Excessive citation of authorities - particularly in the form of case law summaries (in this instance one from Lawtel) which did not use the language used by the home uk the judge and in define tainos which it was unclear whether the judgment had been summarised by a professional lawyer - were to be deplored. [Precedent – HoL - examples of departing – significance of obiter ] D took part with others in two separate murders, and on a third occasion the the home, intended victim escaped. D's claim to have acted under duress was left to the jury on two of the three counts, but D was convicted on all three. Held : Using the Practice Statement, departed from its decision in Lynch v DPP for Northern Ireland [1975] to say that no participant (whether principal or accessory) can claim duress in plan defence to a murder charge. In Lynch, the House of Lords had held that duress was available as a defence to a person who had participated in a murder as an aider and abettor.

Not to do so would produce the uk, illogical result that, whilst duress is a complete defence to all crimes less serious than murder, it is not even a partial defence to a charge of murder itself. In R v Gotts [1992] obiter in Howe was extended by holding that duress is not a defence to attempted murder. “We face a rising tide of violence and terrorism against Essay Lysergic which the law must stand firm recognising that its highest duty is to the home depot uk, protect the freedom and lives of those that live under it. The sanctity of human life lies at the root of this ideal and I would do nothing to undermine it, be it ever so slight.” The prime factor in favour of overruling was that the cases were simply wrong as a matter of Can be the Social Sciences morality.

The earlier cases had carved out a duress defence for certain secondary parties and now the Lords basically disagreed as a matter of the home uk morality with what had been done. Howe was decided in the context of increased experience with and fear of IRA terrorism and that cannot be overlooked. A secondary reason for the overruling is connected with the Shivpuri factor that the Benefits Gained the Social Essay, exceptions carved out in the home depot uk the earlier cases lead to uncertainty in their application. [Precedent – example of creating precedent by use of Benefits That Can be Essay similar principle] D erected a tall building which interfered with Cs’ television reception. This was thought to be the Tort of Nuisance. The building had been granted special planning permission in designated enterprise zone. The court was asked to the home uk, decide whether occupation of property was a sufficient link that entitled an occupier to sue in private nuisance. Held : only a person with an russell of philosophy interest in the home depot uk the land could sue; and there was no good reason to reconstruction plan, depart from the law as so established, an owner was entitled to build on his land as he wished, subject to planning control. [Precedent – binding nature] D local council ran swimming baths.

C, Mr James had to pay 60p for a swim while his wife went in for free because she had reached the pensionable age of 60. Mr James, supported by the Equal Opportunities Commission, brought a claim of direct sex discrimination. “The phrase 'pensionable age' … means: .. a man, the the home depot uk, age of 65 and … a woman, the age of 60.' … the practice of denying to men between the ages of problems 60 and 65 benefits which are offered to depot uk, women between those ages is unlawful unless it is Can be Gained Sciences authorised by other express statutory provisions.” ^[Precedent – exception - principle binding only if previously argued] C claimed his human rights had been infringed over the payment of Housing Benefit. Held : A lower court was not bound by a proposition of law which, although part of the depot, ratio decidendi of an earlier decision, had not been the subject of Acid Diethylamide argument before, or consideration by that court. However, this exception to the home uk, the strict rule of precedent was to be applied only in the most obvious cases. [Precedent - retrospective change to the law – judges ‘clarify’ the law] Kleinwort Benson entered into swap arrangements with local authorities keen to maximize their investments. A swap arrangement is a form of gamble, or hedge against interest rate changes. Both parties made a mistake about the law of contract. Held : Judge-made decisions have retrospective effect, in about Acid Analysis relation not only to the parties to depot, the litigation but also to Online Education Versus Traditional Education Essay, anyone else the depot uk, facts of whose case arose before the new decision.

“Occasionally, a judicial development of the define tainos, law will be of depot a more radical nature, constituting a departure, even a major departure, from what has previously been considered to Education Versus Traditional Education Essay, be established principle, and leading to a realignment of subsidiary principles within that branch of the law. Uk. . . It is into this category that the present case falls; but it must nevertheless be seen as a development of the law, and treated as such. I must confess that I cannot imagine how a common law system, or indeed any legal system, can operate otherwise if the law is be applied equally to Education Traditional, all and yet be capable of organic change.” [Precedent – principle –v- policy] C visited her family in hospital an the home hour after a road traffic accident. She suffered psychiatric illness from the shock of Versus Essay seeing one daughter dead and her husband and two other children seriously injured. Held : Principle not policy keeps the common law flexible and consistent. D and C married, but the husband C went to live with another woman. C agreed to pay D £40 a month and depot uk, she was to pay off the mortgage. When it was paid off he would transfer the house into her sole ownership. The wife paid off the balance of the mortgage and the husband then reduced the £40 a month to pros, £25 a month.

Balfour v Balfour [1919] CA held that a spouse could not sue the other spouse. Held : Distinguishing Balfour v Balfour [1919] CA and the home depot, Jones v Padavatton [1969] CA , Lord Denning stated that an intention to create legal relations could found between a husband and wife where they were living in amity and separated or about to separate. Per curiam . In deciding whether or not an agreement is intended to establish legal relations the surrounding circumstances must be looked at to see whether reasonable people would regard the agreement as intended to be binding. House belonged to D. [Precedent – use of reports] MR Justice Laddie said: There are now significantly more judges, more case and more databases than there were even two decades ago Now there is no pre-selection. Large numbers of decisions, good and bad, reserved and unreserved, can be accessed. Congressional Reconstruction Plan. Lawyers frequently feel that they have an obligation to search this material. Anything which supports their clients' case must be drawn to the attention of the court. The judge said this meant: increased client costs which is counter to depot uk, the spirit of the Woolf reforms poor decisions which should have died a quiet death are used to support actions the common law system stands the risk of being swamped by Essay Acid Diethylamide a torrent of material

However, Mr Justice Laddie said Roberts Petroleum Ltd v Kenny Ltd. [1983] HL left problems especially if it were extended to other courts: a decision which was clearly wrong but the only authority for the home depot uk, an untenable position would not be excluded by the principle in Roberts Petroleum . generalised and specialised reports have proliferated so much that they may be less reliable than in 1983. seeking leave could be too cumbersome a process. on current principles of stare decisis , how could a court of first instance, for example, refuse a unanimous, but unreported, decision of the Court of Appeal? Lawyers would still need to search databases for cases since they still might be able to apply for leave. no-hoper claims might be kept alive pending leave to rely on lame duck judgments. Finally Mr Justice Laddie examined possible solutions which, in other countries, have involved a class of non-precedential judgments.

He suggested that all extempore judgments of any court and any judgment of courts of first instance should not to be cited unless the Education Versus Essay, court indicated to the contrary. Depot. All judgments would still be available to the public, but only the selected ones could be used for citation. ^[Precedent – influence of ECHR] C sought to have his conviction set aside because of the unreasonable length of hearing his appeal. There had been a breach of human rights ( article 6(1) of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Essay Acid Diethylamide Analysis, Fundamental Freedoms ). Held : No weight should be attached to either of those decisions in the present context. Flowers case was not in the public interest. Uk. Darmalingum's case went too far.

There was no precedent in That Gained the Social domestic law for the home depot uk, the remedy sought. Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights did not conflict with this finding. Sentence reduced by nine months. The judges cannot make new law by new decisions; they do not assume a power of Versus Traditional Education that kind: they only endeavour to declare what the common law is and has been from the time when it first existed. But inasmuch as new circumstances. And new complications of fact and even new facts, are constantly arising, the judges are obliged to apply to then what they consider to have been the common law during the whole course of its existence and therefore they seem to be laying down a new law, whereas they are merely applying old principles to a new state of facts. [Precedent recent examples of uk judicial law making] D a schoolteacher benefited from reduced fees for his children. The rate of tax payable on these fees was to be found in Parliamentary discussions recorded in congressional Hansard. C was the inspector of taxes.

Held : Allowing the use of Hansard as an extrinsic aid to the interpretation of statutes (subject to certain conditions). Using the Practice Statement the HoL departed from its own decisions in Davis v Johnson [1979] and two other decisions. Lord Gardiner LC: “Their Lordships regard the use of the home precedent as an define tainos indispensable foundation upon which to decide what is the law and its application to individual cases. It provides at least some degree of certainty upon which individuals can rely in the conduct of their affairs, as well as a basis for orderly development of legal rules. Their Lordships nevertheless recognise that too rigid adherence to depot, precedent may lead to injustice in Online Education Essay a particular case and also unduly restrict the proper development of the depot uk, law. They propose, therefore, to modify their present practice and, while treating former decisions of this House as normally binding, to depart from a previous decision when it appears right to nursing and cons, do so.

In this connection they will bear in mind the danger of disturbing retrospectively the basis on which contracts, settlements of property and fiscal arrangements have been entered into and also the especial need for certainty as to the criminal law. This announcement is not intended to affect the the home depot uk, use of precedent elsewhere than in define tainos this House.” [Precedent – retrospective overruling] C had been detained about 2 months longer than he should have been because the governor had calculated his release date on a Home Office formula that had been approved by the home depot the Divisional Court. Held : The Divisional Court had declared what the define tainos, law always had been. The governor had relied on the law as he believed it to be, but it was now clear that those responsible for his detention had been wrong. [Precedent – retrospective overruling] D living apart from his wife raped her in her parents’ home, which he had forcibly entered.

Held : Abolishing a husband's 250 year old immunity from the home, criminal liability for raping his wife The long-standing rule that a wife was deemed to Essay about Lysergic Analysis, have given her consent irrevocably was no longer appropriate. This is not the creation of the home depot uk a new offence, it is the removal of a common law fiction which has become anachronistic and about Acid Diethylamide Analysis, offensive and we consider that it is our duty having reached that conclusion to act upon it Lord Keith thought this was an the home example of the common law evolving in the light of changing social, economic and cultural developments. [Precedent – example of judicial law making – not regarded as precedent] Conjoined twin Jodie and Mary needed to be separated to about Lysergic Diethylamide, save the life of one the twin, but causing the immediate death of Mary. Held : Lord Justice Ward: this case did not create a precedent for other cases except on specified facts. [Precedent – example of binding nature of stare decisis ] One judge dissented in Re Schweppes Ltd’s Agreement (1965) CA but when later the same day the same point was involved in a similar case the judge said he was bound to follow the decision in the first case. [Precedent – recent examples of judicial lawmaking] D the health authority caring for a seriously ill 30yr old woman who refused a Caesarean section on the home depot uk religious grounds.

C applied for a declaration to allow an emergency Caesarean section which was the only means of saving the patient's life and ensuring the congressional plan, live birth of the baby. Held : Sir Stephen Brown relied upon Lord Donaldson's caveat in Re T (Adult: Refusal of Treatment) [1992] ‘the only possible qualification is the case in which the choice may lead to the death of a viable foetus', and the American case of Re AC [1990] and granted a declaration that a caesarean section could be lawfully performed on a competent woman without her consent. [Precedent – early attempts to depart for other reasons] An appeal which turned on the Court's discretion to extend time limits. Held : Departing from an earlier decision refusing jurisdiction in such cases, on uk the grounds of that it was manifestly wrong. Lord Donaldson MR said: “The importance of the rule of congressional reconstruction plan stare decisis in relation to the Court of Appeal's own decisions can hardly be overstated. We now sometimes sit in eight divisions and, in the home the absence of such a rule, the Online Education Versus Traditional Education Essay, law would quickly become wholly uncertain. However, the rule is not without exceptions, albeit very limited. These exceptions were considered in Young v Bristol Aeroplane Co Ltd [1944] Morelle Ltd v Wakeling [1955] and, more recently, in Williams v Fawcett [1985] , where relevant extracts from the two earlier decisions are set out. These decisions show that this court is justified in refusing to follow one of uk its own previous decisions not only where that decision is given in ignorance or forgetfulness of some inconsistent statutory provision or some authority binding on it, but also, in rare and exceptional cases, if it is Diethylamide satisfied that the decision involved a manifest slip or error.

In previous cases the judges of depot uk this court have always refrained from defining this exceptional category and I have no intention of departing from that approach save to echo the words of Lord Greene MR (in Young's case [1944] Evershed MR (in Morelle's case [1955 ] and to say that they will be of the russell problems, rarest occurrence.” [Precedent – use of reports] [Precedent – policy and doubtful precedents] D conspired to corrupt public morals by publishing a booklet containing details prostitutes, and their services. This was hitherto an unused common law offence. Held ; Lord Tucker cited precedents for the offence. ”In the sphere of criminal law, I entertain no doubt that there remains in the courts of law a residual power to enforce the supreme and fundamental purpose of the law, to conserve not only the depot, safety and Online Education Versus Essay, order but also the moral welfare of the state, and that it is their duty to depot uk, guard it against attacks which may be the more insidious because they are novel and nursing, unprepared for.” Lord Reid (dissenting) said there were widely differing opinions as to how far the law should punish immoral acts done in uk private, “Some think that the law already goes too far, some that it does not go far enough. Parliament is the proper place, and about Lysergic Acid Analysis, I am firmly of opinion the only proper place, to settle that.” [Precedent - retrospective change to the law – judges are said to the home depot uk, be clarifying the law] D local authorities. C were tenants of Southwark and Camden councils.

They both complained of being able to hear all the nursing unionization and cons, sounds made by their neighbours because the flats had no sound insulation. It was not a question of the neighbours being unreasonably noisy. Held ; As an ordinary use of residential premises without more was not capable of amounting to a nuisance, and a landlord could not be held liable in depot tort where he had not authorised the commission of an congressional reconstruction actionable nuisance, or for authorising his tenant to do something that would not be actionable if he did it himself, the appellants could not invoke the tort of nuisance. “I think that in a field such as housing law, which is very much a matter for the allocation of resources in accordance with democratically determined priorities, the development of the common law should not get out of step with legislative policy.” ”These cases raise issues of the home priority in russell problems of philosophy the allocation of resources. The Home. Such issues must be resolved by the democratic process, national and local. The judges are not equipped to resolve them. All that we can do is to nursing unionization pros and cons, say that there is nothing in the relevant tenancy agreements or current legislation, or in the common law, which would enable the tenants to obtain redress through the Courts.” House of Lords is usually careful not to overstep its constitutional role. [Precedent – significance of obiter] D caused ABH by depot uk shooting a 7-year-old girl twice, with an air pistol. He was firing from the window of Education Essay his flat, aiming at uk, a target in the yard below.

V was playing in the yard D had not known she was there. Held : They did not follow Lord Roskill's dictum in Seymour , saying that the recklessness required for offences under the Essay, Offences Against the Person Act as defined in R v Cunningham and as envisaged in R v Venna was clearly subjective recklessness (that is, that D foresaw the uk, risk but went ahead regardless), because the judgment in R v Venna speaks of recklessness and intention as being often almost indistinguishable. [Precedent - finding the ratio - a good example of the modern incremental approach] D a solicitor was asked to prepare a will, but negligently failed to Benefits Can be from the Social Sciences, do so before the testator died. Two claimants who should have received legacies under the will sued D in negligence. Held : On the question of whether the solicitor D owed the beneficiaries a duty of care, there was no clear precedent. The majority of the House agreed that the beneficiaries should succeed. [Precedent – exceptions to Young – previous decision per incuriam – liberty of the subject] C was committal to prison for breach of a non-molestation court order.

The paperwork failed to specify the breaches or to grant an adjournment. Held : Sir John Donaldson MR: These were material irregularities for the home depot uk, which the order would be quashed. Previous decisions were per bertrand russell incuriam the error had been compounded by depot uk a line of cases, and this was an exceptional case. Allowing the respondent's appeal against an order.

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Ancestors-The Genetic Source David Suzuki. The Home Uk! Please log in to add your comment. Transcript of Ancestors-The Genetic Source David Suzuki. David Suzuki is a Japanese-Canadian environmental activist who was born in Vancouver in 1936. He is a Japanese-Canadian sansei (3rd gen) in which his grand parents immigrated from Hiroshima + Aichi. He grew up in an internment camp with his mother and sisters until 1945. During his internment, the Education Traditional Education Canadian government seized the family owned dry cleaning business and uk, sold it. This made it hard for Suzuki to pros and cons, forgive and trust the Canadian government and the country he lives in. One of the main ideas that Suzuki wrote about would be that the actions of certain individuals do not represent the future actions of the home uk, others. While Suzuki wrote about the hardship that his family faced he recognized latter in life that “every one of (his) emotional problems went right back to define tainos, (the time spent in the internment camps)”.

The only depot reason that a 5 year old boy would be living in a cattle ranch with hundreds others like him, would be if the government took a look at problems, the boy and told him that he is now an enemy of the state. “Their only crime was the possession of a common genetic heritage with the enemy” and ergo the government thought it to be right to treat all Japanese the same as kamikaze pilots. Other parts of the story further proves his intent with the story, such as the depot time when he was refused lodging because his wife is caucasian. Even though the owner knew that Suzuki was Japanese, he refused to let the couple rest in the traditional Japanese inn because he had a bad “experience” with caucasians and vowed to never take them in again. Both of these examples show that some people have prejudices against certain races. Extending on Suzuki’s experiences, he is showing that no matter what they believe in, look like or what culture they grew up in, others similar individuals do not hold accountable each others actions. - Most of the story involves Suzuki going to nursing pros and cons, his ancestral homeland for the first time in Tokyo for the international congress of genetics in 1968. All his life, Suzuki was the minority being Japanese, he wanted large eyes and brown hair so he could fit in depot, how ever being in about Acid Diethylamide, Japan made him feel invisible and simple. Looking like everyone els and fitting in also showed Suzuki how different he is compared to uk, the rest of the Japanese culture, people would try to communicate with him but not knowing the language made him isolated and quickly labeled as a gaijin.

Pearl Harbour December 7, 1941 Tokyo 1968. About Acid! Suzuki realized in Japan how little genetics matter and was reminded how the Canadian culture has impacted and shaped his life. When first visiting his family in Japan they could not keep a conversation because they did not have a common language to depot, communicate with. Even though we has pure Japanese there was nothing more in common between him and That Gained from Sciences Essay, his ethnicity than what he looked like. In Japan, learning quickly that he did not speak Japanese, the natives stereotyped him and depot, labeled him as a gaijin - a foreigner. The Japanese society did not see him as one of their own, but an outsider. On the other hand the Canadian society did not see him as one of their own either, and therefore labeled him and his family as Harbour-Bombers - the Japanese people who bombed Pearl Harbour.

Meeting his family. Ther two main characters in bertrand problems, the short story would be David Suzuki and depot, Tara Cullis. Tara Cullis has been married to Suzuki since 1972. We do not know much about her except her heritage; she is most definitely caucasian. She is very important to define tainos, the story and the main idea, because while Suzuki wrote about his past in Japan he mentions the incident between an uk, innkeeper and his prejudges against white people. The innkeeper did not take in Tara nor Suzuki due to her being white/ westerner and define tainos, therefore further proves the main idea about the home depot uk prejudices being used against certain races/ethnic backgrounds in nursing pros, the story. The Home! Eventhough Cullis and define tainos, Suzuki are important characters to the main idea, Suzuki#39;s great uncle and mother are the least explored and expanded characters. However they do make a large impact for when Suzuki meets his family in Japan for the first time.

After meeting his Japanese relatives, they all wrote back to his mother saying how painful it must be to live in the minority and not being able to communicate with her son. Suzuki is heartbroken because he cannot communicate to the rest of his family and this makes his relatives turn on the home depot uk, him by define tainos implying that he is an Japanese gaijin. Eventhough Suzuki looks like his family from Japan, they are very different, culturally, intellectually, and mentally. There is more than our appearances that distinguish us from each other, and the home depot uk, his Japanese family opened his eyes to it. ?One of the symbols in congressional reconstruction, the story is the language barrier, either in Japan or in Canada. Communication is the best way to move forward from the past and when Suzuki was in Japan he could not communicate to his direct relatives or even with the natives. The Home Depot! Through the lack of Japanese, the Education Versus Traditional Essay natives thought Suzuki a gaijin (tourist), and the stigma and fear is depot uk directly placed on him. The Japanese natives were quite rude and racist towards the westerners because of what they had experienced with others that share the same language/ face. Like vice versa in Canada during world war two people assume that all Japanese were imperialist fighting for define tainos, their ancestral country just because the the home depot uk language they spoke was not Canadian English. The language barrier in the story kept the Canadians and Japanese from communicating and bertrand russell of philosophy, therefore separating them from future connections.

Even though Japan and Canada have had a shaky past, the only differences between them is the language they speak and unfortunately they cannot move past their differences because they cannot communicate. - In early December 1941 Japan attacked the United States and brought them into WWII. This event left thousands of Japanese-Canadians who have no ties to the enemy, in the home depot, internment camps throughout the Online Education interior. Suzuki’s family lost everything during that time - Their home, their business and their freedom. Depot! Suzuki was placed in the B.C interior with his mother and congressional reconstruction plan, sisters, resenting what he looked like and why people would do this to his family. He did not speak Japanese, he studied Shakespeare, he learned Canadian-British history and he played Beethoven.

The Canadian government took away his identity and left Suzuki and many others resenting Canadians.

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essays models stress November 2003 Issue. Thinking processes, reverse engineering and external representations in the generation and application of depot uk, stress models. By Dr. Congressional! Lorraine Cleeton, St.

Bonaventure University, NY. This article traces the progress of students taking a stress management course, in which traditional models of stress were presented and the home new models developed. Congressional! The students found that traditional stress models were useful only in specific situations, but not transferable to the home uk novel outbreaks of stress. They thought that this was due partly to reconstruction differences in definitions of stress. Depot Uk! The students found it difficult to devise new stress models. An examination was made of thinking processes which had been used for generating successful models, in analogous systems suffering from initial resistance to definition and modeling. Reverse engineering by problems, computer-aided simulation looked to be one promising route towards generating new models of depot, stress. Another was recent research in external representations used for problem solving. It is hoped that this review will encourage the development of transferable models of stress and define tainos spin off more precise definition of stressors and strains.

Two major difficulties arose in a course on stress management. Firstly, the students were dichotomized between those who, as ‘clients in stress’, had problems themselves and those who, as ‘counselors’, wanted to help other people. Secondly, the solutions to novel problems presented by the ‘clients’ were not always amenable to solutions suggested by the ‘counselors’. To anticipate this polarization of the students the initial aim of the the home depot, course had been generalized to ‘Eliminating, minimizing and controlling stress in ourselves and in other people’. Adding to Education the difficulties, a literature review revealed many researchers maintaining that stress has not been precisely defined (Everly and Rosenfeld 1981). For the second run of the course, an additional aim was added – ‘Gaining skills to transfer to transfer to new and novel outbreaks of stress’. It was hoped that this would facilitate students to counsel people outside those taking the course, but they reported many failures. The aims were screened into a series of objectives against which evaluation was made by the home depot uk, assessed tasks following each two-hour session. Although stress has not been precisely defined, assumptions have been made about Benefits That Can be Gained ‘the effects of the home uk, a feeling of acute or prolonged anxiety’ or ‘lack of resolution of conflict’. Based on define tainos such imprecise definitions, which create more constructs than they eliminate, it was not surprising to find widespread disagreement among the students in acceptance of such concepts as 'stress-related illness'. Students were able to fit appropriate models to the home depot uk the symptoms, but needed tools to develop new models to understand novel stressors.

Finally, it was hoped to answer the define tainos, question, ‘Does understanding stress through modeling go a long way towards alleviating it? ‘ Information overload (‘Tap and Jug’) model. Many people have visions of stress and visions of what would cure it, for example, 'If I didn't have so much work to depot do', 'If my students were well behaved' or 'If my boss would leave'. Most of the Essay Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, students brought along with them the naive model of stress caused by information or emotional overload. Depot! This assumes that the organism has just so much to give and that problems arise when that limit is exceeded. Powell and Enright (1990) called this the 'Tap and Jug' model - Tap and Jug model. The strength of russell problems of philosophy, this model lies in depot uk simplicity, but its weakness in the variety of capacities of individuals for overload and the variability of their reactions to stimuli (Eysenck 1989). For example, prisoners able to tolerate confinement and torture may still have a fear of spiders in their cells. In early assignments the students most frequently applied this model as a default, sometimes used legitimately, but more often to fall back on in desperation when other models had failed. Capacity - Demand model. The Tap and Jug model can be made more useful by upgrading it to a Capacity-Demand model, as described by Wycherley (1987).

The aim is not only to increase capacity, but also potential for increased demand, by increasing the stamina or robustness of the person. Online Traditional Essay! To increase capacity, optimum challenge should be applied, according to the Yerkes-Dodson (1908) Law - This law states that there is a optimum level of challenge - sufficient to stimulate and maintain interest, but not sufficient to cause undue stress. Capacity – Demand model. Many people feel stressed when the size of their workload approaches their perceived capacity for work. Stress increases as more work is the home, added, eventually to exceed the perceived capacity. Ideally one hopes that the bertrand russell of philosophy, workload will decrease, but sometimes as a result of the the home depot, stress we are scarred and our capacity is reduced.

If you come to terms with it or receive counseling, it is hoped that the workload might once again just fill the capacity. A better solution would be to Online Versus Essay achieve more stamina so that there is increased capacity, i.e. the ability to withstand a greater workload in the future - keeping the load within the boundaries of the increased capacity. In the depths of our own stress we all know colleagues we admired who never seemed ruffled by increased workload, or by sudden life changes, and who seemed to have infinite capacity. Against the background of imprecise definition of stress, the concepts of 'stressors' and 'strains' were discriminated and offered to the students in uk a cause-effect model. A 'stressor' might be work overload , causing the 'strain' of fatigue. This is illustrated by the. Weight-on-a-Spring model, the Weight representing the nursing and cons, stressor and the extension the strain (Russell 1953).

This model was useful when first presented, but the students soon noticed that a strain could switch to being a stressor, leading to a chaining effect. For example, the strain of fatigue could become the stressor causing the strain of a weakening family relationship . A stress counselor should enter the chain by the home depot uk, defining the stressor and strain at Versus Traditional point of entry. There is cost to a client, and difficulties for a counselor, who fails to find the break-point of entry to a closed loop stressor-strain cycle. The students were given local, national and global suicide and mortality figures, with their relationships to variables such as socioeconomic background and the home marital status . This led to listings of stress-related illnesses. The students showed wide variation in their beliefs about discrimination and Essay about Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Analysis generalization of this concept, which was not surprising given the background of an imprecise definition of ‘stress’ itself. The students understood and accepted the Three-Systems Model of behavioral , emotional and physical interaction as described by Powell and Enright (1990), but they barely mentioned it in discussion, counseling or essays. Perhaps the students felt the model to the home depot uk be too nave, obvious or inappropriate, even in conditions where its originators saw its relevance. Perhaps being a textual model it was easily forgotten. However when students failed to observe behavioral, emotional and physical changes at an early stage in a counseling situation, there were cumulative difficulties in reducing client anxiety.

Type A and B Personalities model. The students realized that their problems could not only define tainos, be blamed on the environment but on their own reactions and depot uk interactions with it. The Type A and B model of behavior traits (Friedman and Rosenan 1959; Glass 1977; Matthews 1982) was introduced. Congressional Reconstruction! Its categorization was clear, but although the depot uk, methods for ameliorating excessive bias towards either trait were highly successful with a few students, the model failed with the rest. A new model was proposed for targeting a desirable but hypothetical middle-road Type ‘C’ behavior and developed by role-play to even more satisfying Types D, E, F - - - and subsequent behaviors, where for example reaction to a novel, unexpected event, shock or emergency situation could be controlled to Online Education Versus Traditional Education prevent disablement of thought or action. Assuming attitudes are difficult to change quickly by conventional methods (except by unfortunate negative shock events), the students found that much practice was needed to reach the ‘higher’ levels of C, D, E - - - behavior, beyond the traditional Types A and B. For example, at first, great control is needed to depot speak slowly when every set instinct tells you to use quick and about Lysergic Acid Diethylamide aggressive response. Teachers are well trained in this technique when faced with challenging students. Uk! Ways of affecting more rapid change would need to control or cope with instinctive reactions. Students trained in using suggestion in hypnosis achieved the most rapid results in changing destructive attitudes. Life-Change Units (LCU’s) Shock events like bereavement can effect rapid temporary or permanent change.

Illness or accident can trigger a person to initiate a worthy cause to help similar victims. Define Tainos! The students completed the Holmes and the home depot Rahe (1967) Life-Change Inventory, but found that their reactions to a life-change event were dependent on problems of philosophy their hardiness, mental stamina and parental or vocational training - This model suggests that life changes or job changes cause the stress. Life changes have been placed in a hierarchy. At the top of the list is 'death of a spouse'. The Home Uk! 'Christmas' and 'holidays' appear in the list as causing some people stress, even though they are supposed to provide relaxation. Bertrand Problems Of Philosophy! Each life-change item in the list is allocated a score. You add your scores and the total indicates your stress level. Perhaps each profession should develop its own LCU’s. For example, teachers are subject to their own list of internal life changes - sudden changes in depot collaborative teams, the curriculum or family problems. Compilation of a complete scored list focused on teaching would be a fruitful piece of research. Test Your Stress Level - Read through this list of life events and write down the Life Change Units (LCUs) value for each that has occurred in the last 12-18 months.

Total your Life Change Units (LCUs). If your score is 150 LCUs or less, your level of stress based on problems of philosophy life changes is low. Depot! If your score is 150-300 LCUs, your stress levels are borderline - you should minimize changes in Benefits That Gained Sciences your life if possible at this time. If your score is more than 300 LCUs your stress levels are high. The Home! You should minimize other changes in Benefits Can be Gained from the Social Sciences Essay your life if possible and uk work at instituting some stress intervention techniques. Ranking of Life event. 1. Define Tainos! Death of Spouse. 3. Marital Separation. 5. Death of close family member. 6. Personal injury or illness.

8. The Home Uk! Fired from Online Traditional Education Essay job. 9. Marital reconciliation. 11. The Home Uk! Change in health of family member. 13. Sex Difficulties. 14. Gain of new family member. 15. Business readjustment. 16.

Change in financial state. 17. Death of close friend. 18. Change to different line of work. 19. Change in number of arguments with spouse. 20. Mortgage/loan for major purchases. 21. Foreclosure of mortgage or loan.

22. Change in responsibilities at work. 23. Son or daughter leaving home. 24. Trouble with in-laws. 25. Outstanding personal achievement. 26. Spouse begins or stops work. 27.

Begin or end school. 28. Change in living conditions. 29. Revision of personal habits. 30. Trouble with boss. 31. Change in work hours or conditions. 32. Change in residence. 33. Change in schools. 34. Change in recreation. 35. Change in That Can be Gained from the Social Sciences Essay church activates. 36. Change in the home depot social activities. 37. Define Tainos! Mortgage, or loan for the home uk lesser purchase (car etc.) 38.

Change in sleeping habits. 39. Change in number of Benefits That Sciences Essay, family. 40. Change in eating habits. 43. Minor violation of the law. S tress is the body's non-specific response to any demand placed upon it. It is not caused only by negative or adverse influences. The Home Uk! Stress increases the rate of wear and Essay Lysergic Diethylamide Analysis tear the body experiences.

Americans spend over nine billion dollars a year to deal with stress. The ritualistic model is related to the load capacity model and to the life change model. It is depot uk, based on a feeling that things are out of control unless rituals are observed. Eventually this blocks creativity and innovation. The rituals are not confined to working hours. They start in the morning before work, where events ‘have’ to take place in a habitual order, or stress is Diethylamide, experienced. In the stress management course, students were weaned from the home rituals by setting them a homework assignment to break at first just one ritual. They said it was the most difficult assignment of the bertrand russell, course.

Teachers know that a slight change in routine can upset the discipline of a class. It might be a snowfall starting or a bird settling outside the classroom window. Perhaps the the home uk, education system should devote itself in the affective domain to teaching children to react appropriately to novel situations, essential for encouraging creativity. Moving animal model. A simple ‘moving animal’ model was found to be very effective. A tiger was drawn on nursing and cons one overhead projector slide and jungle camouflage on another. The Home Uk! The two slides were placed on top of each other on an overhead projector. The animal is only noticed when the overlapping slides are moved relative to each other. The analogy in define tainos stress management is that many people are happy to preserve the status quo and only experience stress when changes are made in their working life.

This model helped to exercise the the home depot uk, ‘detector function’ described later in Kuhn’s model (1974). To complement the life change inventory, the effects of cumulative small stressors were examined. Online Education Essay! Research articles have started to appear showing for example some evidence of a link between these 'microstressors' and depression ( McLean 1976). The students were encouraged to keep a record of these microstressors and the strains which appeared temporally close to them. Many of the depot uk, students asked to be taught Assertiveness. In its mid-ground between passivity and aggression, or between reactive and proactive response, Assertiveness asks for students to move between these attitudes. Like switching between Type A and B, it was difficult to break lifelong habitual responses to situations. Relaxation techniques were the ameliorating catalyst to change, but some students still found it paradoxical to combine assertiveness with relaxation.

Relaxation was therefore practised both in preparation for being more assertive when rights were infringed and also for defusing the aggression of other people. Define Tainos! For most students extensive role-play and feedback from external situations effected the desirable responses. Learning curves model. When students realized that stress management would often involve simultaneous changes to themselves and to their environment a return to the first principles of learning was needed. Uk! They had to learn how to Online Education learn new responses to stressors. Depot! This was difficult because of their ritualizations. Cleeton (1991) profiled learning barriers, not only in the cognitive domain, but also in the functional and experiential domains. Functional learning barriers to stress management may be lack of confidence, lack of assertiveness, family problems or conflict between work and define tainos home. Experiential learning barriers may be lack of the home depot uk, experience in dealing with problems normally arising at work or home. The students were shown examples of learning curves - Curve showing a linear rate of learning.

Curve showing linear learning, but starting from some previous knowledge. More realistically, the following curve shows how many of us learn. It is called the ‘stepped-change model’. For example, when we learn how to play a musical instrument, we achieve an elementary level quite rapidly, and then seem to ‘stick’ at that level and think we will never rise above it. After a number of steps, we may reach a ‘plateau’ where we either give up the practice and learning, or realize that we have reached the limit of our persistence or. Curve showing stepped learning. The following curve reproduces an define tainos actual performance by an adult learner. The Home Depot! At first the learning was ‘ideal’, accelerating as knowledge accumulated along an exponential curve – a ‘knowledge explosion’.

Then the learner discovered a barrier and fell into a discouraging ‘ditch’ of learning. Recovering, but lacking confidence, the learner could not achieve accelerated learning, but only linear learning. A second fall into a ditch leaves the define tainos, learner so discouraged that some previous learning could not remembered (a learning ‘block’), but eventually recovery took place to reach a plateau of ability and persistence. Learning Curve showing actual performance of an adult learner. accelerated (‘ideal’) learning. The following curve shows ‘ideal’ learning, usually produced by the home depot, material which is challenging but not anxiety-producing. It shows ‘accelerated learning’ – an exponential rise in bertrand achievement with time, knowledge cumulatively capitalizing on previous knowledge, setting off a knowledge explosion.

‘Ideal’ Learning Curve. Relating these curves to stress management, students need to strive for ‘ideal’ exponential learning and avoid ‘ditches’ and ‘plateau’. Stress management involves lifelong learning because novel stressors are always presenting themselves with changes to uk the individual, the environment and bertrand russell with local, national and global change. Perception and Reality model. The author (Cleeton G., 1996) developed terminology to describe learning barriers. Depot Uk! Have you ever heard adults or children say, ‘I can’t do Math’? They are expressing a perceived learning barrier. In practice the barrier may be real or illusory . Define Tainos! Sometimes a child will say they can’t do Math, but be able to manipulate and tell you the uk, statistics of all their team’s baseball games. In that case the barrier must be to some extent illusory . When adults return to the classroom after a gap of Online Education Versus Traditional Education Essay, many years, they are often scarred with memories of failure in school, sometimes from bad teaching, for example from teaching abstract before concrete operations.

These scars caused ditches in their learning curves. Gentle teaching to remove the scars and depot getting them to realize that it was not their fault can relegate their perceived barriers into illusory barriers. Sometimes perceived barriers will be expressed in more serious terms or at specific levels. Congressional Plan! A child might say, ‘I can’t do Math, and what’s more I never will be able to do it’. The Home Depot! This suggests that there is a hierarchy of learning barriers. An older learner might say, ‘I can’t do complex numbers, and what’s more I never will be able to’. Before a course starts, a potential student may scan the syllabus and express anticipated learning barriers for the whole or part of it, for Online Education Essay example - ‘I anticipate difficulties with genetics’. This can cause a damaging mindset. Piaget and Inhelder (1971) said, ‘That which is anticipated is more likely to occur’ - an uk example of ‘negative’ or pejorative visualisation. In stress management the tutor needs to demonstrate that many anticipated and perceived barriers can be illusory , and also teach how to Can be Gained the Social Sciences overcome real barriers.

In preparing lessons we tend to concentrate on motivation to make lessons interesting, but we should also forecast, acknowledge and aim to surmount learning barriers. Learning barriers will be encountered in the Substantive (subject matter) domain, for example caused by faulty sequencing of the material. They can also be in the Functional domain, for example caused by disability or family problems. They can be in the Experiential domain, for example caused by the home depot, lack of practical experience in needed skills. There are several models of Online Education Versus, learning barriers. The Home Depot Uk! Early models by Lewin (1935) showed barriers as obstructing goals, in define tainos an environment which was to a greater or less degree permeable. As teachers our role is to set the goal and make the teaching environment as permeable and flexible as possible to surmount the learning barriers. An insidious learning barrier is the discovered barrier. This is neither anticipated before the course starts, nor perceived by the student when the course starts, but is unexpectedly discovered by student and teacher as the course proceeds. Not even the best pre-course syllabus can forewarn potential students about uk discovered barriers.

Such barriers can approach the learner at high or low speeds, can have fast or slow attacks and fast or slow decays. Their profiles will resemble those generated by music synthesizers – Learning barrier with fast attack and slow decay. Learning barrier with slow attack and fast decay. Learners are not particularly realistic about their learning potential. The author (Cleeton, G., 1996) found that they were notorious in their discrepancies between perception and reality. Essay Lysergic Acid Analysis! Mostly they were pessimistic, sometimes optimistic. Skilled teaching can bring them into reality without discouragement. Weaknesses were apparent in students' decision-making skills. They tended to act either in uk a stereotyped way when faced with novel outbreaks of stress, or at congressional the other extreme would vacillate between trial of different solutions. They also experienced dissonance - avoiding alternatives when a decision had been made and brooding with regret, so salience of their dissonance was not resolved (Festinger 1993). Models of learning strategies, decision-making and risk-taking were studied in the context of innovation theory.

The Reality-Perception of Reality model became accepted and was used with success in reducing the discrepancy index (Fisher 1986) between perception and the home depot reality. Students also noted discrepancy between perception and reality in conflicts between the conscious and subconscious minds. A client might say, consciously and Benefits That Can be Gained Sciences Essay conventionally, ‘I love my sister’, but subconsciously, in uk regression, say, ‘I hate my sister’. Instances of emergence of the ‘child within’ were sensitized by regression. Define Tainos! Problems were reported of ‘childish adults’ and indeed ‘adult children’.

Reluctantly some of these effects began to be recognized by the students as lying within themselves and led to their determination to remove the uk, ‘bugs’ from their systems before practising stress management on other people. Time management model. The stressors of learning and of meeting targets were approached through time management and just-in-time management, keeping long-term diaries of activities, relaxation and thinking. Reorientation of waking and sleeping patterns were accepted by some students but strongly resisted by others. The possibilities of instant sleeping and waking by suggestion in hypnosis were explored, in conjunction with subliminal learning.

Marionette on Strings model. The human being is a delicate instrument, partly controlled by ‘strings’ to the different people in his/her life. Acid! When one of these people pulls a string that attached to the human being too tightly, the string or the human being can ‘snap’ and be either mentally, physically or both mentally and physically destroyed. Other people pulling the strings might be able to compensate for this loss, but in some cases the person may have to completely break ties with the stressor. For example, if the stressor is an depot employer, the person might have to resign to save mental and physical health. Shifting the Goal Posts model. The person is told to complete a task. When near completion, the unionization and cons, controlling person changes the path and targets of the task.

This causes intense stress because everything done up to this point has to be altered to suit the depot, new instructions. Mountain out of a Molehill model. You have to teach simple material that should only take a few minutes to explain, but fill one hour in time to do it. This is a stressor for teachers, professors, or anyone lecturing. The Social Sciences Essay! Sometimes you are given a topic to talk about which in common sense terms can be stated in a few minutes to almost any audience.

You have to stretch this to an hour. You have to inject stories, personal experiences, etc., but as you listen to yourself (if you could) you are restating the original premise over and over until you are completely burnt out. This can make you mentally and physically ill and does not serve as a benefit to your audience either. It is making something more important than it is. Contagion of stress model. Most of the home, us have experience of the ‘weak link in of philosophy the chain’ when working as a team, for example the person who holds up the work by the home uk, not meeting deadlines. When prolonged this behavior can be contagious.

Contagion of stress called for a model based on the two-way spillover of strain between occupation and home (Cooper and Marshall 1976, French and Caplan 1972). This necessitated assembly and modeling of family relationship stressors and occupational stressors, and nursing pros the interaction between them. Power, Role, Task and Person model. Occupational stress was modeled through analysis of the Power, Role, Task and Person structures of uk, organizations ( Harrison 1972). Their structural strengths and weaknesses were assessed in terms of (i) their stability, (ii) their resistance to change, development or recessional crises and (iii) how individuals of different personality might fare in them, or be matched to a structure by choice. The following descriptions of the structures are due to Harrison (1972) - The power culture is most often found in small entrepreneurial organizations. Pros And Cons! Its structure can be pictured as a web. The power culture depends on a central power source with rays of the home depot uk, power and influence spreading out from that central figure. The rays may be connected by functional or specialist strings but the power rings are the centers of define tainos, power and influences. This organization works on precedent and by anticipating the wishes and decisions of the central power sources.

There are few rules and uk procedures and little bureaucracy. Control is exercised from the center. It is a political organization in that decisions are taken largely based on define tainos the balance of influence rather than on logical or procedural grounds. A power culture can move very quickly and react rapidly to threats or opportunities. These cultures put a lot of faith in the individual, little in committees. They judge by results and care very little about the means used to depot uk obtain results. Nursing Pros And Cons! Size is a problem for power cultures; when they get large or when they seek to take on too many activities, they can collapse. The role culture is called a bureaucracy. The structure for depot uk a role culture can be pictured as a Greek temple.

The role culture works by logic and rationality. Its strength in its its pillars or functional specialties, e.g. the finance department, the technical services department, the reconstruction plan, public services department. The work of the functional departments is contro lled by: The functional departments are controlled at the home depot uk the top by a small group of senior managers (the pediment of the temple). It is assumed that these folks are the only co-ordinators required if the pros, separate departments do their job as laid down by the rules and procedures and the overall plan. In the role culture, the job description is often more important than the individual who fills it. Individuals are selected for satisfactory performance of a role and the role is usually so described that a range of individuals can fill it.

Performance above and beyond the role prescription is not required and can even be regarded as disruptive. Position power is the the home, major power source; personal power is frowned upon and expert power limited to its proper place. The efficiency of this culture depends o n the rationality of the allocation of work and responsibility rather than on individuals. The role organization will succeed very well in stable environments where little changes from year to year and bertrand predictions can be made far in advance. Where the organization can control its environment, where its markets are stable, predictable or controllable, the rules and procedures and the programmed approach to work will be successful. Role cultures are slow to perceive the need for change and slow to change even when the need is seen. If the the home, market, the product/service needs, or the environment changes, the role culture is likely to continue without change until it collapses or until the about Lysergic Diethylamide Analysis, top management is replaced.

Role cultures offer security and predictability to the individual -- a steady rate of ascent up the career ladder. They offer the chance to depot acquire specialist expertise without risk. They tend to reward those wanted to do their job to a standard. A role culture is frustrating for the individual who is power-oriented or who wants control over his/her work. Those who are ambitious or more interested in Online Education Education results than method may be discontented, except in top management. The role culture is found where economies of the home depot, scale are more important than flexibility and where technical expertise and depth of specialization are more important than product innovation or product cost.

The task culture is job or product oriented or focused on service delivery. Its accompanying structure can be represented as a net. Notice some of the strands of the net are thicker and stronger than the others. The power and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Analysis influence in a task culture lies at the intersections. A matrix organization is one form of the task culture. The task culture seeks to bring together the appropriate resources, the right people at the home uk the right level of the organization, and then to let them get on with it. Influence is based more on expert power than on position or personal power, although these power sources have an effect. Influence is more widely dispersed than in other cultures and each individual in the culture tends to think he/she has influence.

The task culture is a team culture where the outcome, the result, the product of the team's work tends to be the common goal overcoming individual objectives and most status and style differences. The task culture uses the unifying power of the group to improve efficiency and to identify the individual with the objective of the organization. The task culture is and cons, highly adaptable. Groups, project teams, or task forces are formed for a specific purpose and can be reformed, abandoned or continued. Uk! The net organization works quickly since each group ideally contains within it all the decision-making powers required. Nursing Unionization Pros! Individuals have a high degree of control over their work in this culture.

Judgment is by depot uk, results. Benefits Gained From The Social Sciences Essay! There are generally easy working relationships within the group with mutual respect based upon capacity rather than age or status. The task culture is appropriate where flexibility and sensitivity to the market or environment are important. The task culture fits where the the home depot uk, market is competitive, where the product life is short, where speed of congressional plan, reaction is the home depot uk, important. The task culture finds it hard to produce economies of scale or great depth of expertise. Large scale systems are difficult to organize as flexible groups. The technical expert in a task culture will find him/herself working on various problems and in various groups and thus will be less specialized than his/her counterpart working in a role cultures. Control in a task culture is difficult. Congressional Plan! Control is the home depot uk, retained by top management through the define tainos, allocation of projects, people and resources. But little day-to-day control can be exerted over the methods of working or the procedures without violating the norms of the culture. Task cultures flourish when the climate is agreeable, when the product is all-important, when the the home uk, customer is always right, and when resources are available for all who can justify using them. ( ‘for example putting a Man on the Moon by 1970’ – Ed.)

When resources of money and people have to be rationed, top management may wish to control methods as well as results. That Can Be From The Social Essay! When this happens, team leaders begin to compete for resources using political influence. Morale will decline and the job becomes less satisfying as individuals begin to reveal their individual objectives. The Home Depot Uk! When this happens the reconstruction, task culture tends to change to a role or power culture. The task culture is the home uk, usually the one preferred as a personal choice to work in by most managers especially those at define tainos junior and middle levels. It is the culture which most of the behavioral theories of organizations point towards with their emphasis on groups, expert power, rewards for results, merging individual and group objectives. It is the culture most in tune with current ideologies of depot uk, change and adaptation, individual freedom and low status differentials. The person culture is an unusual one and won't be found in many organizations but many individuals cling to define tainos some of its values.

In this culture the individual is the central point. If there is a structure or an the home depot organization it exists only to about Lysergic Analysis serve and assist the individuals within it. If a group of individuals decide that it is in their own interests to band together in order to do their own thing more successfully and that an office, a space, some equipment, some clerical support would help, then the resulting organization will have a person culture. Architectural partnerships, real estate firms, some research organizations, perhaps information brokers often have this person orientation. Its structure is minimal, a cluster or galaxy of individual stars may be the best picture. As most organizations tend to have goals and objectives over and above the set of collective objectives of their members, there are few organizations with person cultures. Control mechanisms or even management hierarchies are impossible in their cultures except by mutual consent. Depot Uk! The organization is subordinate to the individual and depends on the individual for its existence. The individual can leave the organization but the organization seldom has the power to russell evict an the home individual. Influence is shared and the power base is usually expert.

The kibbutz, the commune, the co-operative, are strivers for define tainos the personal culture in organizational form. The Home Uk! Rarely does it succeed beyond the original creators. Benefits That Can Be From The Social! Very quickly the organization achieves its own identify and begins to impose it on the home depot uk its individuals. It becomes a task culture at Lysergic Acid Analysis best, but often a power or role culture. Although there are few organizations with person cultures, many individuals with a personal preference for this type of culture operate in other kinds of organization. Specialists in organization often feel little allegiance to depot the organization but regard it rather as a place to do their thing with some benefit accruing to their employer. Individuals with this orientation are not easy to manage. As specialists employment elsewhere is pros, often easy to obtain so resource power has less potency.

They rarely acknowledge other people's expert power. Coercive power is the home uk, not usually available which leaves only personal power and Benefits from the Social such individuals are not easily impressed by personality. Within an large organization different types of cultures may be found as shown in the diagram below: The second diagram (due to Harrison 1972) below points out some of the organization design policies variables that need to be considered when considering the depot uk, nature of an organization and its fit with its environment. Detector, Selector, Effector model.

Students had by now realized that that success in stress management would not only involve changes in the environment but also changes in themselves, with feedback between these two systems. The most sophisticated model introduced to the students was that due to unionization Kuhn (1974). It proposes the organism has Detector, Selector and Defector functions, is set within its environment and depot uk has feedback between these three functions through the environment - A closed system is one where interactions occur only define tainos, among the system components and not with the uk, environment. An open system is one that receives input from the environment and/or releases output to the environment. The basic characteristics of an open system is the dynamic interaction of its components, while the basis of a cybernetic model is the feedback cycle. Open systems can tend toward higher levels of organization (negative entropy), while closed systems can only maintain or decrease in organization. Kuhn suggested that strain arises from neglect, damage or insensitivity in bertrand russell one or more of the depot uk, three functions - Detector, Selector and Effector - so the students practised exercises of each function.

Some students preferred textual rather than image presentation of the model. Having applied the Kuhn model, some students were able to unionization pros inject a fine structure proposed by Kuhn, where each of the three functions has its own Detector, Selector and Defector. Although comprehensive, students felt that the model was only a step towards presentation of a simple ‘magic-key’ model, similar to the ‘moving animal’ model, which would be applicable to the home depot uk most situations and spin off a universal definition of stress. Overview of the stress models. Inadequate, makes false assumptions. Inadequate, too specific. Weight on a spring. Defines stressors and strains.

Chaining of unionization pros and cons, stressors and strains. Observation of early warning signs. Difficult to remember, too textual for Imagers. Difficult to practise necessary changes. Inconsistent - ignores microstressors. Life change units. Insufficient detail for specific occupations.

Benefits of gaining flexibility. Difficult to break rituals in a short time. Vivid presentation -immediately useful, also later in the home uk complex. Useful relationships emerging for depression. Tedious to record Microstressors and their subsequent strains. Confidence-building, overcomes fear of innovation. Student preference to retain destructive status-quo.

Perception and reality. Challenges cherished assumptions. Too textual for Imagers. Recognizes suppressed events. Unpopular for those who must see causal strain-stressor connection. Connects time management with personality.

Needs long-term record-keeping. Marionette on define tainos Strings. Involves personal relationships. Tends to absolve individual from change. Shifting the Goal Posts. Useful for meeting deadlines. Mountain out of a Molehill.

Issues warning signs of stress accumulation. Difficult to disentangle connections. Power, Role, Task and Person. Understanding structure in which one works. Ignores personality clashes within structures. Detector, Selector, Effector. Comprehensive, open to expansion. Complex, suggesting need for simplification. Many stress management courses have had to follow the uk, pattern of counseling based upon vague definitions of stress, which leads to loss of focus. In this course a list of stressors was assembled and existing stress models progressively presented to fit new situations of strain. Diverse models had to be remembered and fitted to diverse problems.

Students leaving the plan, course felt that the necessary transfer to novel outbreaks of stress had not been achieved. Where there was contagion of the home, stress, for example from workplace to reconstruction home and back to workplace, students often failed to enter or break the vicious circle. As seen by present students the Perception-Reality and Child-Within models offer greatest promise. They cope with variations in life goals. In amelioration of strains they open a way to philosophical and metaphysical discussion of life purpose. They are complementary to regression for examination of suppressed childhood experiences. They bridge traditional and alternative healing. In the fundamental problem of finding the cause rather than treating the problem, frequently the default has to be that of the home, giving coping strategies for the strain when inability or incompetence has failed to reveal the stressor. Many students felt that previous counseling proposed too close a binding between cause and nursing pros effect, for example – ‘Your fear of water is because you lived near a canal when you were a child’. The Home Depot! It may be prudent to bertrand problems consider the uk, possibility that sometimes there may be no such binding - that there is an element of chance whether an unfortunate child event causes adult anxiety, depression or phobia.

If the focal causal event is exposed, for example in hypnotic regression, the strain may be eliminated without there being obvious cause-effect connection. Similarly in about Acid Diethylamide Analysis the human variation of response to events, there may be no relationship between the severity of a problem and the severity of the cause (and therefore severity or duration of treatment). Proposals for new modeling of stress. In the absence of explicit definition of stress, new models will constantly been needed. This situation is paralleled by the home depot, other systems in their infancy of stubborn resistance to definition. It may be profitable to step outside the situation to look at a different philosophical or material database. When searching for the text string ‘model plus generation’ in Social Science databases, only a few matches were recorded. In contrast, Pure Science databases yielded numerous responses, revealing familiarity with analogous situations, where complex models could mirror mixtures of thin slices of quantitative data with large slices of qualitative information.

For example, the ‘state space framework’ was used by Patterson (1995) to apply a model integrating data generation process with data measurement. Methodologies of kinetic modeling and mechanistic studies of define tainos, complex catalytic chemical reactions have been analyzed by Gabrielle, Denoroy and Reau (1995). They showed the rationality of a methodology based on advancement and discrimination of the home uk, hypotheses and gave a review of define tainos, techniques for hypothesis generation. A combinatorial algorithm and a library of chemical reactions were used. Potthof, Holahan and Joiner (1995) examined a mechanism through which interpersonal vulnerability factors may be linked with depressive symptoms by integrating the stress-generation model with an interpersonal theory of depression. Initial depressive symptoms and initial reassurance-seeking style were positively associated with the occurrence of microstressors.

The results support our students’ perceived usefulness of the model of accumulation of microstressors. Landis (1994) launched a new series of uk, metropolitan simulation models which replicated urban growth patterns and impacts of development policy. The rationality of the define tainos, model and the way it has been built in terms of the home depot, its formal structure, its databases and its decision rules is explained. Our students often failed to disentangle the multiplicity of perceived strains which they experienced and some of about Acid Diethylamide, them could not weight the importance of multiple macro-strains and microstressors leading to their present anxiety states. This indicates the potential for multifactorial modeling, such as used by Rosenheck and Fontana (1994). They used structural equation modeling to explore risk factors for homelessness among war veterans, whose vulnerability was found to be most likely to to a multiplicity of psychiatric and non-psychiatric factors. This would confirm that alleviation of the home depot uk, a broad range of stressors needs a broad range of adjustments. Since the strains defined by student-counselors in their clients may be wrongly attributed to stressors, the top-down approach to modeling may be the way forward. The techniques of reverse engineering might be adopted. Nursing Unionization Pros! Puntambekar, Jablowlov and Sommer (1994) presented a review of the techniques available for reverse engineering, with particular emphasis on the home depot uk three-dimensional model generation.

It could be a promising way to introduce programming of the computer to strain-stress simulation and modeling. Reverse engineering is a methodology for constructing computer-aided design models of physical parts, in circumstances where the drawings of those parts are not available by the normal methods of define tainos, (i) digitizing an existing prototype, (ii) creating a computer model and the home (iii) using it to manufacture the component. Reconstruction Plan! An analogy can be seen with strain-stressor relationships in absence of precise definition of stress. The criteria for a good model of stress would be simplicity, adequacy to facilitate counseling in known categories and flexibility to uk cope with new strains. At the Benefits Can be Gained from Sciences, base level, models are icons for images to the home uk hold a problem in view and remember the connections. Glenberg and Langston (1992) investigated the building of mental models by using pictures in text, suggesting that a picture might provide relatively easy maintenance of some other representational elements corresponding to parts in Online Versus Traditional Essay the picture, freeing up capacity for inference generation. Perhaps stress models should perform a similar function as a ‘holding and the home stacking area’, ready for landing the stress management and coping skills when the problem has been analyzed. The proliferation of about Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, models by brainstorming may be the only path to a definition of stress. However Kometsky and Markowitz (1978) drew attention to the danger of superficial resemblances when evaluating the problem of goodness of fit of a model. Holyoak and Thagard (1995) have acknowledged the usefulness of analogy in generating creative insights, but drew attention to the home examples of dangerous errors which can arise.

Mental models have been studied by Rhees (1983), Craik (1973) and That Can be Sciences Johnson-Laird (1991), who maintained that the mind constructs ‘small-scale models of reality that it uses to anticipate events, to reason and to underlie explanation. The models are constructed in working memory (the mind actively interpreting newly presented information and the home depot integrating previously stored information) as a result of perception, the comprehension of discourse or imagination. Their structure represents something about the world and can best be described in terms of nursing and cons, ‘problem solving’. In problem solving the task of constructing a mental model involves making assumptions about the depot uk, problem and understanding the meaning of define tainos, terms in the problem in order to reach a conclusion (solve the uk, problem). However, an alternative model which is consistent with the statement of the problem might be possible. The Theory of Mental Models (Johnson, Laird and bertrand russell problems Byrne, 1991) predicts that a problem is more difficult to the home solve if more than one model has to be considered. Additional models impose a load on limited working memory.

External representations (colloquially the ‘rough work’ we do to make models or solve problems) are in congressional the world as physical symbols (e.g. written symbols, beads of depot, abacuses, etc) or as external rules, constraints or relations embedded in physical configurations (e.g. Essay About Acid Analysis! spatial relations of written digits, visual and spatial layouts of diagrams, physical constraints in abacuses, etc.). Depot! Internal representations are in the mind as propositions, production schemas, mental images and other forms. According to Travers (1993) when one begins a problem-solving task one mentally visualizes and define tainos arranges the givens, so all representation commences as internal. The Home Depot Uk! Cox and nursing Brna (1995) maintained that concerning the nature of internal representations, popularly debated within cognitive science, advocates can be found for the position that internal imagery is merely epiphenomenal (concomitant to it). External representations (Ers) are short lived or idiosyncratic. Studies in the home depot literacy show the important functions of Ers. The classical view on writing, originally developed by Aristotle and presently restated by Bloomfield (1993) and Sassure (1983) is that writing merely transcribes or re-represents speech from one Er in auditory form to another Er in visual form. Pemberton and Sharples (1996) supported the view that Ers are the markings that writers make, singly, or in define tainos collaboration, on some external medium such as a computer screen.

They include notes, topic lists, written plans, idea maps, outlines, or tables, concept maps, argument structures and annotations on the draft document in depot all its stages. An example of an Er is a simple ad-hoc sketch (or even a shape described in the air or via a trace with a finger on a desktop) indicating intentions that are too amorphous to express easily in words. Bertrand! Wood (1992), in his studies of pairs of collaborating authors, pointed the authors to the home uk draw a large funnel shape to represent the overall structure of the paper, and later both authors cited different places in this shape when talking about the same parts of the and cons, paper. Pemberton and Sharples suggested the Ers could in some instances be too ambiguous and could be resolved by writing down a more precise form of words. When a sample of the home depot, people is asked to Online Education Traditional Education Essay describe their stress by placing it within a stress model, they give different answers to what the stress model meant to them as an individual. Student-tutor experiences with stress modeling suggests the need for the home uk re-examination of the thinking processes by which subject-independent models are generated both inside and congressional outside this specific field. Promising directions seem to be those of depot, reverse engineering and Education Versus Traditional Education computer-simulation of strain-stressor relationships, and teaching enhanced skills in external representation. These will be the immediate directions of future research in constructing stress models. Bloomfield L. Depot! (1993) Language.

New York : Holt, Rhinehart and define tainos Winston. Cleeton G.(1991). Development and depot application of a new theory of learning barriers . Ph.D. thesis, University of Keele . Cleeton G. (1996). Perception and Reality of define tainos, Learning Barriers. Perceptual and Motor Skills , 1996, 82, 339 – 348. Cooper C.L. and Marshall J. Depot Uk! (1976) Occupational sources of bertrand russell problems of philosophy, stress a review of. the literature relating to coronary heart disease and uk mental ill health. Journal.

of Occupational Psychology , 49, 11-28. Cox, R. and Brna P. (1995) Supporting the use of external representations in problem solving; The Journal of plan, Artificial Intelligence In Education, 6(2/3), 239-302. Craik F. (1973) “Levels of Analysis” view of memory. The Home Depot! IN P.PLINER et al. (Eds.), Communicattion and affect: language and thought. New York : Academic Press. Eysenck, M. H. (1989). Personality, Stress Arousal and Cognitive Processes in Stress transactions. In Neufeld R W J (Ed) Advances in the Investigation of.

Psychological Stress , 133-157. Everly G. Sciences! S. and Rosenfeld R. (1981). The Nature and Treatment of the the home uk, Stress Response , Plenum, New York , p4. Festinger L. (1993). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance . Stanford University Press. French J.P.R. and Caplan R D (1972). Organizational Stress and Individual Strain. In Marrow A J (Ed), ‘ The Failure of Success ’. Amacom , New York , 30-66.

Friedman M. and Rosenman R.H. (1959). Association of specific overt behavior pattern with increases in Education Traditional Education blood cholesterol, blood-clotting time, incidence of arcus senilis and clinical coronary artery disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 169,1286 -- 1296. Gabrielle B, Denoroy, P. and Reau R. (1985) Nitrogen dynamics in a colza planatation-modelling ecological impact. Uk! OCL-Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides, 2. 1,8-10.

Glass D.C. (1977). Behavior patterns, stress and coronary disease . Hillsdale , N.J. :Erlbaum. Glenberg A.M. and Langston W.E. (1992). Comprehension of illustrated text: Pictures help to build mental models. Journal of congressional plan, Memory and Language, 31, 2,129 -- 150. Holyoak K. J. and the home depot Thagard P. (1995). Mental leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought. Bradford Books, U.S.

Holmes T.H. and Rahe R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal l of Psychosomatic Research, 11,213 --218. Johnson-Laird P. and Byrne R. (1991) Deduction. Hillsdale , New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kometsky C. and Markowitz R. 1978. Animal models of schizophrenia. Nursing Unionization Pros! In Lipton M.A., DiMascio A., Killiam K.F. (eds).

Abio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16:495-2512. Kuhn A. (1974) The Logic of Social Systems. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Landis J. D. The Home Uk! 1994. The California Urban Futures Model - Anew generation of define tainos, metropolitan simulation models. Environments and planning, 21, 4,399 -- 420. Lolas F. The Home Uk! (1979). The pertinence of animal investigation for clinical stress research.

Neurobiologia., 42: 185 -- 192. Matthews (1982). Psychological perspectives on the type - A behavior pattern. Psychological Bulletin, 91,293-2333. McLean (1976). Depression as a specific response to stress. In Sarason IG and Spielberger CD (Eds.), Stress and Anxiety , Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, pp 297-2321. Patterson (1995).

An integrated model of the data measurements and data generation processes within application to consumers’ expenditure. Economic Jouirnal, 105, full to wait, 54 -- 76. Pemberton L. and Sharples R. (1996) External Representations in nursing pros the Writing Process and How to the home depot Support Them. Online Traditional Education Essay! AIEd 96 External Representations. Potthoff J.G., Holahan C.J. and the home depot uk Joiner T.E. (1995) Reassurance seeking, stress generation and depressive symptoms -- an integrative model. Journal of define tainos, Personality and Social Psychology 68, 4,664 -- 670. Puntambekar N.V., Jablokow A.G. and Sommer, H.J. (1994) Unified review of the home, 3D model generation for and cons reverse engineering. Computer integrated Manufacturing Systems, 7, 4, 259-268. Powell T. J. and the home Enright S. (1990) . Anxiety and Stress Management.

Tavistock. Rosenheck R. and Fontana A. (1994). A model of define tainos, homelessness among mild veterans of the Vietnam-war generation . American Journal of Psychiatry , 151,3,421 -- 427. Rhees R. and Anscombe G. (1983) Ludwig Wittgenstein, Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics. Russell R.W. (1953). Behavior under stress. International Journal of Psychoanalysis , 54, 1 -- 12. Sassure F. (1983) Courses in General Linguistics London: Duckworth. Travers J. Depot! (1993) Effectuve Teaching, Effective Learning. Chicago : Brown and Benchmark. Wood C. (1992).

A cultural-cognitive approach to collaborative writing. Cognitive Science. Research Paper CSRP 242, University of Essay Acid Diethylamide Analysis, Sussex . Wycherley (1997). The Home! The Living Skills Pack. South East Thames Regional Health Authority , UK ,P 28.

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What work experiences and skills match that ideal candidate profile? Highlight those selling points in your resume. Essay About Lysergic Acid Diethylamide! “How to Write a Great Resume” will take you through the whole process step by step. A good resume template can streamline the process of creating a professional resume. It takes care of depot all the little, easily overlooked formatting details such as the fonts, margins, bullets, and alignment. This allows you to Acid, focus on the job search itself, and on writing your resume. Each document in our library is free to download for personal use. Simply scroll down to the home uk, find a Microsoft Word template that presents your unique job experience in the best possible way.

Templates on this page are compatible with Microsoft Word. Please see these resources for congressional reconstruction plan, professional resume templates in other formats: OpenOffice – In this primer on the OpenOffice resume, you’ll learn how to insert tables, images, and graphs into your resume. We also offer free resume and cover letter templates in both OTT and ODT formats. Depot! Google Docs – Google Doc offers a robust word processor on a powerful, free-to-use platform. Learn about the many ways Google enables file sharing, or download one of trenty Google Docs resume examples. You can export these templates into Word or OpenOffice, save them in rich text or as a pdf, or even publish them as a web page. Photoshop – For resumes that benefit from images, the Photoshop PSD template can be a powerful tool. Not every resume needs images. However, there are applicants, such as graphic designers or photographers, who should consider them.

When used appropriately, images can anchor your resume in the mind of the hiring manager. About Acid Diethylamide Analysis! Follow the link to depot, find a multitude of of philosophy resume examples in depot, a variety of That Can be Gained styles. InDesign – Created by Adobe, InDesign can be thought of as page-layout software. It enables the uk, easy movement around the page of congressional reconstruction images, text, icons, or other artwork. Uk! This allows you to manipulate your resume in creative ways. At the link you will find 26 resume templates using the Essay about Acid Diethylamide Analysis, InDesign INDD (InDesign Document) format.

LaTeX – LaTeX is the home uk not a word processor; it is a “high quality type-setting system.” LaTex was created for academics whose publications include numbers, graphs, and non-Roman scripts. This platform offers users a way to create these kinds of images that its competition lacks. Follow the link to find over thirty resume templates in Benefits That Can be from, the LaTeX file format, downloadable as ZIP files. If you are applying for the home uk, work in academia, you might need a CV template. Please see our Curriculum Vitae page for a CV writing guide and Lysergic, examples. Some documents from our template library use “ lorem ipsum ” text. We refer to those documents as “blank resume templates” because they are designed to assist you with the resume style. We also have examples with sample resume outlines, bullet points, professional profiles, experiences, summary statements, objectives, and other content. These are created to help guide the resume writing process.

Explore our free resume library, download free resume examples and templates, personalize them to match your experience and needs, and start landing more interviews. For job-hunters on the go, here are three “Editors’ Choice” sample resume template designs. Each professional template has been prepared by resume experts and is suitable for depot, most career stages and experience levels. You can also browse some of the most popular layouts we’ve created. Our hall of fame – Top 10 Best Templates – includes our ten most popular resume templates for you to Essay about Lysergic, download for free. Chronological resumes allow potential employers to review your work history, duties and the home, accomplishments at a glance. Bertrand! This type of resume is a great choice for job seekers with a long and stable employment record. Many hiring managers prefer seeing this traditional resume style. See our Chronological Resume Format Guide to depot uk, format your own resume, and to download free chronological resume examples. Functional resumes take the focus away from work experience and emphasize qualifications and skills.

This resume type works best for Versus Traditional Education, career changers, job seekers who have gaps in their work history, and applicants with entry-level resumes. See our Functional Resume Format Guide to learn how to create your own skills-based resume, and to download functional resume examples. Combination Resumes (also known as “hybrid resumes”) show your employment timeline while also highlighting your most relevant qualifications. This format works best for depot, applicants with significant work experience and many job requirements and responsibilities. Plan! Our Combination Resume Format Guide provides the tools you’ll need to make this tricky format work for you, as well as free examples. Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields. Basic does not need to be boring. These layuts are streamlined and organized, and may add a touch of color to help your application stand out. They are appropriate in most industries and career phases (entry-level, managerial, or executive).

Three of the home uk our favorite examples are below, and thirty more are in our Basic Resume Template library. Many companies now use an Applicant Tracking System in their recruitment process. Some of Lysergic Acid Analysis these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts. If you want to ensure that an ATS doesn’t lose information in your resume, then plain text format is the the home uk, safest choice. This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and prominent titles. See all of our ATS-Ready Resume Examples. Tested for define tainos, clarity and readability, Clean and the home depot, Simple Resume Templates will add just the russell problems, right amount of style to your professional profile.

These effective designs rely on depot, typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look. If you think this resume style is for you, download one of three examples below, or choose from seventy options we offer here. Our Modern designs are elegant and streamlined with a twist of congressional reconstruction creativity. While these layouts would be appropriate for a variety of uk industries, they are ideal for high-tech professions where candidates want to portray experience, discipline, and knowledge, as well as show that they are progressive and current with the latest technology. See three examples below, or follow the link to view more templates in our Modern Resume Design Library. Our Contemporary Templates will help you create an up-to-date and dynamic resume. These modern designs read like actual newsletters with headlines and teasers. Pros And Cons! They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts.

If you think a Contemporary Template format is right for you, you can download any of our twenty-two eye catching examples from the the home depot uk, Contemporary Collection. In this resume template library, the designs incorporate actual images of Can be Essay professional work. Depot! If you are an define tainos artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of our Portfolio Resume Templates to present your creativity and the home depot, accomplishments in a visual way. See all of problems our Portfolio examples here. Struggling to the home depot uk, decide what to trim from your two-page resume?

Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page. For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to fit resume content on Online Traditional Education Essay, a single page, follow the link to our discussion of One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to depot, consider who will be reading them. You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. If a creative resume template is right for you, download one of our 40+ examples from the Creative Resume Library. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of popularity in bertrand of philosophy, 2017. This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to tell the the home depot, story of your professional life. Creative resumes and visual layouts are not yet well accepted by Essay Lysergic Analysis, all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry. The Home Depot Uk! We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of nursing graphics for you to download – see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and career stages.

If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of the home depot our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in congressional plan, one of the South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and resume builders.

They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering. Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is uk poorly crafted in either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to Online Versus, the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by doing it for uk, you. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to congressional plan, adjust margins and fonts. The content produced by resume templates and builders, however, is not meant to the home, be the final result. Every job seeker’s experience is define tainos unique, and a template needs to be customized to match and uk, promote that singular experience. A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and a skills-based resume is not the best choice for executives with an problems impressive vertical career progression. Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of creating your resume. The Home Uk! They aren’t one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldn’t be treated as ready-made resumes.

When used for guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is Traditional Education Essay not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder. The Home Depot! This resume-making tool handles both design and nursing unionization, content, and can create excellent first drafts. Depot! The search for work is define tainos a race, and depot uk, resume builders are starting blocks. They don’t get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats.

Writing Tips – Use tips and That Can be Gained from Sciences Essay, sample phrases to uk, describe your work history and achievements. Cover letter templates and builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of bertrand problems formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against the home uk, samples. Resume analytics – Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded. … but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon.

They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at congressional,, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education. Depot! But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to Education Versus Traditional Essay, your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder. Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to the home uk, avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company.

If a resume is nursing unionization pros a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to tell the story of the home uk how you achieved those accomplishments. Nursing Pros And Cons! Use it to depot uk, explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is important to That Gained the Social, you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of depot uk time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors.

Keep it brief – And the shorter the better. According to define tainos, a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. The Home! If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed.

And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for define tainos, each of the home uk them. With social media, this is far easier than it used to bertrand russell, be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential.

Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to read it and the home, give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and bertrand of philosophy, proofreading tips. Learn how to uk, format a resume by making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to Benefits Can be Gained from the Social Sciences Essay, change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and the home, remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in nursing, other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates.

Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the the home depot, process of modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to bertrand problems of philosophy, make it compatible with the size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to “none” and depot uk, print on Online Education Versus Traditional, a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST.

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