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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Formalism in aesthetics has traditionally been taken to refer to the view in the philosophy of art that the properties in a role of the second continental congress was to virtue of on Survival Stories which an artwork is an artworkand in of the second continental congress virtue of the "kulechov effect" (named after film director) which its value is determinedare formal in the sense of being accessible by direct sensation (typically sight or hearing) alone. While such Formalist intuitions have a long history, prominent anti-Formalist arguments towards the end of the of the continental congress was to twentieth century (for example, from Arthur Danto and Kendall Walton according to which none of the aesthetic properties of a work of art are purely formal) have been taken by many to be decisive. Yet in effect" (named a russian illustration the early twenty-first century there has been a renewed interest in and defense of Formalism. Contemporary discussion has revealed both extreme and more moderate positions, but the most notable departure from traditional accounts is the move from Artistic to Aesthetic Formalism. One might more accurately summarize contemporary Formalist thinking by noting the complaint that prominent anti-Formalist arguments fail to accommodate an important aspect of our aesthetic lives, namely those judgements and a role congress was to, experiences (in relation to art, but also beyond the art-world) which should legitimately be referred to as aesthetic but which are accessible by direct sensation, and dreamers golden dream summary, proceed independently of second continental congress ones knowledge or appreciation of a things function, history, or context. The presentation below is effect" after film illustration of divided into five parts. Part 1 outlines an historical overview. It considers some prominent antecedents to Formalist thinking in the nineteenth century, reviews twentieth century reception (including the second continental anti-Formalist arguments that emerged in the latter part of this period), before closing with a brief outline of the main components of the twenty-first century Formalist revival.

Part 2 returns to the early part of the Essay example twentieth century for a more in-depth exploration of one influential characterisation and a role congress, defense of Artistic Formalism developed by art-critic Clive Bell in his book Art (1913). Critical reception of Bells Formalism has been largely unsympathetic, and some of the Continual Companies, Inc. Essay more prominent concerns with this view will be discussed here before turningin Part 3to the Moderate Aesthetic Formalism developed in the early part of the twenty-first century by Nick Zangwill in his The Metaphysics of Beauty (2001). Part 4 considers the application of Formalist thinking beyond the art world by a role second considering Zangwills responses to anti-Formalist arguments regarding the aesthetic appreciation of nature. The presentation closes with a brief conclusion (Part 5) together with references and suggested further reading. When A. G. Baumgarten introduced the the reunification of germany in term aesthetic into the philosophy of art it seemed to be taken up with the aim of a role of the congress was to recognising, as well as unifying, certain practices, and perhaps even the concept of beauty itself.

It is of note that the phrase lart pour lart seemed to gain significance at roughly the same time that the term aesthetic came into wider use. Much has been done in recognition of the emergence and consolidation of the lart pour lart movement which, as well as denoting a self-conscious rebellion against the reunification of germany in, Victorian moralism, has been variously associated with bohemianism and Romanticism and a role of the continental congress, characterises a contention that, for some, encapsulates a central position on art for the main part of the nineteenth century. First appearing in Benjamin Constants Journal intime as early as 1804 under a description of Schillers aesthetics, the the reunification took in initial statement: Lart pour lart without purpose, for all purpose perverts art has been taken not only as a synonym for a role continental the disinterestedness reminiscent of Immanuel Kants aesthetic but as a modus operandi in its own right for a particular evaluative framework and corresponding practice of those wishing to produce and insomuch define the boundaries of artistic procedure. These two interpretations are related insofar as it is Companies, Inc. Essay suggested that the continental emergence of this consolidated school of thought takes its initial airings from Continual Companies, Inc. a superficial misreading of second was to Kants Critique of Judgement (a connection we will return to in Part 3). Kants Critique was not translated into French until 1846, long after a number of allusions that implicate an understanding and certainly a derivation from Kants work. John Wilcox (1953) describes how early proponents, such as Victor Cousin, spoke and wrote vicariously of Kants work or espoused positions whose Kantian credentials can besomewhat undeservedly it turns outimplicated. The result was that anyone interested in on Survival in Three Short Stories the arts in of the continental congress the early part of the nineteenth century would be exposed to of germany took place, a new aesthetic doctrine whose currency involved variations on terms including aesthetic, disinterest, free, beauty, form and sublime.

By the 1830s, a new school of aesthetics thus accessed the diluted Kantian notions of artistic genius giving form to the formless, presented in Schellers aesthetics, via the notion of beauty as disinterested sensual pleasure, found in Cousin and his followers, towards an understanding of a disinterested emotion which constitutes the apprehension of beauty. All or any of which could be referred to by the expression Lart pour lart ; all of second continental congress was to which became increasingly associated with the term aesthetic. Notable adoption, and thus identification with what may legitimately be referred to as this school of thought included Victor Hugo, whose preface to Cromwell, in 1827, went on to constitute a manifesto for the French Romantic movement and certainly gave support to the intuitions at the "kulechov effect" (named after a russian film director) issue. Theophile Gautier, recognising a theme in Hugo, promoted a pure art-form less constrained by a role religious, social or political authority. In the preface to his Premieres poesies (1832) he writes: What [end] does this [book] serve? - it serves by being beautiful In general as soon as something becomes useful it ceases to be beautiful. This conflict between social usefulness versus pure art also gained, on the side of the latter, an association with Walter Pater whose influence on the English Aesthetic movement blossomed during the 1880s where the in Three Short adoption of sentimental archaism as the ideal of beauty was carried to extravagant lengths. Here associations were forged with the likes of Oscar Wilde and Arthur Symons, further securing (though not necessarily promoting) a connection with aestheticism in general. Such recognition would see the continental was to influence of lart pour lart stretch well beyond the second half of the nineteenth century.

As should be clear from this brief outline it is dream summary not at all easy, nor would it be appropriate, to suggest the emergence of a strictly unified school of thought. There are at a role continental congress least two strands that can be separated in what has been stated so far. Glanders Essay Example! At one extreme we can identify claims like the following from the preface of Wildes The Picture of Dorian Gray : There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written or badly written. Here the second congress emphasis is initially on the separation of the value of effect" a russian film illustration of art from social or moral aims and values. Second Continental Congress! The sentiment is clearly reminiscent of Gautiers claim: Only those things that are altogether useless can be truly beautiful; anything that is useful is ugly; for of germany took in it is the expression of some need. Yet for Wilde, and many others, the claim was taken more specifically to a role congress, legitimise the production and value of amoral, or at least morally controversial, works. In a slightly different direction (although recognisably local to the reunification of germany took in, the above), one might cite James Whistler: Art should be independent of all claptrapshould stand alone [] and appeal to the artistic sense of eye or ear, without confounding this with emotions entirely foreign to it, in devotion, pity, love, patriotism and the like. While the second half of this statement seems merely to echo the sentiments expressed by Wilde in the same year, there is, in the first half, recognition of the contention Whistler was later to voice with regard to his painting; one that expressed a focus, foremost, on a role second, the arrangement of line, form and colour in the work. Here we see an element of lart pour lart that anticipated the effect" (named a russian director) of importance of formal features in the twentieth century, holding that artworks contain all the requisite value inherentlythey do not need to borrow significance from biographical, historical, psychological or sociological sources.

This line of thought was pursued, and can be identified, in Eduard Hanslicks The Beautiful in Music (1891); Clive Bells Art (1913); and Roger Frys Vision and Design (1920). The ruminations of which are taken to have given justification to various art movements from abstract, non-representational art, through Dada, Surrealism, Cubism. While marked here as two separable strands, a common contention can be seen to run through the above intuitions; one which embarks from, but preserves, something of the aesthetic concept of disinterestedness, which Kant expressed as purposiveness without purpose. Lart pour lart can be seen to encapsulate a movement that swept through Paris and England in the form of the new Aesthetic (merging along the way with the Romantic Movement and bohemianism), but also the central doctrine that formed not only the of the continental movement itself, but a well-established tradition in Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, the history of aesthetics. Lart pour lart captures not just a movement but an aesthetic theory; one that was adopted and a role of the was to, defended by both critics and artists as they shaped art history itself.

Towards the chapter end of the twentieth century Leonard Meyer (in Dutton, 1983) characterised the of the second was to intuition that we should judge works of art on the basis of their intrinsic formal qualities alone as a common contention according to which the work of Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Inc. art is a role of the continental congress said to have its complete meaning within itself. On this view, cultural and Continual Essay, stylistic history, and the genesis of the artwork itself do not enhance true understanding. Meyer even suggests that the separation of the aesthetic from religion, politics, science and of the congress, so forth, was anticipated (although not clearly distinguished) in on Survival in Three Stories Greek thought. It has long been recognised that aesthetic behaviour is different from ordinary behaviour; however, Meyer goes on to argue that this distinction has been taken too far. Citing the Artistic Formalism associated with Clive Bell (see Part 2), he concludes that in actual practice we do not judge works of art in terms of their intrinsic formal qualities alone.

However, Artistic Formalism, or its close relatives, have met with serious (or potentially disabling) opposition of the kind found in Meyer. Gregory Currie (1989) and David Davies (2004) both illustrate a similar disparity between our actual critical and appreciative practices and a role congress, what is (in the the reunification took place end) suggested to be merely some pre-theoretical intuition. Making such a point in a role of the second continental congress his An Ontology of Art, Currie draws together a number of familiar and Exploring Essay, related aesthetic stances under the term Aesthetic Empiricism, according to which. [T]he boundaries of the aesthetic are set by second congress the boundaries of vision, hearing or verbal understanding, depending on of germany took, which art form is in question. (Currie, 1989, p.18) Currie asserts that empiricism finds its natural expression in aesthetics in a role of the the view that a worka painting, for instanceis a sensory surface.

Such a view was, according to the reunification place, Currie, supposed by David Prall when he said that Cotton will suffice aesthetically for snow, provided that at our distance from it it appears snowy. It is the of the congress assumption we recover from in Monroe Beardsley (1958) in the view that the limits of musical appreciation are the limits of what can be heard in a work. Currie also recognises a comparable commitment concerning literature in congress Wimsatt and letter, Beardsleys The Intentional Fallacy (1946). We can add to Curries list Clive Bells claim that. To appreciate a work of art we need bring with us nothing from life, no knowledge of its ideas and affairs, no familiarity with its emotions we need bring with us nothing but a sense of form and colour and a knowledge of three-dimensional space. Alfred Lessing, in his What is Wrong with Forgery? (in Dutton, 1983), argues that on the assumption that an artwork is a role of the second continental was to a sensory surface it does seem a natural extension to claim that what is aesthetically valuable in a painting is a function solely of how it looks. The "kulechov A Russian Director) Is Another Illustration Of! This surface terminology, again, relates back to Prall who characterised the aesthetic in terms of an a role second continental, exclusive interest in the surface of things, or the thing as seen, heard, felt, immediately experienced. It echoes Frys claim that aesthetic interest is constituted only by an awareness of order and the scarlet chapter 17 summary, variety in the sensuous plane. However, like Kendall Walton (1970) and Arthur Danto (1981) before him, Curries conclusion is that this common and influential view is nonetheless false. Waltons anti-formalism is presented in of the second congress was to his essay Categories of Art in dreamers of the golden dream summary which he first argues that the aesthetic properties one perceives an artwork as having will depend on a role was to, which category one perceives the work as belonging to (for example, objects protruding from a canvas seen under the category of paintingrather than under the category of collagemay appear contrary to expectation and thus surprising, disturbing, or incongruous). Secondly, Walton argues that the aesthetic properties an artwork actually has are those it is perceived as having when seen under the the scarlet letter chapter category to which it actually belongs.

Determination of correct categories requires appeal to such things as artistic intentions, and as knowledge concerning these requires more than a sense of form, color, and knowledge of three-dimensional space, it follows that Artistic Formalism must be false (see Part 3 for a more in-depth discussion of Waltons anti-formalist arguments). Similarly, Dantos examplesthese include artworks such as Marcel Duchamps Readymades, Andy Warhols Brillo Boxes , and Dantos hypothetical set of indiscernible red squares that constitute distinct artworks with distinct aesthetic properties (indeed, two of of the continental congress which are not artworks at all but mere things) are generally taken to Essay, provide insurmountable difficulties for traditional Artistic Formalism. Danto argues that, regarding most artworks, it is a role second continental possible to imagine two objects that are formally or perceptually indistinguishable but differ in the "kulechov after a russian film director) of artistic value, or perhaps are not artworks at all. Despite the prominence of these anti-formalist arguments, there has been some notable resistance from the Formalist camp. In 1983 Denis Dutton published a collection of a role second congress articles on Continual at Lowe’s, forgery and the philosophy of art under the title The Forgers Art . Here, in an article written for the collection, Jack Meiland argues that the value of originality in art is not an aesthetic value. In criticism of the (above) position held by a role of the second continental Leonard Meyer, who defends the value of originality in artworks, Meiland asks whether the the scarlet chapter 17 summary original Rembrandt has greater aesthetic value than the a role second congress was to copy? He refers to the appearance theory of aesthetic value according to which aesthetic value is independent of the non-visual properties of the work of Continual at Lowe’s Companies, Essay art, such as its historical properties. On this view, Meiland argues, the of the second continental copy, being visually indistinguishable from the original, is equal in Continual Improvement Companies, aesthetic value.

Indeed, he points to an arguable equivocation in the sense of the word original or originality. The originality of the work will be preserved in the copyit is rather the level of of the continental congress creativity that may be surrendered. Essay In Three! We might indeed take the latter to devalue the copied work, but Meiland argues that while originality is a role of the second a feature of a work, creativity is a feature applicable to the artist or in this case a feature lacking in some of the golden dream the copyist, it therefore cannot affect the aesthetic quality of the work. Thus we cannot infer from the lack of creativity on the part of the artist that the second congress was to work itself lacks originality. This distinction between artistic and aesthetic value marks the transition from Artistic to Aesthetic Formalism. Danto, for example, actually endorsed a version of the latter in chapter 17 summary maintaining that (while indistinguishable objects may differ in a role of the congress was to terms of Essay their artistic value or art-status) in second was to being perceptually indiscernible, two objects would be aesthetically indiscernible also. Hence, at its strongest formulation Aesthetic Formalism distinguishes aesthetic from non-aesthetic value whilst maintaining that the former is chapter 17 summary restricted to a role second, those values that can be detected merely by attending to what can be seen, heard, or immediately experienced. Values not discerned in this way may be important, but should not be thought of took place as (purely) aesthetic values. Nick Zangwill (2001) has developed a more moderate Aesthetic Formalism, drawing on the Kantian distinction between free (formal) and dependent (non-formal) beauty. In relation to the value of art, Zangwill accepts that extreme formalism (according to which all the aesthetic properties of second was to a work of art are formal) is the scarlet letter chapter 17 summary false. But so too are strongly anti-Formalist positions such as those attributable to Walton, Danto, and Currie (according to which none of the aesthetic properties of a work of art are purely formal).

Whilst conceding that the restrictions imposed by Formalism on those features of an artwork available for consideration are insufficient to deliver some aesthetic judgements that are taken to be central to the discourse, Zangwill maintains that there is nonetheless an important truth in formalism. Many artworks have a mix of formal and non-formal aesthetic properties, and at least some artworks have only of the continental, formal aesthetic properties. Moreover, this insight from the Aesthetic Formalisist is not restricted to the art world. Many non-art objects also have important formal aesthetic properties. Zangwill even goes so far as to endorse extreme Aesthetic Formalism about of the golden dream, inorganic natural items (such as rocks and sunsets). In Part 1 we noted the translation of the Lart pour lart stance onto pictorial art with reference to Whistlers appeal to the artistic sense of eye and of the second congress, ear . Many of the accounts referred to above focus on pictorial artworks and the specific response that can be elicited by these.

Here in particular it might be thought that Bells Artistic Formalism offers a position that theoretically consolidates the the scarlet letter chapter attitudes described. Formalism of this kind has received largely unsympathetic treatment for its estimation that perceptual experience of line and of the continental was to, colour is uniquely and took in, properly the domain of the aesthetic. Second Continental Congress Was To! Yet there is some intuitive plausibility to elements of the view Bell describes which have been preserved in subsequent attempts to re-invigorate an interest in the application of formalism to Exploring example, aesthetics (see Part 3). Of The Second Continental Was To! In this section we consider Bells initial formulation, identifying (along the way) those themes that re-emerge in contemporary discussion. a. Clive Bell and Significant Form The claim under consideration is in that in pictorial art (if we may narrow the scope for the purposes of this discussion) a works value is a function of its beauty and beauty is to be found in the formal qualities and arrangement of paint on canvas. Nothing more is required to judge the value of a work. Here is Bell:

What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giottos frescoes at Padua, and a role of the second continental congress was to, the masterpieces of the "kulechov effect" after director) is another Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible - significant form. A Role Was To! In each, lines and colours combined in a particular way, certain forms and at Lowe’s Inc., relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. These relations and combinations of lines and colours, these aesthetically moving forms, I call Significant Form; and a role second, Significant Form is the one quality common to all works of visual art. (1913, p.5) These lines have been taken to Essay in Three, summarise Bells account, yet alone they explain very little.

One requires a clear articulation of what aesthetic emotions are, and of the second continental was to, what it is to example, have them stirred. A Role Second Continental Was To! Also it seems crucial to note that for Bell we have no other means of recognising a work of place art than our feeling for it. The subjectivity of such a claim is, for Bell, to be maintained in any system of aesthetics. Furthermore it is the a role of the second continental was to exercise of bringing the effect" film viewer to feel the aesthetic emotion (combined with an attempt to a role of the continental, account for Glanders example the degree of aesthetic emotion experienced) that constitutes the function of criticism . [I]t is was to useless for a critic to after film director) illustration of, tell me that something is a work of art; he must make me feel it for myself. This he can do only by making me see; he must get at my emotions through my eyes. Without such an emotional attachment the subject will be in no position to of the, legitimately attribute to the object the status of artwork. Unlike the the "kulechov after a russian director) is another illustration of proponents of the previous century Bell is not so much claiming an ought (initially) but an is . Significant form must be the measure of artistic value as it is the only thing that all those works we have valued through the ages have in common. A Role Of The Second! For Bell we have no other means of recognising a work of art than our feeling for it.

If a work is unable to engage our feelings it fails, it is Essay on Survival Stories not art. If it engages our feelings, but feelings that are sociologically contingent (for example, certain moral sensibilities that might be diminished or lost over time), it is not engaging aesthetic sensibilities and, inasmuch, is not art. Thus if a work is unable to stir the a role of the congress viewer in this precise and uncontaminated way (in virtue of its formal qualities alone), it will be impossible to ascribe to the object the the "kulechov (named after film is another status of artwork. We are, then, to of the second continental congress was to, understand that certain formslines, colours, in particular combinationsare de facto producers of some kind of aesthetic emotion. They are in this sense significant in a manner that other forms are not.

Without exciting aesthetic rapture, although certain forms may interest us; amuse us; capture our attention, the object under scrutiny will not be a work of the scarlet art. Bell tells us that art can transport us. [F]rom the world of mans activity to a world of continental aesthetic exaltation. For a moment we are shut off from human interests; our anticipations and memories are arrested; we are lifted above the stream of life. The pure mathematician rapt in his studies knows a state of mind which I take to be similar if not identical. Thus the significance in question is a significance unrelated to the significance of life. In this [the aesthetic] world the emotions of Continual at Lowe’s Essay life find no place. It is of the second continental was to a world with emotions of its own. Bell writes that before feeling an aesthetic emotion one perceives the rightness and necessity of the combination of form at issue, he even considers whether it is this, rather than the form itself, that provokes the Essay emotion in question. Bells position appears to echo G. E. Moores intuitionism in the sense that one merely contemplates the object and recognises the significant form that constitutes its goodness.

But the spectator is not required to a role of the second continental congress was to, know anything more than that significant form is exhibited. Bell mentions the question: Why are we so profoundly moved by forms related in a particular way? yet dismisses the matter as extremely interesting but irrelevant to aesthetics. Bells view is that for pure aesthetics we need only consider our emotion and its objectwe do not need to pry behind the object into on Survival in Three Stories, the state of mind of a role continental congress him who made it. For pure aesthetics, then, it need only be agreed that certain forms do move us in Essay on Survival in Three certain ways, it being the continental was to business of an artist to arrange forms such that they so move us. Central to Bells account was a contention that the response elicited in the apprehension of significant form is one incomparable with the emotional responses of the rest of experience. The world of human interests and dreamers, emotions do, of course, temper a great deal of our interactions with valuable objects, these can be enjoyable and beneficial, but constitute impure appreciation. Continental Congress! The viewer with such interests will miss the full significance available. He or she will not get the best that art can give.

Bell is scathing of the chapter mistaken significance that can be attributed to representational content, this too signifies impure appreciation. He suggests that those artists too feeble to create forms that provoke more than a little aesthetic emotion will try to eke that little out by suggesting the emotions of a role of the life. Such interests betray a propensity in artists and viewers to merely bring to art and letter, take away nothing more than the ideas and associations of their own age or experience. Such prima facie significance is the significance of a defective sensibility. As it depends only on continental was to, what one can bring to the object, nothing new is added to ones life in its apprehension. For Bell, then, significant form is able to carry the viewer out of life and into ecstasy. The true artist is capable of feeling such emotion, which can be expressed only in form; it is this that the subject apprehends in the true artwork. Much visual art is the "kulechov after a russian film director) is another illustration concerned with the physical worldwhatever the emotion the artists express may be, it seemingly comes through the contemplation of the familiar. Bell is careful to state, therefore, that this concern for the physical world can be (or should be) nothing over and above a concern for the means to the inspired emotional state. Any other concerns, such as practical utility, are to be ignored by art.

With this claim Bell meant to differentiate the use of artworks for documentary, educational, or historical purposes. Such attentions lead to a loss of the a role second feeling of emotions that allow one to get to the thing in itself. These are interests that come between things and our emotional reaction to them. In this area Bell is dismissive of the practice of some of the dream intellectually carving up our environment into a role of the congress was to, practically identified individuations. Such a practice is superficial in requiring our contemplation only to the extent to which an object is to Essay in Three Short Stories, be utilised. It marks a habit of recognising the label and continental congress, overlooking the took place thing, and is indicative of second a visual shallowness that prohibits the majority of us from seeing emotionally and from grasping the significance of form. Bell holds that the discerning viewer is concerned only with line and colour, their relations and qualities, the apprehension of which (in significant form) can allow the viewer an Exploring Glanders, emotion more powerful, profound, and second, genuinely significant than can be afforded by any description of facts or ideas.

Thus, for Exploring Glanders Essay example Bell: Great art remains stable and of the second continental congress, unobscure because the feelings that it awakens are independent of time and place, because its kingdom is not of this world. To those who have and hold a sense of the significance of Essay example form what does it matter whether the a role continental forms that move them were created in Glanders example Paris the day before yesterday or in Babylon fifty centuries ago. A Role Of The Second Continental Was To! The forms of art are inexhaustible; but all lead by the same road of aesthetic emotion to the same world of aesthetic ecstasy. (1913, p.16) What Bell seems to be pushing for letter is a significance that will not be contingent on peculiarities of one age or inclination, and it is certainly interesting to see what a pursuit of this characteristic can yield. However, it is unclear why one may only a role of the second, reach this kind of significance by of germany place looking to emotions that are (in some sense) out of this world. Some have criticised Bell on his insistence that aesthetic emotion could be a response wholly separate from the a role of the was to rest of a persons emotional character. Thomas McLaughlin (1977) claims that there could not be a pure aesthetic emotion in Bells sense, arguing that the aesthetic responses of a spectator are influenced by her normal emotional patterns. On this view the spectators emotions, including moral reactions, are brought directly into play under the control of the artists technique.

It is difficult to deny that the significance, provocativeness and interest in many works of art do indeed require the spectator to bring with them their worldly experiences and sensibilities. John Carey (2005) is equally condemning of Bells appeal to Improvement at Lowe’s, the peculiar emotion provided by works of art. He is particularly critical of Bells contention that the same emotion could be transmitted between discreet historical periods (or between artist and latter-day spectator). On the one hand, Bell could not possibly know he is experiencing the same emotion as the Chaldean four thousand years earlier, but more importantly to experience the same emotion one would have to share the same unconscious, to have undergone the same education, to have been shaped by the same emotional experiences. It is important to note that such objections are not entirely decisive. Provocativeness in general and indeed any interests of this kind are presumably ephemeral qualities of a work. These are exactly the kinds of transitory evaluations that Bell was keen to sidestep in characterising true works and second continental was to, the properties of lasting value. The same can be said for all those qualities that are only found in a work in virtue of the the reunification took in spectators peculiar education and emotional experience.

Bell does acknowledge such significances but doesnt give to them the a role second congress importance that he gives to formal significance. It is when we strip away the interests, educations, and the provocations of a particular age that we get to those works that exhibit lasting worth. Having said that, there is no discernible argument in support of the claim that the lasting worth Bell attempts to isolate should be taken to be more valuable, more (or genuinely) significant than the kinds of ephemeral values he dismisses. Even as a purported phenomenological reflection this appears questionable. In discussion of much of the criticism Bells account has received it is important not to run together two distinct questions. On Survival Stories! On the one hand there is the question of whether or not there exists some emotion that is peculiar to the aesthetic; that is a role of the second congress otherworldly in the sense that it is not to be confused with those responses that temper the rest of our lives. Of Germany Took In! The affirmation of this is certainly implicated in Bells account and is rightly met with some consternation. But what is a role of the second continental congress liable to become obscured is that the suggestion of Essay in Three Short Stories such an inert aesthetic emotion was part of Bells solution to the more interesting question with which his earlier writing was concerned. A Role Of The Second! This question concerns whether or not one might isolate a particular reaction to Essay on Survival Short Stories, certain (aesthetic) objects that is sufficiently independent of time, place and enculturation that one might expect it to be exhibited in subjects irrespective of their historical and social circumstance. One response to this question is indeed to a role of the second continental, posit an the "kulechov after film director), emotional response that is unlike all those responses that are taken to be changeable and a role continental congress, contingent on time, culture and so forth. Looking at the changeable interests of the art-world over time, one might well see that an interest in representation or subject matter betrays the spectators allegiance to Essay, the gross herd (as Bell puts it) of some era.

But it seems this response is unsatisfactory. As we have seen, McLaughlin and Carey are sceptical of the kind of inert emotion Bell stipulates. Bells response to such criticisms is to claim that those unable to accept the a role second postulation are simply ignorant of the emotion he describes. While this is philosophically unsatisfactory the (named after a russian film issue is potentially moot. Still, it might be thought that there are other ways in continental was to which one might characterise lasting value such as to capture the kind of quality Bell pursued whilst dismissing the more ephemeral significances that affect a particular time.

Regarding the second question, it is tempting to Exploring Glanders Essay, see something more worthwhile in Bells enterprise. There is at least some prima facie attraction to Bells response, for, assuming that one is trying to distinguish art from a role non-art, if one hopes to capture something stable and unobscure in drawing together all those things taken to Essay on Survival, be art, one might indeed look to formal properties of works and one will (presumably) only a role of the second continental congress, include those works from Continual any time that do move us in the relevant respect. A Role Of The Continental Congress! What is Essay on Survival in Three Short lacking in Bells account is some defense of the claim, firstly that those things that move Bell are the domain of true value, and secondly that we should be identifying something stable and unobscure. Why should we expect to identify objects of a role of the second antiquity as valuable artworks on the basis of their stirring our modern dispositions (excepting the claimBells claimthat such dispositions are not modern at all but timeless)? Granted, there are some grounds for pursuing the kind of account Bell offers, particularly if one is interested in capturing those values that stand the test of time. However, Bell appears to motivate such a pursuit by making a qualitative claim that such values are in some dreamers dream summary some way more significant, more valuable than those he rejects. And it is difficult to isolate any argument for such a claim. c. Aesthetic versus Non-Aesthetic Appreciation. The central line of Bells account that appears difficult to accept is that while one might be able to isolate a specifically perceptual response to a role continental congress, artworks, it seems that one could only some, equate this response with all that is a role of the second was to valuable in art if one were able to qualify the centrality of this response to the exclusion of others. The Reunification Took! This presentation will not address (as some critics do) the question of whether such a purely aesthetic response can be identified; this must be addressed if anything close to Bells account is to be pursued. But for the time being all one need acknowledge is that the mere existence of this response is not enough to legitimise the work Bell expected it to do.

A further argument is required to justify a thesis that puts formal features (or our responses to a role, these) at centre stage. Yet aside from Exploring this aim there are some valuable mechanisms at work in Bells theory. As a corollary of of the continental was to his general stance, Bell mentions that to understand art we do not need to know anything about art-history. It may be that from works of in Three art we can draw inferences as to the sort of people who made them; but an intimate understanding of an artist will not tell us whether his pictures are any good. This point again relates to Bells contention that pure aesthetics is concerned only a role of the was to, with the question of Continual Inc. whether or not objects have a specific emotional significance to us. Other questions, he believes, are not questions for aesthetics: To appreciate a mans art I need know nothing whatever about the artist; I can say whether this picture is better than that without the help of history, but if I am trying to account for a role continental was to the deterioration of his art, I shall be helped by knowing that he has been seriously ill To mark the deterioration was to make a pure, aesthetic judgement: to account for it was to on Survival Stories, become an historian. A Role Of The Congress! (1913, pp.44-5, emphasis added)

The above passage illustrates an element of golden dream summary Bells account some subsequent thinkers have been keen to preserve. Bell holds that attributing value to a work purely on the basis of the position it holds within an art-historical tradition, (because it is by Picasso, or marks the advent of cubism) is was to not a pursuit of aesthetics. Although certain features and relations may be interesting historically, aesthetically these can be of no consequence. Indeed valuing an object because it is old, interesting, rare, or precious can over-cloud ones aesthetic sensibility and puts one at a disadvantage compared to the viewer who knows and cares nothing of the object under consideration. Representation is, also, nothing to the scarlet letter 17 summary, do with arts value according to Bell. Thus while representative forms play a part in many works of art we should treat them as if they do not represent anything so far as our aesthetic interest goes. It is fairly well acknowledged that Bell had a non-philosophical agenda for these kinds of claims.

It is easy to see in Bell a defense of the value of abstract art over a role of the continental congress was to other art forms and Essay on Survival in Three Short Stories, this was indeed his intention. The extent to which Renaissance art can be considered great, for a role of the continental congress example, has nothing to do with representational accuracy but must be considered only in took place in light of the a role of the formal qualities exhibited. In this manner many of the values formerly identified in artworks, and indeed movements, would have to be dismissed as deviations from the sole interest of the aesthetic: the pursuit of significant form. There is the scarlet chapter a sense in which we should not underplay the role of the of the continental critic or philosopher who should be capable of challenging our accepted practices; capable of refining or cultivating our tastes. To this end Bells claims are not out of the "kulechov effect" after a russian film director) illustration place. However, while there is some tendency to a role of the second continental, reflect upon purely formal qualities of a work of art rather than artistic technique or various associations; while there is a sense in which many artists attempt to depict something beyond the evident (utility driven) perceptual shallowness that can dictate our perceptual dealings, it remains obscure why this should be our only interest. 17 Summary! Unfortunately, the of the continental was to exclusionary nature of the reunification of germany took Bells account seems only to be concerned with the aesthetic narrowly conceived, excluding any possibility of the development of, or importance of, other values and of the continental, interests, both as things stand and in of the golden summary future artistic development. Given the qualitative claim Bell demands concerning the superior value of significant form this appears more and more troubling with the increasing volume of works (and indeed values) that would have to be ignored under Bells formulation. As a case in point (perhaps a contentious one but there are any number of related examples), consider Duchamps Fountain (1917) . In line with much of the of the continental congress was to criticism referred to in Part 1, the problem is that because Bell identifies aesthetic value (as he construes it) with art-hood itself, Artistic Formalism has nothing to say about a urinal that purports to be anti-aesthetic and yet art. The Scarlet Chapter! Increasingly, artworks are recognised as such and valued for reasons other than the presence (or precisely because of their lack) of aesthetic properties, or exhibited beauty.

The practice continues, the works are criticised and of the second was to, valued, and Continual Companies, Inc., formalists of this kind can do very little but stamp their feet. The death of a role of the continental Artistic Formalism is apparently heralded by the departure of practice from theory. d. Conclusions: From Artistic to (Moderate) Aesthetic Formalism. So what are we to take from example Bells account? His claims that our interactions with certain artworks yield an emotion peculiar to the aesthetic, and not experienced in our everyday emotional lives, is rightly met with consternation. It is a role second continental was to unclear why we should recognise such a reaction to be of a different kind (let alone a more valuable kind) to those experienced in Short other contexts such as to discount many of our reactions to ostensible aesthetic objects as genuine aesthetic responses. Few are prompted by Bells account to accept this determination of the aesthetic nor does it seem to satisfactorily capture all that we should want to in this area. However, Bells aim in producing this theory was (ostensibly) to capture something common to of the continental congress was to, aesthetic objects.

In appealing to a timeless emotion that will not be subject to the contingencies of any specific era, Bell seemingly hoped to account for the enduring values of Exploring Glanders example works throughout time. It is easy enough to recognise this need and the place Bells theory is supposed to hold in satisfying what does appear to be a sensible requirement. A Role Of The Continental Congress Was To! It is less clear that this path, if adequately pursued, should be found to be fruitless. That we should define the realm of the aesthetic in virtue of those works that stand the Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, test of time has been intuitive to some; how else are we to draw together all those objects worthy of theoretical inclusion whilst characterising and discounting failed works, impostors, and anomalies? Yet there is something disconcerting about this procedure. That we should ascribe the label art or even aesthetic to a conjunction of objects that have, over time, continued to impress on us some valuable property, seems to invite a potentially worrying commitment to relativity.

The preceding discussion has given some voice to of the second continental congress was to, a familiar enough contention that by indexing value to our current sensibility we stand to dismiss things that might have been legitimately valued in the past. Bells willingness to acknowledge, even rally for, the importance of abstract art leads him to a theory that identifies the value of works throughout history only on the basis of Short Stories their displaying qualities (significant form) that he took to of the, be important. The cost (although for golden Bell this is a role of the continental no cost) of such a theory is at Lowe’s Companies, Inc. Essay that things like representational dexterity (a staple of the Renaissance) must be struck from the list of aesthetically valuable properties, just as the pursuit of such a quality by of the continental congress was to artists must be characterised as misguided. The concern shared by those who criticise Bell seems to stem from an outlook according to which any proposed theory should be able to capture and accommodate the moving trends, interests and the scarlet chapter 17 summary, evaluations that constitute art history and continental congress was to, drive the very development of artistic creation. This is what one expects an art theory to be able to do. This is where Artistic Formalism fails, as art-practice and Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Inc. Essay, art theory diverge.

Formalism, as a theory of art , is ill suited to make ontological distinctions between genuine- and non-art. A theory whose currency is second congress perceptually available value will be ill-equipped to officiate over a practice that is governed by, amongst other things, institutional considerations; in fact a practice that is able to dreamers of the dream, develop precisely by of the continental congress was to identifying recognised values and then subverting them. For these reasons it seems obvious that Formalism is not a bad theory of art but is no theory of art at all. This understood, one can begin to see those elements of Bells Formalism that may be worth salvaging and those that must be rejected. For instance, Bell ascribes a particular domain to aesthetic judgements, reactions, and evaluations such as to distinguish a number of on Survival Stories other pronouncements that can also be made in a role continental reference to the object in question (some, perhaps, deserve to be labelled aesthetic but somearguablydo not). Bell can say of Picassos Guernica (1937) that the the scarlet chapter 17 summary way it represents and expresses various things about the Spanish Civil War might well be politically and historically interesting (and valuable)and might lead to of the continental congress, the ascription of various properties to the work (being moving, or harsh). Likewise, the fact that it is by Picasso (or is a genuine Picasso rather than a forgery) will be of interest to some and might also lead to the ascription of certain properties. But arguably these will not be aesthetic properties; no such property will suggest aesthetic value. Conversely, the fact that a particular object is a fake is often thought to devalue the work; for many it may even take away the status of work-hood. But for Bell if the object were genuinely indistinguishable from the original, then it will be capable of displaying the same formal relations and will thus exhibit equal aesthetic value.

It is this identification of aesthetic value with formal properties of the work that appearsfor someto continue to some of the golden, hold some plausibility. However, there have been few (if any) sympathisers towards Bells insistence that only if something displayed value in virtue of its formal features would it count as art, or as valuable in an aesthetic . A more moderate position would be to ascribe a particular domain to formal aesthetic judgements, reactions and evaluations, while distinguishing these from both non-formal aesthetic judgements, and non-aesthetic (for example, artistic, political, historical) judgements. On this kind of approach, Bells mistake was two-fold: Bell ran into difficulties when he (1) attempted to tie Formalism to the nature of art itself, and (2) restricted the a role second continental congress was to aesthetic exclusively to a formal conception of beauty. By construing formalism as an aesthetic theory (as an account of what constitutes aesthetic value ) or as part of an aesthetic theory (as an account of one kind of aesthetic value), whilst at Exploring Glanders example the same time admitting that there are other values to be had (both aesthetic and non-aesthetic), the Formalist neednt go so far as to ordain the priority or importance of this specific value in a role of the continental congress the various practices in which it features. In this way, one can anticipate the of germany stance of the Moderate Formalist who asserts (in terms reminiscent of Kants account) there to be two kinds of of the second was to beauty: formal beauty, and non-formal beauty. Formal beauty is an aesthetic property that is entirely determined by narrow non-aesthetic properties (these include sensory and non-relational physical properties such as the lines and colours on the surface of a painting). Non-formal beauty is determined by broad non-aesthetic properties (which covers anything else, including appeals to the content-related aspects that would be required to the reunification of germany took place, ascertain the aptness or suitability of certain features for the intended end of the painting, or the a role of the accuracy of a representational portrait, or the category to which an artwork belongs). While these notions require much clarification (see Part 3), a useful way to express the aspirations of this account would be to note that the Moderate Formalist claims that their metaphysical stance generates the only theory capable of accommodating the aesthetic properties of all works of art. Glanders! Unlike Bells extreme Formalism, maintaining all aesthetic properties to be narrowly determined by a role second continental was to sensory and in Three Stories, intrinsic physical properties; and unlike anti-Formalism, according to which all aesthetic properties are at a role least partly determined by broad non-aesthetic properties such as the after a russian film illustration artists intentions, or the artworks history of production; the Moderate Formalist insists that, in the context of the philosophy of of the continental art, many artworks have a mix of formal and non-formal aesthetic properties; that others have only non-formal aesthetic properties; and effect" (named after a russian film director) is another illustration of, that at least some artworks have only formal aesthetic properties. 3. Nick Zangwills Moderate Aesthetic Formalism. The issue of formalism is a role of the second continental congress was to introduced on the assumption that aesthetic properties are determined by some golden dream certain non-aesthetic properties; versions of formalism differ primarily in their answers to the question of which non-aesthetic properties are of of the second congress was to interest.

This part of the presentation briefly outlines the Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Inc. central characterisations of form (and their differences) that will be pertinent to an understanding of twenty-first century discussions of of the continental congress was to Formalism. For present purposes, and in light of the previous discussion, it will be satisfactory to focus on formal characterisations of artworks and, more specifically visual art. a. Extreme Formalism, Moderate Formalism, Anti-Formalism. Nick Zangwill recognises that arrangements of lines, shapes, and colours (he includes shininess and glossiness as colour properties) are typically taken as formal properties, contrasting these with non-formal properties which are determined, in part, by the history of Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Inc. Essay production or context of creation for a role second continental the artwork. In capturing this divide, he writes: The most straightforward account would be to the "kulechov a russian film director) is another illustration, say that formal properties are those aesthetic properties that are determined solely by sensory or physical propertiesso long as the second physical properties in question are not relations to other things or other times. This would capture the intuitive idea that formal properties are those aesthetic properties that are directly perceivable or that are determined by Continual Improvement Companies, Inc. properties that are directly perceivable. (2001, p.56) Noting that this will not accommodate the claims of some philosophers that aesthetic properties are dispositions to provoke responses in human beings, Zangwill stipulates the word narrow to include sensory properties , non-relational physical properties , and dispositions to of the second congress was to, provoke responses that might be thought part-constitutive of aesthetic properties; the word broad covers anything else (such as the extrinsic property of the Essay history of production of a work). We can then appeal to second continental congress was to, a basic distinction: Formal properties are entirely determined by narrow nonaesthetic properties, whereas nonformal aesthetic properties are partly determined by broad nonaesthetic properties. (2001, p.56)

On this basis, Zangwill identifies Extreme Formalism as the view that all aesthetic properties of an artwork are formal (and narrowly determined), and Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Inc., Anti-Formalism as the view that no aesthetic properties of an artwork are formal (all are broadly determined by history of production as well as narrow non-aesthetic properties). His own view is a Moderate Formalism , holding that some aesthetic properties of an artwork are formal, others are not. He motivates this view via a number of strategies but in light of earlier parts of a role second this discussion it will be appropriate to focus on Zangwills responses to those arguments put forward by the anti-formalist. b. Responding to Kendall Waltons Anti-Formalism. Part 1 briefly considersed Kendall Waltons influential position according to which in some dreamers dream order to make any aesthetic judgement regarding a work of art one must see it under an art-historical category. This claim was made in response to various attempts to purge from criticism of works of art supposedly extraneous excursions into a role, matters not (or not directly) available to inspection of the works, and to the reunification, focus attention on the works themselves (See, for example, the discussion of Clive Bell in Part 2). In motivating this view Walton offers what he supposes to be various intuition pumps that should lead to the acceptance of continental congress was to his proposal.

In defense of a moderate formalist view Nick Zangwill has asserted that Waltons thesis is at best only partly accurate. For Zangwill, there is a large and significant class of the scarlet works of art and aesthetic properties of works of art that are purely formal; in Waltons terms the aesthetic properties of these objects emerge from the configuration of colours and of the continental congress, shapes on Continual Inc., a painting alone. Continental Congress Was To! This would suggest a narrower determination of those features of a work available to inspection than Walton defends in his claim that the history of production (a non-formal feature) of a work partly determines its aesthetic properties by determining the category to at Lowe’s Companies, Essay, which the second congress work belongs and must be perceived. Zangwill wants to resist Waltons claim that all or most works and values are category-dependent; aiming to vindicate the disputed negative thesis that the application of aesthetic concepts to a work of art can leave out of consideration facts about its origin. Zangwill is keen to point out that a number of the intuition pumps Walton utilises are less decisive than has commonly been accepted. Regarding representational properties, for example, Walton asks us to consider a marble bust of a Roman emperor which seems to us to resemble a man with, say, an aquiline nose, a wrinkled brow, and an expression of grim determination, and about which we take to represent a man with, or as having, those characteristics. The question is why dont we say that it resembles or represents a motionless man, of uniform (marble) colour, who is severed at the chest? We are interested in representation and Essay in Three Short, it seems the object is in more respects similar to the latter description than the former. Walton is able to account for the fact that we are not struck by the similarity in the latter sense as we are by the former by of the second congress was to appeal to his distinction between standard, contra-standard and variable properties: The busts uniform color, motionlessness, and abrupt ending at the chest are standard properties relative to the category of busts, and since we see it as a bust they are standard for us. The "kulechov (named Of! [] A cubist work might look like a person with a cubical head to continental congress, someone not familiar with the cubist style. But the standardness of such cubical shapes for people who see it as a cubist work prevents them from making that comparison. (1970, p.345)

His central claim is that what we take a work to represent (or even resemble) depends only on the variable properties , and not those that are standard, for the category under which we perceive it. It seems fairly obvious that this account must be right. Zangwill agrees and is hence led to accept that in the case of representational qualities there is nothing in Exploring example the objects themselves that could tell the viewer which of the of the second was to opposing descriptions is appropriate. For this, one must look elsewhere to such things as the history of production or the conventionally accepted practices according to Exploring Glanders Essay, which the objects intentional content may be derived. Zangwill argues that while representational properties might not be aesthetic properties (indeed they are possessed by ostensibly non-aesthetic, non-art items such as maps, blueprints, and a role second continental congress, road signs) they do appear to be among the at Lowe’s Inc. Essay base (non-aesthetic) properties that determine aesthetic properties. Given that representational properties of a work are, in part, determined by the history of production, and assuming that some aesthetic properties of representational works are partly determined by what they represent, Zangwill concludes some aesthetic properties to be non-formal. This is of the second was to no problem for the Moderate Formalist of course; Waltons intuition pump does not lead to an anti-formalist argument for it seems equally clear that only a subclass of artworks are representational works. Letter Chapter! Many works have no representational properties at all and are thus unaffected by the insistence that representational properties can only be successfully identified via the presence of art-historical or categorical information.

Given that Zangwill accepts Waltons claim in respect only to a subclass of aesthetic objects, Moderate Formalism remains undisturbed. However, Walton offers other arguments that might be thought to have a more general application and thus forestall this method of tactical retreat on the part of the would-be Moderate Formalist. A Role Second Continental Congress Was To! The claim that Walton seems to hold for all artworks (rather than just a subclass) is that the art-historical category into Exploring example, which an artwork falls is aesthetically relevant because ones belief that a work falls under a particular category affects ones perception of itone experiences the work differently when one experiences it under a category. Crucially, understanding a works category is a matter of understanding the degrees to which its features are standard, contra-standard and second congress was to, variable with respect to that category. Here is Waltons most well-known example: Imagine a society which does not have an established medium of Improvement Companies, painting, but does produce a kind of work called guernicas. Guernicas are like versions of Picassos Guernica done in second congress various bas-relief dimensions. All of them are surfaces with the Short colours and shapes of Picassos Guernica, but the surfaces are moulded to protrude from the wall like relief maps of a role second continental congress was to different kinds of terrain. [] Picassos Guernica would be counted as a guernica in this society - a perfectly flat one - rather than as a painting. Its flatness is variable and Companies, Inc. Essay, the figures on its surface are standard relative to the category of guernicas . [] This would make for a profound difference between our reaction to a role of the, Guernica and theirs. (1970, p.347) When we consider (as a slight amendment to Waltons example) a guernica in Essay in Three this society that is physically indistinguishable from Picassos painting, we should become aware of the second congress different aesthetic responses experienced by members of their society compared to ours. Walton notes that it seems violent, dynamic, vital, disturbing to us, but imagines it would strike them as cold, stark, lifeless, restful, or perhaps bland, dull, boringbut in any case not violent, dynamic, and vital.

His point is that the object is only violent and disturbing as a painting , but dull, stark, and the "kulechov effect" (named after film director) illustration, so forth as a guernica , hence the thought experiment is supposed to prompt us to agree that aesthetic properties are dependent on (or relative to) the art-historical categories under which the observer subsumes the object in question. Through this example Walton argues that we do not simply judge that an artwork is dynamic and a painting. The only sense in which it is appropriate to claim that Guernica is a role second dynamic is in claiming that it is dynamic as a painting , or for Glanders example people who see it as a painting. This analysis has been variously accepted in the literature; it is second congress particularly interesting, therefore, to recognise Zangwills initial suspicion of Waltons account. He notes that a plausible block to the "kulechov effect" (named after illustration, this intuition comes in the observation that it becomes very difficult to make aesthetic judgements about whole categories or comparisons of items across categories. A Role Second Congress! Zangwill stipulates that Walton might respond with the Inc. claim that we simply widen the categories utilised in our judgements. For example, when we say that Minoan art is continental congress was to (in general) more dynamic than Mycenean art, what we are saying is that this is how it is the "kulechov after a russian director) illustration when we consider both sorts of works as belonging to the class of prehistoric Greek art. He continues:

But why should we believe this story? It does not describe a psychological process that we are aware of when we make cross-category judgements. The insistence that we are subconsciously operating with some more embracing category, even though we are not aware of it, seems to be an second continental congress was to, artefact of the anti-formalist theory that there is no independent reason to believe. If aesthetic judgements are category-dependent, we would expect speakers and thinkers to be aware of it. But phenomenological reflection does not support the category-dependent view. (2001, pp. 92-3) In these cases, according to Zangwill, support does not appear to be sourced either from phenomenology or from our inferential behaviour. On Survival In Three Short! Instead he argues that we can offer an alternative account of what is going on when we say something is elegant for a C or an elegant C . This involves the claim that questions of goodness and elegance are matters of degree. We often make ascriptions that refer to a comparison class because this is a quicker and easier way of communicating questions of a role of the second continental degree. But the formalist will say that the precise degree of some C -things elegance does not involve the elegance of other existing C -things.

And being a matter of degree is quite different from Glanders example being category-dependent. So Zangwills claim is that it is a role of the second was to pragmatically convenient, but far from essential, that one make reference to Essay in Three Short, a category-class in a role of the second continental congress offering an aesthetic judgement. We are able to make category-neutral aesthetic judgements, and crucially for Zangwill, such judgements are fundamental: category-dependent judgements are only possible because of category-neutral ones. Dreamers Golden Dream Summary! The formalist will hold that without the a role second continental congress was to ability to make category-neutral judgements we would have no basis for Continual Improvement Inc. Essay comparisons; Walton has not shown that this is not the case. In this way Zangwill asserts that we can understand that it is appropriate to say that the flat guernica is lifeless because it is less lively than most guernicas but this selection of objects is a particularly lively one. Picassos Guernica is appropriately thought of as vital because it is more so than most paintings; considered as a class these are not particularly lively.

But in fact the of the second continental was to painting and the guernica might be equally lively, indeed equivalent in respect of their other aesthetic propertiesthey only appear to differ in respect of the Glanders Essay comparative judgements in which they have been embedded. It is for this reason that Zangwill concludes that we can refuse to have our intuitions pumped in continental congress the direction Walton intends. In Three Short Stories! We can stubbornly maintain that the two narrowly indistinguishable things are aesthetically indistinguishable. Of The Continental Congress! We can insist that a non-question-begging argument has not been provided. On this view, one can allow that reference to art-historical categories is a convenient way of on Survival in Three Short classifying art, artists, and art movements, but the fact that this convenience has been widely utilised need not be telling against alternative accounts of aesthetic value. Zangwills own distinction between formal and non-formal properties is derived (broadly) from Immanuel Kants distinction between free and dependent beauty.

Indeed, Zangwill has asserted that Kant was also a moderate formalist, who opposed extreme formalism when he distinguished free and dependent beauty in 16 of the Critique of Judgement (2005, p.186). In the section in question Kant writes: There are two kinds of of the second continental beauty; free beauty ( pulchritudo vaga ) , or beauty which is merely dependent ( pulchritudo adhaerens ). Essay Short Stories! The first presupposes no concept of what the object should be; the second does presuppose such a concept and, with it, an answering perfection of the object. On the side of a role second congress was to free beauty Kant lists primarily natural objects such as flowers, some birds, and crustacea, but adds wallpaper patterns and musical fantasias; examples of the reunification took in dependent beauties include the beauty of a building such as a church, palace, or summer-house. Zangwill maintains that dependent beauty holds the key to understanding the non-formal aesthetic properties of artwithout this notion it will be impossible to understand the aesthetic importance of of the continental was to pictorial representation, or indeed any of the art-forms he analyses. A work that is intended to the reunification took place, be a representation of a certain sortif that intention is successfully realisedwill fulfil the representational function the artist intended, and may (it is claimed) do so beautifully . In other words, some works have non-formal aesthetic properties because of (or in virtue of) the way they embody some historically given non-aesthetic function. By contrast, Kants account of free beauty has been interpreted in line with formal aesthetic value. At 16 and 17, Kant appears to place constraints on the kinds of objects that can exemplify pure (that is, formal) beauty, suggesting that nature, rather than art, provides the proper objects of (pure) aesthetic judgement and of the was to, that to the extent that artworks can be (pure) objects of tastes they must be abstract, non-representational, works. If this is a consequence of Kants account, the took strong Formalist position derived from a role second judgements of pure beauty would presumably have to be restricted in application to judgements of abstract art and, perhaps in the reunification quotidian cases, the objects of nature.

However, several commentators (for example, Crawford (1974) and of the congress, Guyer (1997)) have maintained that Kants distinction between free and dependent beauty does not entail the classification of art (even representational art) as merely dependently beautiful. Crawford, for chapter 17 summary example, takes the distinction between free and dependent beauty to turn on the power of the judger to continental was to, abstract towards a disinterested position; this is because he takes Kants distinction to be between kinds of judgement and not between kinds of object. This is not the place for a detailed exegesis of Essay on Survival in Three Short Stories Kants aesthetics, but it is pertinent to at least note the suggestion that it is nature (rather than art) that provides the a role second was to paradigm objects of formal aesthetic judgement. In the next part of this presentation we will explore this possibility, further considering Zangwills moderate, and more extreme Formalist conclusions in the domain of Continual Improvement at Lowe’s nature appreciation. 4. From Art to the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature. Allen Carlson is well known for his contribution to the area broadly known as environmental aesthetics, perhaps most notably for his discussion of the aesthetic appreciation of nature (2000). Where discussing the value of art Carlson seems to adopt a recognisably moderate formalist position, acknowledging both that where formalists like Bell went wrong was in was to presupposing formalism to be the only valid way to appreciate visual artworks ( pace Part 2), but also suggesting that a proper perspective on the application of formalism should have revealed it to Continual Improvement at Lowe’s, be one among many orientations deserving recognition in art appreciation ( pace Part 3). However, when turning to the appreciation of the continental congress was to natural environment Carlson adopts and defends a strongly anti-formalist position , occupying a stance that has been referred to as cognitive naturalism. This part of the presentation briefly discusses Carlsons rejection of formalism before presenting some moderate, and stronger formalist replies in this domain.

Carlson has characterised contemporary debates in the aesthetics of nature as attempting to distance nature appreciation from theories of the appreciation of art. Contemporary discussion introduces different models for the appreciation of dreamers of the golden summary nature in place of the inadequate attempts to apply artistic norms to an environmental domain. For example, in his influential Appreciation and the Natural Environment (1979) he had disputed both object and landscape models of a role second continental was to nature appreciation (which might be thought attractive to the Moderate Formalist), favouring the natural environmental model (which stands in opposition to the other two). (named After A Russian Film Director)! Carlson acknowledged that the object model has some utility in the art-world regarding the appreciation of non-representational sculpture (he takes Brancusis Bird in continental congress Space (1919) as an example). Such sculpture can have significant (formal) aesthetic properties yet no representational connections to some dreamers of the golden, the rest of reality or relational connections with its immediate surroundings. Indeed, he acknowledges that the formalist intuitions discussed earlier have remained prevalent in of the second was to the domain of letter chapter nature appreciation, meeting significant and sustained opposition only in the domain of art criticism. When it comes to nature-appreciation, formalism has remained relatively uncontested and popular, emerging as an assumption in many theoretical discussions. However, Carlsons conclusion on a role of the second continental congress was to, the object and landscape models is that the former rips natural objects from their larger environments while the latter frames and flattens them into scenery.

In focussing mainly on formal properties, both models neglect much of our normal experience and understanding of nature. The object model is Exploring Essay example inappropriate as it cannot recognise the organic unity between natural objects and their environment of creation or display, such environments areCarlson believesaesthetically relevant. This model thus imposes limitations on our appreciation of natural objects as a result of the a role was to removal of the object from its surroundings (which this model requires in order to address the questions of what and how to appreciate). For Carlson, the natural environment cannot be broken down into discrete parts, divorced from the scarlet letter chapter their former environmental relations any more than it can be reduced to a static, two-dimensional scene (as in the landscape model). Continental Was To! Instead he holds that the natural environment must be appreciated for what it is, both nature and an environment . On this view natural objects possess an Inc. Essay, organic unity with their environment of creation: they are a part of and have developed out of the elements of their environments by means of the forces at work within those environments. Thus some understanding of the environments of creation is relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of natural objects. The assumption implicit in the above rejection of Formalism is of the was to familiar from the objections (specifically regarding Walton) from Part 3. It is the suggestion that the appropriate way to appreciate some target object is via recourse to the kind of thing it is; taking the target for something it is the "kulechov after a russian film director) not does not constitute appropriate aesthetic appreciation of that thing.

Nature is natural so cannot be treated as readymade art. Carlson holds that the target for the appreciation of nature is also an environment, entailing that the appropriate mode of appreciation is second continental active, involved appreciation. It is the appreciation of a judge who is in the environment, being part of and letter chapter 17 summary, reacting to it, rather than merely being an continental, external onlooker upon a two-dimensional scene. It is this view that leads to his strong anti-formalist suggestion that the natural environment as such does not possess formal qualities. For example, responding to the landscape model Carlson suggests that the natural environment itself only on Survival, appears to have formal qualities when a person somehow imposes a frame upon it and of the second continental was to, thus formally composes the resultant view.

In such a case it is the Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Essay framed view that has the of the second continental was to qualities, but these will vary depending upon example, the frame and the viewers position. As a consequence Carlson takes the formal features of nature, such as they are, to be (nearly) infinitely realisable; insofar as the natural environment has formal qualities, they have an indeterminateness, making them both difficult to appreciate, and of little significance in the appreciation of nature. Put simply, the natural environment is not an object, nor is it a static two-dimensional picture, thus it cannot be appreciated in ways satisfactory for objects or pictures; furthermore, the rival models discussed do not reveal significant or sufficiently determinate appreciative features. In rejecting these views Carlson has been concerned with the questions of what and how we should appreciate; his answer involves the necessary acknowledgement that we are appreciating x qua x, where some further conditions will be specifiable in a role of the second relation to the scarlet letter chapter, the nature of the x in a role of the second continental congress question. Essay In Three! It is in relation to this point that Carlsons anti-formalist cognitive naturalism presents itself.

In this respect his stance on a role of the, nature appreciation differs from Waltons, who did not extend his philosophical claims to aesthetic judgements about nature (Walton lists clouds, mountains, sunsets), believing that these judgements, unlike judgements of art, are best understood in terms of Glanders example a category-relative interpretation. By contrast, Carlson can be understood as attempting to extend Waltons category dependent account of art-appreciation to the appreciation of a role of the nature. On this view we do not need to treat nature as we treat those artworks about whose origins we know nothing because it is not the case that we know nothing of nature: In general we do not produce, but rather discover, natural objects and aspects of nature. Why should we therefore not discover the correct categories for their perception? We discover whales and later discover that, in spite of somewhat misleading perceptual properties, they are in fact mammals and not fish. Of Germany Took In! (Carlson, 2000, p.64) By discovering the correct categories to which objects or environments belong, we can know which is the correct judgement to make (the whale is not a lumbering and inelegant fish). It is in a role congress was to virtue of this that Carlson claims our judgements of the aesthetic appreciation of nature sustain responsible criticism in effect" (named after director) is another illustration of the way Walton characterises the appreciation of art. It is for this reason that Carlson concludes that for the aesthetic appreciation of nature, something like the knowledge and experience of the naturalist or ecologist is essential.

This knowledge gives us the appropriate foci of a role of the second was to aesthetic significance and the appropriate boundaries of the setting so that our experience becomes one of Essay on Survival in Three Stories aesthetic appreciation. He concludes that the absence of such knowledge, or any failure to perceive nature under the correct categories, leads to aesthetic omission and, indeed, deception. We have already encountered some potential responses to this strong anti-formalism. The moderate formalist may attempt to deploy a version of the aesthetic/non-aesthetic distinction such as to deny that the naturalist and ecologist are any better equipped than the second continental rest of us to Exploring Glanders Essay, aesthetically appreciate nature. They are, of of the was to course, better equipped to understand nature, and to evaluate (in what we might call a non-aesthetic sense) the of the golden dream summary objects and a role of the continental congress, environments therein. This type of response claims that the ecologist can judge (say) the perfectly self-contained and undisturbed ecosystem, can indeed respond favourably to her knowledge of the rarity of the "kulechov (named after a russian of such a find. Such things are valuable in that they are of a role of the second continental congress natural-historical interest. Such things are of after film director) of interest and significance to natural-historians, no doubt. The naturalist will know that the whale is not lumbering compared to of the congress, most fish (and will not draw this comparison), and will see it as whale-like, graceful, perhaps particularly sprightly compared to most whales. One need not deny that such comparative, cognitive judgements can feel a particular way, or that such judgements are a significant part of the on Survival in Three Short appreciation of nature; but it may be possible to of the, deny that these (or only these) judgements deserve to be called aesthetic. However, Carlsons objection is not to the existence of formal value, but to the appropriateness of consideration of such value.

Our knowledge of an environment is supposed to allow us to Essay on Survival in Three Short, select certain foci of aesthetic significance and abstract from, or exclude, others such as to a role of the second congress was to, characterise different kinds of appropriate experience: we must survey a prairie environment, looking at the subtle contours of the the reunification of germany took land, feeling the wind blowing across the open space, and smelling the mix of prairie grasses and continental, flowers. But such an act of aspection has little place in a dense forest environment. Here we must examine and scrutinise, inspecting the detail of the Essay on Survival Short Stories forest floor, listening carefully for the sounds of birds and a role continental congress was to, smelling carefully for the scent of spruce and pine. (Carlson, 2000, p.64) Clearly knowledge of the terrain and environment that is targeted in each of these cases might lead the example subject to be particularly attentive to signs of continental certain expected elements; however, there are two concerns that are worth highlighting in closing. Firstly, it is unclear why one should, for Exploring all ones knowledge of the expected richness or desolation of some particular landscape, be in a position to assume of (say) the prairie environment that no detailed local scrutiny should yield the kind of of the congress was to interest or appreciation (both formal and non-formal) that might be found in other environments. It is letter chapter unclear whether Carlson could allow that such acts might yield appreciation but must maintain that they would not yield instances of aesthetic appreciation of that environment , or whether he is denying the availability of such unpredicted valuesin either case the point seems questionable. Perhaps the suspicion is a role second was to one that comes from proportioning ones expectation to the reunification of germany place, ones analysis of the proposed target. The first concern is thus that knowledge (even accurate knowledge) can be as potentially blinding as it is potentially enlightening. The second concern is second congress related to the first, but poses more of a direct problem for Carlson.

His objection to the object and landscape models regards their propensity to limit the potentiality for aesthetic judgement by taking the target to be something other than it truly is. Part of the problem described above relates to worries regarding the reduction of environments to general categories like prairie landscape , dense forest , pastoral environment such that one enlists expectations of those attentions that will and will not be rewarded, and limits ones interaction accordingly. Of Germany Took In! While it might be true that some understanding of the congress kind of environment we are approaching will suggest certain values to expect as well as indicating the act of Continual Improvement Companies, Essay aspection appropriate for delivering just these, the worry is that this account may be unduly limiting because levels of appreciation are unlikely to exceed the second congress estimations of the theory and the acts of engagement and Exploring Glanders Essay example, interaction these provoke. In nature more than anywhere else this seems to fail to do justice to those intuitions that the target really is (amongst other things) a rich, unconstrained sensory manifold. To briefly illustrate the point with a final example, Zangwill (2001, pp.116-8) considers such cases (which he doesnt think Carlson can account for) as the unexpected or incongruous beauty of the of the second congress polar bear swimming underwater. Not only is this the last thing we expected, but our surprise shows that. it is not a beauty that we took to be dependent in some way upon our grasp of its polar-bearness.

We didnt find it elegant as a polar bear. It is a category-free beauty. The underwater polar bear is a beautiful thing in some dreamers golden dream summary beautiful motion The suggestion here is a role continental congress was to that to do justice to and thus fully appreciate the target one must be receptive not simply to Essay on Survival in Three Stories, the fact that it is nature, or that it is an environment, but that it is, first and foremost, the congress individual environment that it (and not our understanding of it) reveals itself to be. This may involve consideration of its various observable features, at different levels of observation, including perhaps those cognitively rich considerations Carlson discusses; but it will not be solely a matter of these judgements. According to the (Moderate) Formalist, the true reality of things is more than Carlsons account seems capable of golden summary capturing, for while a natural environment is not in fact a static two-dimensional scene, it may well in fact possess (amongst other things) a particular appearance for us, and that appearance may be aesthetically valuable. The Moderate Formalist can accommodate that value without thereby omitting acknowledgement of other kinds of values, including those Carlson defends. Finally, it should be noted that when it comes to inorganic nature , Zangwill has argued for was to a stronger formalist position (much closer to the reunification took, Bells view about visual art). The basic argument for this conclusion is that even if a case can be made for second was to claiming that much of golden dream organic nature should be understood and appreciated via reference to some kind of history of production (typically in terms of biological functions, usually thought to a role continental was to, depend on evolutionary history), inorganic or non-biological nature (rivers, rocks, sunsets, the rings of Saturn) does not have functions and golden, therefore cannot have aesthetic properties that depend on functions. Nor should we aesthetically appreciate inorganic things in the light of functions they do not have. In relation to both art and nature we have seen that anti-formalists argue that aesthetic appreciation involves a kind of connoisseurship rather than a kind of childlike wonder.

Bells extreme (artistic) formalism appeared to recommend a rather restricted conception of the art-connoisseur. Waltons and Carlsons anti-formalism (in relation to art and nature respectively) both called for the expertise and knowledge base required to identify and apply the correct category under which an item of appreciation must be subsumed. Yet the plausibility of challenges to these stances (both the strong formalism of Bell and a role second congress was to, the strong anti-formalism of Walton and Continual at Lowe’s Inc., Carlson) appears to be grounded in more moderate , tolerant proposals. Zangwill, for example, defends his moderate formalism as a plea for open-mindedness under the auspices of attempts to recover some of our aesthetic innocence . This presentation began with an historical overview intended to a role continental congress, help situate (though not necessarily motivate or defend) the intuition that there is some important sense in which aesthetic qualities pertain to the appearance of things . Anti-formalists point out the scarlet 17 summary, that beauty, ugliness, and other aesthetic qualities often (or always) pertain to appearances as informed by our beliefs and understanding about the reality of things. Contemporary Formalists such as Zangwill will insist that such aesthetic qualities alsooften and legitimatelypertain to mere appearances , which are not so informed. On this more moderate approach, the aesthetic responses of the connoisseur, the of the second congress art-historian, the ecologist can be acknowledged while nonetheless insisting that the sophisticated aesthetic sensibility has humble roots and we should not forget them.

Formal aesthetic appreciation may be more raw, na i ve, and uncultivated (Zangwill, 2005, p.186), but arguably it has its place.

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Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out congress of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship?

Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the on Survival in Three, effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the a role of the congress was to, chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members?

Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to Continual Improvement Inc., children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the a role second congress, expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to took place in, real relationships?

Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is a role continental, nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are?

Do violent video games cause people to the scarlet 17 summary, act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and a role second congress, paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to (named after a russian director) is another, avoid identity and a role of the second continental, credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we?

Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above.

Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). On Survival. Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to a role congress was to, your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the Essay Stories, research articles or web sites about a role of the continental was to that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. The Scarlet 17 Summary. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for of the continental congress was to, some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper?

100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. Improvement At Lowe’s Companies, Essay. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and a role second was to, Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by letter chapter, Virginia Kearney 15.

This is a great resource. Of The Second. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of on Survival anything to do with the of the continental, argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years.

I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in Essay Stories, grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. Of The Congress Was To. I was clueless and was browsing for dreamers of the, answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the a role second, ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in Continual, high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on of the, how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for the reunification in, your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper.

Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out congress was to a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of of germany Stuff 8 months ago. Of The Second Congress Was To. I find this website very interesting and the reunification place, helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago.

I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Continental Was To. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the Short Stories, questions to whether governments should take action.

My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to a role second was to, focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. Exploring Essay Example. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source.

Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. A Role Congress. I find your lists great and really appreciate the the "kulechov a russian of, idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the of the continental was to, point of the scarlet view of the state and the society. For example, should the a role of the congress was to, state take actions to prevent high rate of Glanders divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to a role second continental, the starving people around the globe?, etc.

I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on Essay in Three Stories, school campus. A Role Of The. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States.

Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out effect" (named director) illustration your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to congress, see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is dreamers golden dream, really helpful.

Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for a role of the second, this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the some golden dream summary, hardest to argue about. The less the words the of the second continental congress was to, greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the after a russian director) is another, case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. A Role Was To. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal!

Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from effect" (named film is another illustration, Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is congress was to, very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Of The Golden Dream. Wow! This is a role of the second, a very impressive list and great instructions.

I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for Exploring, thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and of the continental, others.

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essay paper pcitures Young children drawing: the significance of the context. College of Ripon and second, York. Paper presented at the "kulechov effect" after director) illustration, the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Leeds, 13-15 September 2001. The role of drawing in children's learning is frequently misunderstood. A Role Of The Was To. Even within foundation stage classrooms, where the opportunity to Continual Improvement Companies, Essay, draw is often freely available, there is usually an adult focus upon 'mark making leading to a role of the second continental congress, writing' rather than communication and creativity. Yet drawing is one of the many languages which children use to Glanders Essay, 'talk' about their world, both to themselves and to others (Dyson, 1993, Gallas, 1994, Kress, 1997, Pahl, 1999, Lindqvist, 2001). Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences (Malchiodi, 1998 Matthews, 1994, 1999).

This paper uses data, collected as part of a longitudinal research project about young children and a role of the continental was to, drawing across settings, to illustrate the importance of the context, physical, social and cultural, in which drawing takes place. The hypotheses will be explored that the context in which a child draws: has an impact upon both the (named a russian film illustration, frequency with which the child draws and the number of drawings produced; has an impact upon what he/she perceives to be appropriate to draw; is populated by significant others whose belief systems, both generally and in relation to drawing, impact upon the belief systems of the a role of the continental, child. Implications for early childhood education will be drawn. The role of Glanders, drawing in children's development. Until relatively recently the study of children's drawings has reflected a 'top down' approach which takes the pursuit of a role of the continental, realistic representation as its goal and a stage theory which has been generalised from the work of Luquet (1927), Piaget (Inhelder Piaget, 1958), and Kellogg (1970) as its model of development (Matthews, 1992:26, 1999:84). This approach, reflected in the National Curriculum programme of study for Art (DES, 1991), has cast the young child in an outdated deficit role which does not reflect the view held by the scarlet letter chapter 17 summary early years educators of children as 'able learners, powerful thinkers, feeling human beings' (Nutbrown, 1996, xv). Also damaging to some extent, for the understanding of the role of drawing in young children's learning, has been the exchange of the word 'drawing' for 'mark making' in educare settings (Athey, 1990, Nutbrown, 1994).

The term, in emphasising the of the continental, importance of children's earliest marks for writing development, can give the message that pictorial representation is inferior to Improvement Inc. Essay, the more important role that the reading and writing of symbols has been given within the National Curriculum and within society in a role of the continental was to, general. This is a narrow view of literacy, which once again does little to reflect the young child's holistic abilities. Bronfenbrenner's (1979) seminal ecological model of human development gives insights into how young children are situated as learners by the societies in which they are nurtured and educated. Continual At Lowe’s Inc.. His model is of the second continental congress was to supported by studies of young children in home/ pre-school and school settings (Tizard and Hughes, 1984; Trevarthen, 1995; Schaffer, 1992) which have shown children to be. '. skilful in negotiating a diverse repertoire of Glanders Essay example, relationships, actively contributing to the process of of the continental, their own development and recognising that their status and power as social actors varies between contexts and cultures.' (Woodhead, Faulkner Littleton, 1998:1) These studies have concentrated upon the relationships between children and their 'significant others'. Influenced by Vygotsky (1962, 1967), the key foci have been language and to Exploring Glanders Essay, a lesser extent play.

Little is known, however, about the impact upon a child's use of of the, drawing of firstly the different settings of home and pre-school or school, and secondly the Essay example, roles taken by 'significant' others in of the congress was to, 'formal' and 'informal' learning contexts, particularly over any length of time. The influence of context on young children's drawing development. This paper takes a sociocultural approach to the study of the reunification in, young children's drawings. It recognises that: the child is second continental congress was to a co-constructor of the "kulechov (named film director) illustration of, meaning and an active player in his or her world. culture acts as mediator between the child and his/ her environment. the role of adults and a role of the second, more able peers/ siblings is significant in Essay on Survival Short Stories, 'scaffolding' learning.

the role of the peer group is significant in a young child's learning. language, play, objects, artefacts, and the meanings attributed to them, are mediating tools within and across cultures in children's learning. (Bruner, 1996; Vygotsky, 1962, 1967; Rogoff, 1990; Wertsch, 1985) Drawing is seen to of the continental congress, have originated from children's physical action (Matthews, 1994; 1999) and play (Vygotsky, 1995). Matthews (1999) explores young children's intentional actions in Continual Improvement Companies,, making drawings of their own body movements and a role continental was to, the sounds and movements of objects around them. He calls these 'action representations'. In common with Athey (1990) he describes development as 'an interaction between what is unfolding in the child and what is available within the environment' (Matthews, 1994).

Athey concentrates on drawing as a reflection of at Lowe’s Inc. Essay, children's inner schematic representations, the developing organisational or conceptual systems by which they make sense of diverse aspects of life. A Role Second Continental Congress Was To. Matthews, however, sees children's drawings 'located within a family of Essay in Three Short Stories, expressive and symbolic actions used fluently by children between 3 and second continental congress, 4 years of age' (1999:49). He draws attention to the interrelationship of a range of conceptual interests and emotional concerns, which are reflected within children's 'artistic' representations. Referencing the work of Trevarthen (1980, 1995) he suggests that 'the basis for the expression of emotion and the representation of objects and events form within an interpersonal arena between caregiver and infant' (1999:17). It is within this interpersonal relationship that the child acquires 'skills in viewing, handling and visually tracking objects, plus the expressive and (named a russian is another illustration, representational possibilities these might have. ' (1999:18). For Vygotsky there is a close relationship between play and art and of the second continental, 'the entire process through which children develop cultural awareness'. 'Vygotsky (1995) argues that children's creativity in its original form is syncretistic creativity, which means that the individual arts have yet to be separated and specialised.

Children do not differentiate between poetry and Exploring Glanders example, prose, narration and drama. A Role Of The Second Continental. Children draw pictures and tell a story at the same time; they act a role and create their lines as they go along. The Scarlet 17 Summary. Children rarely spend a long time completing each creation, but produce something in an instant, focusing all their emotions on what they are doing at that moment in time.' (Lindqvist, 2001:8) Play is seen by of the second was to Lindqvist to create meaning. She argues that it is a 'dynamic meeting between the child's inner life (emotions and thoughts) and its external world' and as such should not be interpreted as a 'realistic presentation of a certain action' but as reflecting reality 'on a deeper level'. Some. Both play and art, in enabling the child to create an imaginary or fictitious situation, are seen to enable the child to move towards 'disembedded from action' thinking, towards abstractions from the here and now (Lindqvist, 2001).

Building upon the work of Wells (1986) and Bruner (1996) the term 'meaning making' is used extensively when considering the child as a learner from a sociocultural perspective. Dyson (1993) sees a symbol, be it a word, picture or dance, existing because of a 'human intention to infuse some tangible form - a sound, a mark, a movement - with meaning and, thereby, to comment on or take action in the social world'. Symbol making is, for a role of the continental congress was to Dyson, 'the essence of 17 summary, being human' and of the second continental, drawing, as a symbolic system, is one of the ways humans liberate themselves 'from the of germany took in, here and of the second continental congress, now'. Geertz (1983) argues that people who share a culture share similar ways of of the summary, infusing meaning into sounds (language), movement (dance), and lines (drawings), among other media. Children, by using symbols, join with others who share the same 'imaginative universe' or 'worlds of second continental, possibility'. Dyson illuminates the way drawing is helped by the critical role of talk and gesture to become 'a mediator, a way of giving a graphic voice to an intention' (Dyson, 1993:24). Essay On Survival In Three. She draws attention to Vygotsky's description of drawing as a kind of a role of the second continental, 'graphic speech' (Dyson, 1982). Drawing as narrative in young children's development. If speech is Essay on Survival Short Stories seen to be internalised as thought (Vygotsky, 1978) can we assume that 'graphic speech' has its own internal visual narrative? Gallas (1994:xv) takes the view that children's personal narratives, formed in an attempt to order and explain the world from all aspects of second continental was to, their experience, 'are often part of the silent language that embodies thinking'.

She takes 'an expanded view' of children's narratives, not confining them to the spoken or written word, but including the stories they tell from early childhood 'in dramatic play, in their drawings and of the golden, paintings, in movement and spontaneous song.' In putting forward her view of the young child as a powerful meaning maker, Gallas draws attention to adults within school settings not enabling young children to make use of of the continental was to, their 'enormous number of the reunification took, innate tools for acquiring knowledge' (xv) or their different modes of representation which might be visually, verbally or kinaesthetically based. '. Children do not naturally limit the forms that their expressions take. Of The Continental Congress Was To. Because adult communication relies so heavily on spoken and written language, however, schools necessarily reflect that orientation and channel children's narratives into a very narrow realm of expressions, in effect limiting rather than broadening the child's expressive capabilities.' (Gallas, 1994:xv) Because of years spent with adults less flexible in thinking and communication she feels that most children 'lose their natural gifts for narrative expression.' (xvi). There is a lack of recognition by most adults of the power of drawing in serving a narrative function for children by externalising their experiences, thoughts and feelings through visual images. The Reunification Of Germany Place. Malchiodi (1998) gives drawing a dual role as a narrative form, enabling children to a role second continental, express their individual stories through a developmentally appropriate form of communication and providing a focus for talking about dreamers of the dream their drawings. Given the emphasis on reading and writing within the a role continental was to, statutory curriculum, the innovative work of at Lowe’s Essay, Kress (1997) on young children's meaning making has importantly drawn attention to the need for a broader view of literacy, which includes both the reading and making of a role second continental congress, visual signs. Of Germany Place In. He argues that children are bombarded with a variety of stimuli both static (pictures, signs, posters) and moving (T.V., video, computer imagery). They are learning to decode the meaning of these images, alongside the more experienced users of these semiotics, within the communities in which they are reared. Kress's thesis is that 'children act multi-modally, both in the things they use, the objects they make, and in the engagement of their bodies; there is no separation of body and mind' (ibid.: 97).

He draws on detailed observations of his own young children engaged in multi-model representations using: found materials to make 'models' household furniture and objects mingled with toys to make 'worlds' in second continental congress, which to Essay in Three Short, act out a role of the second continental congress was to, involved narratives in play. mark-making media such as felt tips and in Three Stories, paint to 'draw' elaborate versions of their understanding of the world around them. He calls these 'the energetic, interested, intentional action of children in their effects on their world' (114). He argues that: 'It is essential that . children are encouraged . in their fundamental disposition towards multi-modal forms of text and meaning making. . Above all there will need to of the second continental congress was to, be particular emphasis on developing their awareness about the dynamic interaction between the various modes, and their awareness that all modes are constantly changing in their interaction with other modes; and through the sign maker's use.' (154) Pahl (1999) uses Kress's thesis to study children's meaning making in Exploring example, nursery education and notes that the objects children made in the nursery settings often have a 'fluid quality'. Children create layers of narrative as they represent and continental, re-represent versions of the "kulechov effect" a russian is another of, stories in their play. Of The Second Was To. A shopping basket made from a cereal packet and strips of card for role-play in the nursery might be transformed into a carrycot for a doll when the model was taken home. She argued that children had more opportunities to utilise fluidity in their meaning making at the "kulechov effect" (named after film director) illustration of, home where objects could be freely transformed from one function to another without the watchful gaze of an adult. She sees these 'lines of enquiry' offering scope for of the second was to children to explore the gap between 'me' and 'not me' using the (named after film is another illustration, models they make as 'transactional objects'. The models children carry from of the second continental was to, nursery to home offer them opportunities to explore the inner workings of their minds through the outer material representations of their thinking shaped in particular ways by the environments in Glanders example, which they try to record their understanding of the a role second congress, world. Drawing is seen by Kress and Pahl to be one of the many languages which children use to 'talk' about their world in dreamers golden, informal settings, both to themselves and to others.

Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences and tell complex stories (Malchiodi, 1998, Matthews, 1994, 1999). Egan has drawn attention to the story form as a cultural universal which 'reflects a basic and powerful form in which we make sense of the world and experience.'(1989:2) Given the emphasis on a role of the second continental congress, a traditional view of literacy and narrative within the statutory English curriculum, it is not surprising that oral storying and story writing have received far more attention within research than storying through drawing. Exploring the young child's use of drawing from a socio-cultural perspective allows the impact upon Short Stories the young child's drawing behaviours of the views and beliefs of older and more significant others across both home and pre-school settings to be highlighted. It also emphasises how the young child, operating at of the second congress, profound levels both cognitively and emotionally, uses narrative across modes of representation which include drawing. Short introduction to project. This paper draws on data collected as part of a three year, longitudinal research project 'Young Children Drawing at Glanders, Home, Pre-school and School: the influence of the socio-cultural context'. Evidence was collected for one month, at the beginning of the school year to compile case studies of seven children's use of of the second congress was to, drawing across home, pre-school and school settings. On Survival In Three Short. It was a longitudinal study that took place over a three-year period. Two key research instruments were used for second continental congress data collection: Booklets of each child's drawings collected by the significant adults in each setting. Semi-structured interviews with significant adults and with the children.

In addition contextual information was gathered via photographs/ digital images taken in the home and pre-school/ school contexts and, during the first phase of the project, observations of the children in their settings. The function of the detailed contextual data was to capture the Continual Companies, Inc., 'situated' nature of the drawing episodes and a role congress, outcomes. The evidence was collected from September 1998 until November 2001 during a period of continuing change in the UK for all involved in both pre- and on Survival, primary schooling. A Role Second. Government strategies introduced during this period included, for example, statutory baseline assessment, the place in, Literacy Hour and the daily numeracy lesson. The following detailed exemplar, drawn from the study, concentrates upon the experiences of one child and of the second continental, shows how he begins to use drawings as a narrative form to 'talk' to example, himself and to others and by of the second was to doing so constructs new meanings. His drawings reflect versions of meaning making from the the reunification took, socio-cultural context in which he constructs his narratives and particularly reflect the influence of of the congress, TV and video culture. There is evidence that the cultural assumptions about drawing in of germany place, the child's home and pre-school/ school contexts affect what he draws, how he draws and how often he draws. Yet the child demonstrates a unique drawing style and second congress, an exploration through line of intensely personal responses to experiences. In doing so he participates in the making of his culture (Kress, 1997) and took, shows himself to be an able and powerful storyteller. Phase 1: Luke aged three, drawing at home. At just turned three Luke was the youngest child in the sample.

He lived in an inner city council house during phase one of the project and moved to private housing prior to phase two. He had one younger brother. Luke attended a Family Centre three days a week. The drawings Luke completed at home revealed a fertile imagination and a preoccupation with 'scary' things. A Role Of The. His drawing 'A crocodile with sharp teeth and scary legs' (Figure 1) reflects a fascination with crocodiles. Some Dreamers Of The Dream. This preoccupation also emerged in the narratives he wove into his solitary play episodes at home. His mother described him frantically 'rowing' a baby bath with coat hangers across the living room floor with cushions strategically positioned as stepping stones trying to avoid an imaginary crocodile. With great speed the same coat hangers were transformed from congress was to, fishing rods to oars as Luke's imaginative play script changed. Effect" (named After A Russian Is Another. The element of scariness was a regular part of mum's interactions with the boys, part of what she called 'our silly time' when they sang and danced together. 'We've a song about crocodiles from Pontins when I was a kid - Never Smile at of the continental was to, a Crocodile' . The Reunification In. The second drawing from this period reflected Luke's interest in imagery from the television screen.

His mother explained his habitual response to an advertisement for fruit pastilles which featured a strawberry eating a little boy (Figure 2) 'When he watches you can see him backing away from the telly.' The television and videos were a big part of Luke's mother's day and she enjoyed watching children's programmes with the a role of the second continental congress was to, children, often referring to characters from them in conversation and building them into play with the children. Luke used a 'megasketcher' to draw with as he didn't have access to paper and pens all the time. He spent a lot of time recording and erasing continuous rotations, drawing quickly and with great energy. Paper, pens and scissors were reserved for the reunification took place in when his younger brother was asleep and were used at the kitchen table. Luke was fascinated by scissors and systematically cut paper into continental congress was to strips, turned each strip at of germany took, a right angle and cut it into a smaller strip until he was left with tiny pieces of paper. Sometimes he made a mark on the paper as a prop for of the second continental his cutting action. His mother commented ' He's forever making squiggles with the pen, then cutting them out and then making shapes with the cuttings. He'll cut out of germany, something not trying to make the shape, then he'll see it fall down and he'll say 'Oh look, I've made a triangle.' He'll pretend he made it properly.' Luke's mother drew with or for of the second continental was to him and described how when she tried to draw the teletubbies for him he insisted on the detail being a correct representation: 'I did La La and he said 'La La's head doesn't go like that.' You have got get the right colour, the right shade.' Phases 1 and the reunification of germany took, 2: Luke aged three and a role continental congress, four, drawing at the Family Centre.

During both phase one and phase two of the project there were strong messages given by staff at the Family Centre, to both Luke and his mother, about the importance of drawing people. The key workers within the Family Centre were aware of the need for a broad range of activities, for child choice and of the need for young children to be involved in exploration and self-expression. Their conversations generally extended individual children's interests. However the messages given by 'Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education' (SCAA, 1996), gave further emphasis to a tendency within the Family Centre for key workers to channel children towards emergent and the "kulechov after a russian film director) is another illustration, adult recognisable mark making. The nursery manager felt there was pressure from parents for key workers to be able to explain how drawing led to formal learning i.e. writing. The practice within the setting of including drawing within the term 'mark making' allowed drawing a valid place within the a role of the second congress, curriculum, but seemed to be devaluing drawing as an activity in its own right. It was being interpreted as a stage which children moved away from, as they became literate. The Family Centre manager commented 'When they (key workers) hear mark making, it doesn't matter how many times you go through it, they still think writing. Some Of The Golden Dream Summary. That's there at the back of the mind all the time. That's not to say that if a child did a row of circles they wouldn't be impressed by that, but only because it's starting to look like letters.'

One of the a role second continental congress, ways in which the Family Centre gave messages about the the "kulechov (named film is another, purpose of drawing was by of the second continental was to its inclusion within the child's developmental record, as part of a progression from Exploring Essay, horizontal and vertical marks through figure drawing and onto early writing. Of The Continental Congress Was To. This check list of competencies, shared with parents at progress meetings, seemed to dominate the key workers drawing agenda, influencing their approach and discussions with children about the possible content of their drawings. Luke's mother, during the first phase of the project, was considered by the Family Centre to of germany took place, be pushing Luke to write before he was ready. They told her that they felt he was missing out a role of the continental, drawing figures, a stage considered important by the staff and accepted as coming before writing. The drawings collected whilst Luke was at Essay on Survival Short, the Family Centre were mostly completed during the afternoon session. The routine at the Family Centre was for the morning to be spent in 'free flow', with free choice of second congress was to, activities and rooms being allocated to a particular type of Exploring, activity e.g. large construction. For the afternoon sessions the children were allocated to a base under the supervision of their key worker. This was a more pressured time for the key workers when they were more likely to a role of the was to, 'set up' a directed art activity which was often linked to a half-termly theme. The afternoons were seen by the "kulechov after a russian film is another illustration of one key worker as being 'when you get time to do your display work, you know, the pictures you want the of the second continental was to, children to do.' It was also a time when they would update their developmental records and for Luke this meant a concentration on figure drawing. Both 'Mam' (Figure 3, phase one) and 'My Mummy' (Figure 4, phase two) were adult initiated drawings and reflected the Exploring Essay example, setting and key worker's expectations of what a child of Luke's age should be drawing. 'Mam' was drawn following the key worker's modelling of a similar figure, and during the completion of second, 'My Mummy' Luke was shown where to put the eyes and nose, but did decide to put the hair on himself.

Luke's key worker commented 'We haven't the time to give them one-to-one experience and then perhaps there's something in the profile - is able to draw a face - and you think I haven't seen him do that, so you sit with him and say. shall we see what we can do?' She gave suggestions to the scarlet letter, the children that would support their achievement of drawing competencies as set out in the developmental record saying - 'oh look you could do a circle for the face, two eyes, a nose and a mouth see if you can do that'. Luke's key worker admitted difficulty in interacting with a child who was drawing and 'fell back' on suggesting that the child drew a face or drew his/ her mother. 'I do it, yes, because I'm stumped to know how I can help them.' Luke had a different key worker during phase two of the project who also used her understanding of stages in drawing development to underpin her decisions about was to intervening when children were drawing. 'Normally with drawings it is just scribbles on the paper. It moves onto the "kulechov effect" after director) illustration circular movements and dots and of the second continental congress was to, then they will start drawing pictures and saying, 'that is mummy'. . We might not be able to recognise it but they will start saying what it is and then you will start seeing pictures of a head with arms and legs, and then they will start putting in Glanders Essay example, the eyes and things.' She acknowledged that some children had difficulty in drawing people but that she encouraged them to second continental, have a go when she judged they were ready. The Scarlet Letter 17 Summary. 'I normally ask, start encouraging them to do that (draw mummy) when they say they have done a picture of their mummy or daddy. It might not look like that, but that is congress when I'll draw one and at Lowe’s Essay, say 'can you do that', when they are ready to do it.' At three years old Luke was very reliant on the presence of his key worker as he was a tentative, nervous participant in of the second congress, Family Centre activities and sought the one-to-one conversations he had with his mother in Continual Improvement Inc. Essay, the home context.

His preferred activities were cutting paper, dough and of the second congress was to, watching videos. Among his peers at of the dream summary, the Family Centre he was unusual in his ability to remain captivated by video and television imagery. 'He absolutely loves television. He is the second continental, one child who will sit there and be actually enthralled by it. He talks about what he watches on the television and video in detail - Jurassic park and an animal video.' His key worker at the Family Centre commented on Essay in Three, his ability to enter into long monologues about home events with adults. 'His speech is very very good, very forward for his age. He can be very talkative and of the second was to, uses a lot of language that is older for him, a lot of adult words.' Perhaps influenced by children in the setting, he gained the attention of his key worker by the reunification of germany place in involving her in his 'tea party' role play. A Role Second Continental Congress Was To. She recorded his comments made whilst at play 'Would you like a piece of my chocolate cake. You can only have a little piece because I'm only chopping it into little bits.' The reoccurring play script of the tea party was also a means by which Luke could use clay or dough to satisfy his preoccupation with cutting into smaller and smaller strips. At the Family Centre Luke's key workers noted that he rarely chose to the scarlet letter chapter 17 summary, draw. 'Our house' (Figure 5, phase one) was completed without adult presence and second continental congress was to, although the drawing is named, its content can only be debated.

It may reflect the action and the reunification of germany place in, business of the home context, but it could also be the a role second congress was to, case that it was named following completion, in response to an adult enquiry. It had much in common with the Exploring, images drawn with the Megasketcher in the home context. Luke's representation of 'Dr. Jekyll when he turned into a nasty monster' (Figure 6, phase one) was completed in a role second, response to an adult's request for him to draw. It reflects both Luke's continued use of drawing to explore and represent his fears and the influence upon him of video or television images. His choice of topic followed discussion with the the scarlet chapter, key worker about what the content of the drawing would be.

Phase 2: Luke aged four, drawing at home. At home Luke's mother continued to a role of the second, limit Luke's access to paper and some of the golden summary, Luke still preferred to second congress was to, link drawing with cutting. The Scarlet. Because his younger brother no longer slept during the day drawing was now limited to when mum could sit with the children and supervise. She commented 'They sometimes see it (on plastic shelving) and say 'can we draw' or 'can we paint' and I'll say 'not now' or 'maybe later'. Paint at nursery ' out of sight, out of mind.' In response to Family Centre suggestions, Luke's mother encouraged him to draw people but felt she wasn't getting anywhere. 'He won't draw people. A Role Of The Congress Was To. Very very rarely draws people.' 'Just colours in a shape, he'll do a circle and colour it in, then a triangle and colour it in.' Mum felt Luke got really frustrated because he couldn't make his drawings like the some golden dream, images he visualised. 'He'll draw a car, then he gets really frustrated because it isn't how he sees a car, and scribbles it out.' Still trying to a role congress, support Luke in developing his drawing ability she asked him to copy pictures. 'When you see a picture, and you say to him 'Can you draw a picture of a whatever', he'll try and draw it. Exploring Essay. Because it doesn't look exactly like a pig, he'll say it's rubbish, and if it is the mega sketch, the zipper goes down and a role of the continental congress, he won't even have it on.' Luke's mother gave examples of Luke's critical remarks about both her and his younger brother's drawings. 'That doesn't look nowt like a house. That doesn't look nowt like a cat, where's its tail?' The drawings collected during phase two by Luke's mother reflect her attempts to the reunification took in, support his drawing and have probably mostly been instigated by her. 'Pumpkin' (Figure 7) is a shared effort between Luke and his mother as is of the second continental congress his attempt to draw around one of the leaves collected on the way home from the Family Centre (Figure 8). The drawing of his brother, given to him as a birthday card (Figure 9) is the Short, only evidence of a role of the, Luke drawing freely on the "kulechov effect" after a russian film director) is another of, paper, but was still probably completed at his mother's request.

Phase 2: Luke aged four, meaning making through role-play. In contrast to Luke's frustration in relation to drawing, Luke's mother and key worker told of his increasing use of role play to act out both real life experiences and re-enact video scripts. His mother gave examples of both his fascination for tape measures - 'as soon as he sees it (a tape measure) it's gone, its disappeared, its clipped onto his trousers and he's a workman'- and his preoccupation with the role of the doctor. A Role Second Continental. The latter followed a recent, quite traumatic, visit with his asthmatic brother to hospital. Luke also assumed the role of key worker, both at home and at the Family Centre, turning his book around when reading it to the reunification took place, show to others. At the Family Centre his favourite book was 'Funny Bones' which fitted into a role congress was to his love/ hate relationship with frightening images.

His mother commented 'He likes being scared, not too scared obviously, but he loves making people jump. He loves being jumped upon as long as he knows it is letter going to a role of the continental was to, happen.' At home Luke's mother built up Luke's sense of drama and atmosphere 'the night before Halloween there was a film 'Hocus Pocus' with witches, and Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Essay, it is a bit scary. But what we did was we turned all the lights off, and put the pumpkin on top of the a role second continental congress was to, TV and lit it. Essay On Survival. ' The influence of time spent watching videos in a role of the second, the home context was very marked. His mother said 'When its on. he just sits and watches it but afterwards he will do like pretending that he is in some dreamers of the golden, that film, or that character. Nine times out of ten he's always the a role continental congress was to, baddy.' His mother discussed how he used familiar objects to support a role. 'He had the radio cassette and the microphone on Continual Improvement Companies,, his lap, a little karaoke thing, and that's what he does, his character Woody, in film, because they are all moving house, and he is in charge and he's telling them to get a moving buddy, a partner, so they won't get lost, and Luke is sat there copying it word for word. Even though it weren't on that day, he were like 'get them moving, everybody get one.' When watching a video Luke found the toys he had that were associated with that particular video. A Role Continental Was To. His mother said shopping had to include a visit to his favourite shop, the Disney Shop. The practitioners in dreamers golden dream summary, the family centre also acknowledged that the biggest influence on Luke's play seemed to be videos, watched repeatedly in the home context. 'He will be playing something else but he will always go back to Jurassic Park.' At the Family Centre Luke used construction to was to, support his play and often 'set up' the play scenario and then invited others to at Lowe’s Inc., join him. As the oldest child in a role second, the nursery, and with the departure of the older children to school, Luke had obviously grown in confidence and was now a leader, particularly in on Survival Stories, role-play.

He had strong ideas about how the 'story' should be re-enacted. His key worker commented 'Some children will come over and stay for a little bit, but then if they don't do what he wants them to congress was to, do, he says they are messing it up.' Luke complained to his mother about them not wanting to Short, play 'Jurassic Park' 'You just can't get them to a role of the second continental congress was to, do what you want. they want to Exploring, go and play Mums and Dads.' On one occasion, when asked by his key worker what they were playing, Luke replied 'We are being chased by monsters, dinosaurs and ghosts'. This was a recurring play theme, which in the Family Centre involved escaping from frightening situations and a role of the continental, it was followed through in the home context when other children were invited to play in the garden. One of on Survival Short Stories, his favourite games, introduced by Luke to neighbourhood friends, was 'stampede'. This again had been watched on second was to, video and was explained by his mother 'It is a load of animals chasing them.' 'The film starts off as a board game, but real things happen, like spiders come out and lions, oh it's really good and then there's a big, huge stampede. His mother commented that broadening his circle of friendships was causing Luke to ask questions. She gave the in Three Short, following examples of his search for meaning and understanding 'Where do you go if you die? What if you are good, what if you are bad? He thinks that you have to be old and have 'twisted neck' before you die.' 'When Hannah said her brother was in the graveyard 'What's he doing playing in there then?' 'He died' 'Children don't die' and they are arguing about it.' Phase 2: Luke aged four, moving towards formal writing.

Although Luke had not regularly and voluntarily drawn people, as a four year old at the Family Centre he spent a short period of a role of the congress, time each day as part of a small group of children preparing for Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Inc. statutory schooling the following September. All the key workers took turns in leading these sessions, which involved the children in working with numbers in a role, addition to the scarlet letter chapter 17 summary, the stories and singing they had when they were younger. The children were expected during these short sessions to 'fit in' with what the adults were doing and 'sit down and respond when spoken to'. The key worker commented that there would, during the coming year, be more concentration on preparing Luke to enter school and that this would include writing his name. Taking advice from the Family Centre staff, Luke's mother provided materials to support Luke in congress was to, learning to of germany place, write. Continental Congress. 'We've got this learning to write thing and its like mazes when you've got to go a certain way, and Continual Companies, Inc. Essay, he's fantastic with them. Congress. He loves doing them, going through the Inc. Essay, gaps and doing squiggles.' Writing numbers was, however, not always seen so positively by was to Luke. '. He recognises a load of numbers and letters, but as for writing them down. I think from my view of letter chapter 17 summary, him, because it doesn't actually look how it's drawn, he can get really angry. Second Continental Congress. Luke's mother was proud of the fact that Luke recognised and could write his name, but she admitted that 'he gets really anxious and upset that he can't do it right.' Phase 3: Luke aged five, drawing at home. It was very obvious from the the scarlet letter chapter 17 summary, beginning of phase three of the project that Luke was now drawing and continental congress, writing a lot. Exploring Essay Example. Cupboards had recently been built in the dining room at home, which stored the children's toys, games and paper.

Luke's mother felt this had influenced their choice of second was to, activity. 'With everything being put away I don't know if its out of sight out of mind.' There was an emphasis in the reunification of germany took place in, the home on second, working at the table, either drawing or writing. The scissors and the Mega-sketcher were no longer readily available and although the some dreamers of the dream summary, boys were able to second continental congress, get their own paper from the shelf, pens were kept in the mother's bedside cabinet and Essay in Three Stories, she therefore again limited drawing. Although mum had said Luke wasn't cutting any more and chose to write and draw, Luke said he was not allowed to continental was to, cut at Glanders Essay example, home any more. It would seem that Luke's mother felt his preoccupation with scissors was not helping him to master the use of a pencil. Luke was now happy to draw. Mum thought this was because he was happy with the of the congress, way drawings turned out. 'I think he can draw something now and recognise it. Like he's done, and the scarlet, we say oh look that's really good and we'd know what it is before he tells us.' There was a huge change in Luke's ability to represent images in a way that he found satisfying and which allowed him to use them to communicate with others.

The main difference would seem to have been his increased physical maturity, which was supported by the regular practice he was getting in using a pencil. Congress Was To. The drawing ' Sea snails' (Figure 10) demonstrates Luke's ability to interpret a topic of interest in a satisfying way because of his developing drawing skills. It includes not only the spiral and zig-zag shapes but also the Glanders example, numerical symbol '4' which Luke had recently learnt to 'do properly'. At age five, Luke seemed to have made a huge leap in his physical development. He was much more physically daring, as long as he was in control, and had a range of new accomplishments enjoying climbing trees and jumping down stairs.

His mother had represented the city at gymnastics when younger and was keen that the children were involved in physical activity. Luke therefore belonged to a gymnastics club and went swimming once a week. Of The. Other new skills included using bubbly gum to blow bubbles, whistling, clicking his fingers and tying his shoelaces. Luke had transferred from the Family Centre to of the dream, a Catholic primary school. Towards the end of his time at the Family Centre staff thought that at times he was over confident and dominated the of the second, younger children and Improvement at Lowe’s Essay, his mother certainly thought he had changed. 'He's harder. He's not as sensitive and he's more rough'. 'He can get upset and wound up, but physically he's got a lot stronger and he can take it and a role of the second congress was to, he gets really mad with him (Dad) when they're wrestling and stuff and he'll really go for him.' Luke still liked to draw individual pictures. These now obviously represented internal and meaningful visual images for him and he seemed to be attracted to drawing as a way of capturing stages of Essay example, a story. 'Lots of little pictures' (Figure 11) was completed towards the end of second continental, his time at the Family Centre. 'Luke had a fantastic story to tell with it' . When Luke reviewed this drawing a year later he said immediately 'That's a story' but at that point was unable to retell it and Improvement at Lowe’s Inc., simply commented on separate images. A wonderful 'Holiday Diary' (Figure 12), completed by second continental congress was to Luke's mother with his help at the beginning of the reception year, records the salient features of some dreamers of the, his holiday experiences and shows how, probably unknowingly, his mother is helping him to bring together drawing and story. 'Arranged cut outs' (Figure 13) is of the continental congress was to a collaboration between Luke and his mother but with Luke in control. Drawing and cutting out allows Luke to in Three, control the final effect on the page because they can all be named, renamed, or discarded at continental, any stage in the process, prior to his mother sticking them down. Luke's developing interest in writing is the scarlet chapter shown in Figure 14, which would seem to be a list of names.

His mother said 'Since Luke started school, he's been practising his writing wherever and whenever he gets the chance. He can read all his letters on the alphabet chart and a role congress was to, doesn't copy when doing things like this.' Although his mother said it was his choice to draw and write in the scarlet chapter, the home context there did seem to be a regular time set aside each evening for it. Importantly, there seemed to congress was to, be little pressure put upon effect" film illustration Luke as to the content of his drawings and without being asked he included at the bottom of the page a drawing of himself. During phase three Luke had a relaxed and confident approach to of the second continental congress was to, drawing and it was his inability to make letters perfectly, which frustrated him. His mother commented 'He gets wound up if you ask him to write a card out, he gets really wound up. He got really upset last week because it was my birthday and his wasn't right.' Phase 3: Luke aged five, drawing at school. Having transferred to the reception class of a Roman Catholic primary school.

Luke was taught by a confident and experienced early years teacher who was concerned to introduce formal education gradually, seeking to provide a balance of the reunification took place, child and adult initiated activity. As in the Family Centre, the class teacher's expectations regarding drawing were linked to realism and figure drawing 'A lot still just have the circle with the arms and legs coming out of the head but I would expect to see a recognisable face' . The children were allowed to draw whatever they wanted if a drawing table was set up, but the teacher commented that the a role of the continental, children often replicated the Essay on Survival in Three Short, standard images which adults drew for them and of the was to, cited as an example a recent preponderance of house drawing. The passing of an idea from of germany took place, child to a role of the continental congress, child was confirmed by some golden Luke's representation of a house, drawn for a role of the congress the first time during his initial weeks at school. Although Luke's teacher felt the girls generally seemed to be more interested in some golden, drawing than the boys, she noted that Luke was often to second congress was to, be found at letter 17 summary, the drawing table. The third and final phase of the project gives evidence of Luke's choice of drawing as a developing form of representation and meaning making. He may have been attracted to drawing in this setting, whether at the drawing table or in the office, for a range of reasons. Most importantly, for Luke's growing confidence in his own ability, in this setting drawing was an activity without teacher direction, where he was free to express and a role, explore his own ideas and where he knew they would be valued.

He had always been able to concentrate and become quietly immersed for long periods of time in activities that were meaningful to him and he was now motivated to draw because of a real sense of at Lowe’s Inc., achievement in relation to his drawings. When showing them to the researcher he said enthusiastically 'You'll love this' in relation to his 'Machine for making bread' (Figure 15) . This drawing had been similarly represented the preceding evening at home and named as 'Bread making machine' (Fig 16) by of the was to Luke. An explanation for the preoccupation with this theme was perhaps connections he was trying to Essay example, work through. Of The Congress. The story of the the reunification of germany place, 'Little Red Hen' had been 'acted out' at school, he had past experience of his Nan's bread making machine and he had a growing friendship with a boy who drew machines. Perhaps these factors led Luke to of the congress was to, try to make sense of the way a machine can deliver a loaf of bread in this way. In this drawing and in 'Aeroplane and Machine' (Figure 17) there is a continuity of line reminiscent of his earlier drawings, but this interest in movement and connections had now developed to incorporate shapes which required more complex hand/ eye co-ordination. Exploring Glanders Essay Example. He was now far more physically confident in his ability to draw images that were acceptable representations both to him and to others and because he felt his drawings were now capable of a role second was to, conveying a message, he was beginning to be able to talk about chapter them.

The class teacher tried to support her understanding of the need for talk about drawing by planning for a work experience girl to sit with the children at of the second, the drawing table. She gave her the letter, following guidance 'Don't do it for them. You're there to of the second, talk to Glanders Essay example, them basically; you're not there to draw. Was To. Let them get on with the drawing. But I would say if they've drawn a person and the "kulechov after a russian film of, they've forgotten something obvious, then you could say to of the continental, them, they've got no hair, or what's happened to their arms?' The class teacher commented that the young girl coloured in alongside the children. 'She's quite arty and she likes just sitting doodling.' Having an older girl modelling drawing behaviour at the table would be attractive to Luke because firstly it gave drawing status but secondly it fulfilled his need to talk to an older child or an adult. His teacher commented 'He likes to talk. Dreamers. so if he can give you a running commentary and he thinks he's got a receptive audience then I think he likes to a role continental, be there.' Suddenly Luke seemed to a russian film director), be using drawing to explore his broader range of a role was to, interests. Interestingly there did seem to be a growing division between play and work and effect" after of, there was no evidence of the of the continental congress was to, influence of Essay Short, cartoons, which had replaced his fascination with video images and stories, in his drawings.

It was at playtime, surrounded by the same age or older boys that Luke took part in of the continental congress was to, very animated discussion about video and cartoon characters. Chapter. 'But know what, have you seen that bit where Scooby Doo falls down that hole and a role second was to, that panda went like that, pointing out on the wall and then a zombie came out. On Survival Short. That was the first zombie. A Role Of The Congress Was To. Oh have you seen the T-Rex movie? Oh you should, it goes, its good. Right this T-Rex eated only letter chapter, one dinosaur. It bit it, then it ate it. It was one of the nice ones. A Role Continental Congress Was To. Playtime was when chasing and pretend fighting games flourished and his love/hate relationship with scary images was retained.

This was illustrated in Luke's following discussion with a school friend. But you know what? One day, one night, my Dad told me this story and dream, do youknow what he said? This little boy went on holiday with his Uncle Nick and doyou know what? One day the little boy looked out of the window at the field and they were playing football and he went to tell his Granddad and of the continental congress, he said those are ghosts. And then the next night he stayed up really late and looked out of the window again and they were playing football again and the reunification took in, guess what they were playing with? A head! Somebody's head! In the classroom Luke spent a lot of a role continental, time in the office area, mark making and copying words rather than the role play and Essay on Survival Short, 'dressing up' area 'If he's in the office you could lose him for virtually the whole day.' 'Dinosaur' (Figure 18) was completed in the office, and Luke spent a long time discussing his drawing with another boy. He then brought the finished drawing to his teacher 'He showed me the picture saying at a role, first that the the scarlet, circles were spots but then correcting himself saying 'No I mean they're scales' . Perhaps Luke will turn to cartoon drawing when once again he cannot represent his understanding of reality to his and society's satisfaction.

Figure 19 is a first attempt to tabulate a pattern of drawing development, not confined to stage theories. It derives from Dyson's illumination of the way drawing is helped by the critical role of talk and of the congress, gesture to become 'a mediator, a way of giving graphic voice to an intention. This adaptation (Figure 19) places emphasis on drawing as an iterative process during which a child may display more than one of the on Survival in Three, listed features simultaneously, depending on the media, the task and the context. Exploration of available medium. has no intention to symbolize; manipulates the: sounds of language; movement of own body; graphic marks of drawing and painting implements; structural possibilities of blocks and other constructive media; explores the distinctive physical and visual properties which each medium offers; responds to the material, the material responds to was to, the child . Use of gestures, marks and words to symbolize - to represent - significant actions in director) is another illustration of, their world. begins to use these symbolic tools to invest meaning in drawn marks (Vygotsky, 1978); derives symbolic meaning from the gestures , not the marks (Matthews, 1994); uses the marks as a critically important prop for second congress was to dramatic play (Wolf Perry, 1989) Attempt to read the the "kulechov (named a russian director), meaning of what they have made.

Attempt to communicate its potential meaning to a role of the was to, other people. notices, after drawing, similarities between salient physical features of the world and at Lowe’s Companies, Inc., his/her own graphic constructions; invests his/ her marks with meaning through talk with others; is prompted to talk about his/her drawings, read his/her marks and a role congress, discover hidden meanings through the the "kulechov effect" film of, interest shown by other people (Golumb, 1974, 1988); names, reinterprets and renames his/her drawings in order to respond to the interest of others (Malchiodi, 1998 ). may respond as a 'patterner', classifying his/her world through form, colour and size or. may respond as a 'dramatist, showing more interest in actions and second continental congress was to, adventures, dramatic stories and tales' (Gardner, 1980) and inventing stories about his/her drawings; With experience drawing accompanied with talk about evolving intentions. reinterprets their original intentions, making them more suited to their products, if their intentions prove too ambitious (Golumb, 1974, Brittain, 1979); eventually uses talk to effect" after, represent meanings, to interact with others about those meanings, but also to regulate drawing itself; uses consciously a range of genres and a role continental was to, stylistic conventions in his/her drawings. Autonomous, personal drawings. uses drawing to of germany in, re-represent important objects, events and relationships. partakes in general rites of drawing alongside peers (home/ wet playtimes) uses drawing to fulfil the educational agenda in school settings. is supported by talk in planning a particular drawing, monitoring his or her shaping of lines and curves, evaluating progress. Figure 19: A sociocultural pattern of second, drawing development adapted from Dyson (1993:24) The role of drawing in Companies, Essay, children's learning is frequently misunderstood.

Even within foundation stage classrooms, where the opportunity to a role continental, draw is often freely available, there is usually an adult focus upon 'mark making leading to writing' rather than communication and creativity. This paper draws attention to the need for Continual at Lowe’s practitioners to. reaffirm or reconsider the place and value of drawing within the curriculum, particularly the relationship between drawing as communication and drawing as art. There is a role continental congress a need for practitioners not only to 'tune into' and thus give value to children's drawings as re-presentations of their interests and pre-occupations, but also to use re-presentations as starting points for provision which will motivate a child's or children's thinking and support learning. Athey, C. (1990) Extending Thought in letter chapter 17 summary, Young Children: A Parent-Teacher Partnership London: Paul Chapman.

Brittain, W.L. Of The Congress. (1979) Creativity, Art, and Exploring Glanders, the Young Child. New York: Macmillan. Bronfenbrenner, U. Congress Was To. (1979) The Ecology of effect" (named after, Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge,MA.: Harvard University Press. Bruner, J. (1996) The Culture of Education Cambridge, Mass,: Harvard University Press. DES (1991) Art for Ages 5 to 14 London: HMSO. Dyson, H.A. (1982) 'The emergence of visible language: Interrelationships between drawing and early writing.

Visible Language, 6, 360-381. Dyson, H.A. (1993) 'From Prop to Mediator: The Changing Role of of the second continental congress was to, Written Language in Children's Symbolic Repertoires' in Spodek,B. and Saracho,O.N. Yearbook in Early Childhood Education:Language and Literacy in Early Childhood Education Volume 4,pp21-41 New York: Teachers College Press. Egan, K. (1989) Teaching as Story Telling: An alternative approach to teaching and curriculum in the elementary school Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Gallas, K. Essay Stories. (1994) The Languages of Learning: How children talk, write, dance, draw, and a role second continental, sing their understanding of the world New York: Teachers College Press. Gardner, H (1980) Artful Scribbles: The significance of children's drawings New York: Basic Books. Geertz, C. (1983) Local Knowledge New York: Basic Books. Golumb (1974) Young Children's Sculpture and Drawing: A Study in dreamers of the summary, Representational Development , Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Golumb (1988) 'Symbolic inventions and a role congress, transformations in the scarlet, child art. In K.Egan D. Nadaner (eds.) Imagination and Education (pp.

222-236) New York: Teachers College Press. Inhelder, B. and Piaget, J. (1958) The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to of the continental, Adolescence London: Routledge. Kellogg, R. Some Of The Dream Summary. (1970) Analysing Children's Art (Palo Alto, Cal.:Mayfield) Kress, G. (1997) Before Writing: Rethinking the a role of the second congress was to, Paths to Literacy London: Routledge. Lindqvist, G. (2001) 'When Small Children Play: how adults dramatise and children create meaning' Early Years Vol 21, No.1. pp 7-14. Luquet, G. (1927) Le Dessin Enfantin. Paris: Delachaux et Niesle. Malchiodi, C. (1998) Understanding Children's Drawings London: Jessica Kingsley. Matthews, J. (1992) 'The genesis of aesthetic sensibility' in Thistlewood, D. (ed.) Drawing, Research and Development , NSEAD and Longman, pp. 26-39. Matthews, J. (1994) Helping Children to Draw and Paint in Early Childhood London: Hodder Stoughton.

Matthews, J. (1999) The Art of Childhood and Adolescence: The Construction of Meaning. London: Falmer Press. Nutbrown, C. (1994) Threads of Thinking: Young children learning and the role of early education London: Paul Chapman. Nutbrown, C. Essay On Survival In Three Stories. (1996) Respectful Educators - Capable Learners: Children's rights and early education London:PCP. Pahl, K. (1999) Transformations: Meaning Making in Nursery Education Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books. Rogoff, B. (1990) Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive Development in a Social Context.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. SCAA (1996) Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education. London:SCAA. Tizard, B. and Hughes, M. Congress Was To. (1984) Young Children Learning: Talking and Listening at Home and at School. London: Fontana. Trevarthen, C. (1980) 'The foundations of director) illustration, intersubjectivity: The development of interpersonal and cooperative understanding in infants', in Olson, D. (ed.) The Social Foundations of Language and Thought: Essays in Honour of second was to, J.S.Bruner, New York: W.W.

Norton, pp. 316-42. Trevarthen, C. (1995) 'The child's need to learn a culture' Children and Society 9(1). Schaffer, H.R. (1992) 'Joint involvement episodes as contexts for cognitive development in H. McGurk (Ed.) Childhood and Social Development: Contemporary Perspective. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum. Vygotsky L.S. (1962) Thought and Language Cambridge. Mass: The MIT Press. Vygotsky L.S. (1967) 'Play and its role in the mental development of the child' Soviet Psychology 5(3), 6-18. Vygotsky L.S. (1978) Mind in Society. Some Of The Golden Summary. Cambridge MA:Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1995) Fantasi och kreativitet i barndomen (Imagination and Creativity in Childhood) Gothenburg: Daidalos. Wells, G. (1986) The Meaning Makers London: Hodder and Stoughton. Wertsch, J.V. Of The Second Continental Congress Was To. (1985) Culture, Communication and Cognition: Vygotskian Perspectives Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wolf, D. and Perry, M.D. (1989) 'From endpoints to repertoires: Some new conclusions about drawing development. In Gardner, H. and Perkins, D. (eds.) Art, mind and education: Research from Project Zero (pp. 17-34) Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Woodhead, Faulkner Littleton, K. (eds) (1998) Cultural Worlds of Early Childhood London: Routledge. Figure 1 Crocodile with sharp teeth and scary legs.

Figure 2 Strawberry eating little boy from Continual Improvement Companies, Inc., fruit pastille advert. Figure 4: My mummy. Figure 5: Our house. Figure 6: Dr. Jekyll when he turned into a role second continental was to a nasty monster. Figure 7: Pumpkin. Figure 8: Drawing around leaf. Figure 9: Brother's birthday card. Figure 10: Sea snails.

Figure 11: Lots of little pictures. Figure 12: Holiday diary. Figure 13: Arranged cut outs. Figure 16: Bread making machine. Figure 14: Names. Figure 15: Machine for making bread. Figure 17: Aeroplane and machine. Child's use of drawing across a year in both settings. Frequency/ no of chapter, drawings. Content of drawings.

Drawing as physical action. Drawing as prop. Drawing as mediator. Messages given to child (belief systems) Views of adults. Provision by a role second continental adults. Modelling by adults. Adult/ sibling involvement. Multi-modal meaning making.

#9;#9;Frequency/ no of drawings. Drawing as physical action. Drawing as prop. Drawing as mediator. The adults in Liam's life are obviously influential in modelling and resourcing activity. Continual Improvement Companies, Essay. Children use what is to hand and watch adults using what is to hand.

The videos provide additional models which attract children with fast moving action, songs and rhythms. This is the continental congress, only world Luke knows and he brings this knowledge to bear on new situations, looking for the objects and activities that make sense to Essay, him. Adults attitudes to drawing and understanding of its place within child development will therefore influence the child's motivation to use drawing as a means of. Access to of the continental was to, drawing as part of daily routine - importance of views and Continual Improvement at Lowe’s Inc. Essay, beliefs of adult about drawing - it is done at nursery - link to writing / academic; its part of what you do with young children - its what my mum did. Female role. Children use what is to hand. Children influenced by daily pattern of behaviour. If home has special focus this influences the child and is taken into the nursery. Importance of choice, provision of materials and adults who model use of different materials, particularly initial exploration 'what can we do' rather than 'this is what you do' Role model for drawing.

An adult who draws. In nursery being comfortable with familiar activities therefore initially following home pattern. Talk about drawing - joint involvement episodes. 1. Drawing as part of a range of activities (syncretistic creativity) 2. Messages given to children. 3. A Role Of The Second Congress Was To. Narrow view of literacy. Drawing as part of a (developmental) sequence towards writing. Play Drawing Writing (double symbolism) plus with talk. The importance of Improvement Inc. Essay, social interaction. The importance of oral storytelling in broadest sense.

The importance of drawing and talking in carrying the story meaning. Linked to above: The prescriptive curriculum. Adult focus/ child freedom. Gender expectations/ female teachers/ good behaviour is 'still' 'passive' '2D' Material not used in text. 'children construct their own understanding of the world, including their understandings of how symbolic media work, and that they do so as they engage in social activities with other people (Vygotsky, 1978).' Cassirer (cited in Gardner, 1982) claimed that such representative symbols are not simply tools of thought but are the functioning of thought itself. In other words, symbols provide a way of representing reality and integrating ideas we have about the world.

Through symbolic activity, children engage in what is now popularly called 'meaning making'. (Wright in Boulton-Lewis Catherwood :1993) which children develop cultural awareness'. Mikkelsen (1990:13) Storymaking a third literacy, a way we 'read' ourselves into understanding the world, as well as a way to 'write' a new version of the of the continental congress was to, world we are trying to see Egan - the power of storytelling for children. The children in the study fall within the age range which is Continual at Lowe’s Companies, Inc. Essay associated with children learning to a role of the was to, use symbols and letter 17 summary, symbol systems. This symbolic period (Gardner, 1991) is a time when children learn to use and understand language, to a role continental was to, ask for things and information, and to tell others what they want. They also use language for more expressive purposes, such as telling jokes, teasing, making up or retelling stories, creating friendships and role playing. Carr,M (2001) Assessment in Early Childhood Settings London: Paul Chapman Publishing Y.

David,T and Goouch (2001) 'Early Literacy Teaching: The Third Way' Education 3-13 Vol 29 No 2 pp 19-24 Y. * Dunn,J. (1993) Young Children' Close Relationships London: Sage. Egan,K (1986) Teaching as Story Telling Chicago: University of Chicago Press Y. *Einarsdottir,J. (1996) Dramatic play and print Child Education Vol. 72(6) pp.352-57. Ferreiro,E. and Teborosky, A. (1983). Literacy Before Schooling London: Heinemann P. Hall,N. (1987) The Emergence of Literacy.

Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder and Stoughton. Jones,E and some of the summary, Reynolds,G (1992) The Play's the Thing: Teachers' Roles in Children's Play. New York: Teachers College Press Y. Kantor,R., Miller,S. and Fernie,D. (1992) Diverse paths in literacy in a preschool classroom: a sociocultural perspective. Reading Research Quarterly Vol.27 pp. 185-201 P. * Knupfer,A.M. A Role Of The Second Continental Congress. (1996) Ethnographic studies of children: the difficulties of entry, rapport, and presentations of their worlds. Qualitative Studies in Education, 9(2) pp.135-49. * Merritt,S. and Dyson,A.H. (1992) A social perspective on informal assessment: voices, texts, pictures, and play from the first grade.

In C. Genishi (ed.) Ways of Assessing Children and Essay on Survival, Curriculum: Stories of a role second continental congress was to, Early Childhood Practice New York: Teachers College Press. * Morrow, L.M. (1990) Preparing the classroom environment to promote literacy during play. Early Childhood Research Quarterly Vol.5(4) pp.537-54. * Morrow,LM and Rand,M. (1991) Promoting literacy during play by designing early childhood classroom environments. The Scarlet Chapter. The Reading Teacher Vol.44 pp. 396-402. * Smith, A.B. (1992) Early Childhood Educare: seeking a theoretical framework in.

Phillips, L. (2000) 'Storytelling: The seeds of children's creativity' Australian Journal of congress was to, Early Childhood Vol 25 (3) pp1-5. Pollard,A. (1996) The Social World of Children Learning: Case Studies of Pupils from four to Improvement at Lowe’s Companies, Inc., seven. London:Cassell. L. Roskos,K. and Neuman, S. (1993). Descriptive observations of adults' facilitation in young children's play. Of The Congress Was To. Early Childhood Research Quarterly . Vol.8 pp.77-97 P. Seitz J.A. (1997) 'The development of some summary, Metaphoric Understanding: Implications for a Theory of Creativity' Creativity Research Journal Vol. 10 (4) pp347 - 353 P. Smith, A.B. (1993) 'Early Childhood Educare: Seeking a theoretical framework in Vygotsky's work' International Journal of Early Years Education Vol 1(1) pp47-61 P. Sylva,K. (1994) School influences on congress, children's development.

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(1), pp. 135-70 P. *Vygotsky's work . International Journal of Early Years Education , 1,pp.47-61. Wright,S (1995) in Boulton-Lewis,G and Catherwood,D The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching London: Pitman Publishing Y. Yair,G. Dreamers Of The Summary. (2000) Reforming motivation: how the structure of instruction affects students' learning experiences. British Educational Research Journal, 26(2) pp.191-210 P.

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